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A §wqm-(Entt?nmai History 

of IC^nturkg 

A Narrative Historical Edition, Commemorating One Hundred and Fifty Years of 

Statehood, Preserving the Record of the Growth and Development of the 

Commonwealth, and Chronicling the Genealogical and Memorial 

Records of its Prominent Families and Personages. 


Supervising Editor 



Author and Editor 




The complete index covering the histori- 
cal and biographical sections of this edition 
will be found at the back of Volume IV, 



»— < 











rDUCATiON, that is book learning, had its beginning in Kentucky 
under conditions which would have forbidden it completely with people less hardy. 
It began during the Revolution. From the North the blood-thirsty Shawnees and 
Mingos, from the South the crafty Cherokees were entering Kentucky, incited by 
British cunning and stimulated by British gold. There were mutterings of conflict; 
settlers moved closer together; the weak hurried back East; the strong girded for battle, 
having come to the beautiful land Kentucke to stay. Powder and shot were low; most 
of the wild game frightened off; salt was at a premium; yet more strong men came 
from Virginia and North Carolina and Pennsylvania. The forest hung like scythes of 
death stealthily awaiting victims. The tomahawk would fall, the scalping knife plied — 
a lonely corpse left alone in the solitary woods, that skeleton revealing the gruesome 
tragedy months later; while hideously painted savages with dripping scalps rushed to 
Detroit to collect British gold for fire-water, their coveted reward. 

No one was safe. "Families had to flee in the dark hours of a cold winter night 
before flaming torches and bloody axes of Indians who were skulking about frontier 
homes, or were peering from the shadows of bushes, waiting for a crucial moment to 
give the signal war whoop to bands of savages who knew no mercy," fiends who would 
scalp, torture by gouging out the eyes, plying the red hot iron, and burning at the 
stake by slow fire amid taunts, jeers, and diabolic hilarity. 

In the midst of these perilous conditions a brave pioneer woman, Mrs. William 
Coomes, opened a school at Harrodsburg, the first school ever taught in Kentucky. 
What though every cabin on the frontier was threatened with the torch? What 
though death stalked within the forest? The pioneers had determined to build a western 
commonwealth with the lamp of knowledge lighting the way of progress. Although 
the pupils carried rifles to school instead of books, the stout-hearted pioneers were con- 
vinced that education was worth fighting for. The following year, 1777, John May 
opened a school at McAfee's Station. Although the teaching was crude, the unchinked 
cabins were cold, and the puncheon benches uncomfortable, it was a beginning, and 
those with vision, undismayed by the threatening danger, could picture universities in 
in the future." 

Scarcely had these rude schools opened when the long-threatened blow from the 
North fell — and the desperate siege of Boonesboro began. 

In the year 1779 Joseph Doniphan, an able young surveyor, conducted a school 
inside the stockade at Boonesboro.' The instruction given in the first of these 
stockade schools (later "oldfield" schools) consisted of reading, writing and ciphering 
to the rule of three. Writes Professor Lewis: "Geography and arithmetic were taught 
orally — the former especially — often in doggerel verse, which was frequently sung in 
recitation and in studying, the pupils who were not reciting adding to the monotonous 
uproar of the class by studying aloud, as they were usually allowed to do. Tho only 
textbooks used at first were Dilworth's Speller and the Bible. 4 The rules of the 
schools were many, and often read, and the discipline was strict; yet the pupils learned; 
they learned practical living, discipline and morals — and practiced them! 

The pioneer teachers, while often as crude as their crude surroundings, nevertheless 
rendered a great service to the country. They dared the rigors and dangers of the 


frontier. Although in most cases not as well equipped physically to endure the ex- 
igencies of the new environment as other pioneers, they nevertheless did endure it, and 
many paid the supreme sacrifice for daring to come to the frontier to educate pioneer 
children. In 1783, John McKinney, teacher of the school at Lexington, was seriously 
mangled in an encounter with a wildcat at the school. In 1788, near Losantiville 
(Cincinnati), John Filson, founder of an academy at Lexington and Kentucky's first 
historian, was killed by the Indians. The same fate befell John May, teacher at Mc- 
Afee's Station, while traveling down the Ohio in 1790.' But nothing could quench 
the pioneer's thirst for knowledge and nothing could deter teachers from pursuing their 


Following the close of the Revolutionary War, the stations leveled their stockades; 
old settlements expanded; and new communities were settled. At that time the "Old 
Field" School really came into use in Kentucky. This school, elementary in training, 
was so-called because the school building was usually erected on a bit of open space 
which had been cleared by the Indians or early settlers, and by this time was more or 
less unfit for cultivation/ 

These "Old Field" schools were one-room cabins made of unhewn logs and, if at all, 
poorly chinked. The chimneys were "stack" chimneys; doors and windows were of 
rough clapboard, the latter employing greased paper instead of glass to admit light; 
mother earth usually was the floor, and the miserable benches were made of rude 
puncheons. The instruction at these schools was for the most part rather primitive. 
The teacher was usually some elderly man "whose main qualification for the position 
was often that he did not know how, or did not care, or have the energy to do anything 
else, having probably failed in everything else he had undertaken; or he was some 
stranger, a traveling Irishman, or Englishman, or wandering Yankee, whose qualifications 
for the place were presumed from the fact that he had seen a good deal of the 

These men could not have made teaching a profession, as their wages were very low. 
"When teaching, however, they were required to take up early and turn out late, giving 
short recesses and noon intermissions, the idea being that they must earn their money. 
They were under no supervision, except such as the pupils chose to put upon them, 
and taught according to their own peculiar theories, temperaments and habits. They 
were often as rough and passionate as they well could be, and liberal in their use of 
the rod, even knocking down impertinent pupils." While, on the other hand, some of 
them allowed the scholars to do as they pleased. On the whole the pupils probably 
dreaded "the frown and birch of the master more than the screams of the wild animals 
they sometimes heard on their way to an from the lonely school house." 8 

Continuing upon the idea of supervision, Professor Lewis states: "Practically the only 
supervision to which the teacher was subjected was exercised by the pupils. This was 
regulated by custom, with which the patrons of the school never in any way interfered 
as long as it was at all within reason. It only concerned such things as threats upon 
certain recognized occasions, the granting of holidays, and similar matters, and was en- 
forced by the larger boys of the school, who rode the teacher upon a rail, ducked him 
in some convenient spring or pond, or otherwise made things so unpleasant for him that 
he was forced to yield. A very common practice was to "turn him out" until he 
granted the desired concession. This is well illustrated by the following characteristic 
incident taken from an article by Col. R. T. Durrett, in the Louisville Courier-Journal, 
on April 2, 1881: "On the 28th of April, 1809, the first show, so the boys called it, 
occurred in Louisville. It was the exhibition of an elephant, and there was a general 


uprising in all the schools for a holiday . . . the schools at the head of which were 
teachers conversant with the habits of the place gave the boys a holiday without trouble, 
but there was a New England teacher, recently come to the charge of one of the log 
schoolhouses, who could not understand why the boys were to be permitted to lay aside 
their books a whole day to see an elephant. He would not grant the holiday asked 
and the boys went to work in the usual way to make him yield. On the morning of ' 
the 28th this Yankee teacher, as they called him, came to his schoolhouse and found 
the door well barred with benches, fence rails, and logs of wood, and the boys inside 
laughing at his futile attempts to get in. They promptly told him the terms upon which 
the fort would be surrendered, which were simply to give them that day as a holiday, 
so they could go to see the elephant. The teacher was indignant, and not being able 
to get through the door, climbed upon the roof and attempted to descend the chimney. 
For this contingency the boys had prepared a pile of dry leaves, and when the teacher's 
legs appeared at the top of the chimney the leaves were lighted in the fireplace. Down 
came the teacher, for having once started he could not go back and the flames scorched 
him and the smoke smothered him, so that he was the powerless autocrat of the school 
and knight of the ferule. He gave the holiday and went home to lay up for repairs, 
as the boys expressed it, and the boys went to the show as if nobody had been either 
burnt or smoked."" 

Schools of higher learning than that afforded in the stockade and "old field" (or 
"hedgerow") schools soon appeared. John Filson established a seminary in Lexington 
in or before 1784. The Rev. Elijah Craig, the pioneer Baptist preacher, established 
one at Georgetown in 1788, and the same year the celebrated Dr. James Priestly be- 
came master of Salem Academy at Bardstown, a school founded as early as 1786 and 
taught by a Mr. Shackelford. Salem for a time was perhaps the most famous in the 
district and state; many of the outstanding public men of the state's early history were 
trained there. These seminaries or academies became quite popular and were well 
supported by the public. 1 " Writes Humphrey Marshall: "There are many educated 
and more means to be applied in that way than most other countries could afford, 
while a general propensity for giving and receiving literary instruction was obviously 
a prevaling sentiment throughout the country."" 

Actually the principal educational interest of Kentuckians during the early period 
was in higher education. States Professor Lewis: "Lexington, soon after its establish- 
ment, reserved land for Latin and English schools, and by this inducement, as early 
as 1787, caused Mr. Isaac Wilson, late of Philadelphia College, as he describes him- 
self in an advertisement in the Kentucky Gazette to open Lexington Grammar School; 
but state patronage of higher education came even earlier, as Transylvania Seminary, 
one of the first "public schools," or seminaries, of learning in the Mississippi Valley, 
. . . was endowed by an act of the Virginia legislature in 1780, and further endowed and 
chartered in 1783, and other foundations and endowments by the Mother State and 
by Kentucky followed rapidly, until soon a state educational system was developed quite 
unusual in its circumstances and quite in advnce of the ideas of the day elsewhere in 
this country at least." 1 ' 


In settling its trans-Appalachian territory, the state of Virginia was not unmindful 
of the necessity for education. And so, as early as 1780 through the influence of the 
Rev. John Todd, a prominent Presbyterian minister of Louisa County, Virgina, and 
his nephew, John Todd, then a representative from Kentucky County, an act was 
pressed through the legislature providing for the appropriation of 8,000 acres of land 


in Kentucky for the purpose of a public school, or seminary of learning, to be erected 
in Kentucky County. Out of this grant was established Transylvania Seminary, which 
opened at Danville in 1785 and moved to Lexington in 1787. Under the leadership 
of Judge Caleb Wallace, one of the earliest justices of the Supreme Court of Ken- 
tucky, other seminaries or academies were established. 

It appears that the friends of education in the Virginia legislature intended that a 
system of seminaries would be established in Kentucky County by means of land grants 
ranging from 6,000 to 12,000 acres of land. A second academy, Salem, was located 
at Bardstown and incorporated by Virginia in 1788. 

Following the same system as that inaugurated by Virginia, the Kentucky legisla- 
ture by an act of December 12, 1794, incorporated Kentucky Academy at Pisgah, 
near Lexington; a short time later Bethel Academy, in Jessamine County; and a third, 
on December 15, 1795, Franklin Academy at Washington in Mason County. The 
first really important academy act passed by the Kentucky legislature was enacted in 
1798 when six thousand acres of land each were given to Kentucky, Franklin, Salem, 
Bethel, Lexington and Jefferson seminaries, the last two having been established 
by the Act at Lexington and Louisville respectively. All of these academies were to 
be vested in cooperative boards of trustees and were to be held free from taxes. In- 
dicating that the Kentucky legislature of that year were cognizant of the importance 
of education, the act further stated: "And whereas it is generally true that people will 
be happiest whose laws are best and best administered, and that laws will be wisely 
and honestly administered in proportion as those who form and administer them are 
wise and honest; whence it becomes expedient for promoting the public happiness that 
those persons whom nature hath endowed with genius and virtue should be rendered, 
by liberal education, worthy to receive and able to guard the sacred deposit of the 
rights and liberties of their fellow-citizens, and that to aid and accelerate this most 
desirable purpose must be one of the first duties of every wise government." 14 These 
legislators were influenced by the language of the noble ordinance of 1787. Not only 
did they believe that the state should provide for the education of its children of 
ability by means of supplying academies, they believed that a system of state education 
should be provided with a state university at the head. Another act of 1798 in- 
corporated Transylvania University. Thus with the contemplation of scores of 
academies, established by land grants and a university already established, the entire 
work indicates the intention of a grand university system. There were to be established 
academies in every county of the state which could feed the state university. It was 
truly a noble conception, and the main credit is due to the intelligence and industry 
of Judge Caleb Wallace. "It is certainly not too much to say that the combined acts of 
. . . 1798 established the most enlightened, practical and complete system of educa- 
tion that could at that time be witnessed in America or perhaps anywhere else in the 
civilized world," declares Professor Lewis. 15 

The Academy system grew apace and by 1820 the state had endowed as many as 
forty-seven county academies with from 6,000 to 12,000 acres of land. The teaching 
in these academies for the most part was of a high order. The president was required 
to be "a man of the most approved abilities in literature." Greek, Latin and the 
"different branches of science" were required to be taught in most academies, thus 
furnishing to the students the elements of a good classical education. The discipline 
in these schools appears to have been of a better grade than in the "old field" schools. 

As early as 1815, however, the academy system was showing signs of failure. There 
were evidences of a lack of public interest. The people after the relief from Indian 
dangers became engrossed in acquiring wealth, and were inclined to consider the 


clearing, the tobacco patch, and the corn field as affording the best possible schooling 
for their boys. Moreover, in 1815, the legislature conferred upon the trustees the 
absolute right of disposing of all the academy lands. 

Unfortunately lands at that time were unusually plentiful and disheartingly cheap. 
Many trustees were not only not interested in providing good schools but were often 
utterly selfish, and at times unscrupulous, so that thousands of acres of valuable lands 
were sold for a mere pittance. It has been estimated that had the lands been held, 
each county would have enjoyed today an annual income of $60,000, in many cases 
very much more. Thus a magnificent financial foundation for a state educational system 
was thrown to the winds. Had the lands been retained, the public educational system 
in Kentucky would be fifty years in advance of its present status. What sins have been 
committed against education in Kentucky! The noble scheme dreamed by the Todds 
and Judge Wallace was permitted by a lesser breed of men to languish and die, but not, 
however, before "many of our early lawyers, doctors, ministers and other professional 
men obtained all their education in these seminaries." 


Until after 1800 the schools of Kentucky afforded little opportunity for the educa- 
tion of girls. The "old field" schools, to which females were admitted, did not provide 
an atmosphere altogether conducive to refinement. As has been remarked, many of 
the teachers of these schools "were often destitute both of a knowledge of polite 
literature and good manners." The early academies excluded girls so that practically 
no opportunity was afforded for females to acquire grammar-school education. 

In 1806 at Paris, the Rev. John Lyle, a Presbyterian minister, opened a seminary for 
girls, the first female academy in the West. This school flourished for a time and 
closed in 1809 or 1810. At Washington, in Mason County, Mrs. Louisa Fitzherbert 
Keats in 1807 established a school for girls, which discont nued in 1812. 3 ' 


The first female academy was established by the Catholics in what is now Marion 
County in 1812. 

During the pioneer period many Catholics came to Kentucky from Maryland and 
Virginia. They settled very largely in the present counties of Nelson, Washington, 
Marion, Bullitt, Hardin, Jefferson and Breckinridge. Much of the land on which 
these people had settled was unfertile, and the people were poor. Although high 
spirited they were in most cases uneducated and without a numerous leadership. One 
of the first priests who came to them, Father Whelan, said, "During their brief sojourn 
in the wilderness his little flock had gradually fallen into many practices which were 
dangerous to piety. They were in the habit of gathering promiscuously on Saturday 
evenings and Sundays, and of dancing until a late hour. In the rude state of society 
at that time these meetings were often attended with great disorders." 

"Besides these difficulties with his own flock, he (Father Whelan) had to encounter 
the fierce opposition of the sectarians, whose prejudices against the Catholic Church 
were of the grossest character. Misled by the erroneous opinions which their fore- 
fathers had inherited in England, the Protestant settlers were in the habit of viewing 
Catholics as idolaters, and the priests as a species of jugglers. Nor were they at all 
reserved in the manner of exhibiting this prejudice." 1 "' 

One may well imagine that the Protestants, who were during this period engaged in 
violent and acrimonious denominational struggles among themselves, were not disposed 
to aid the Catholics in providing facilities for education. 

2— Vol. II 


Until the arrival in Kentucky of Father Charles Nerinckx in the summer of 1805, 
little attention was paid to education in the Catholic section of the state. Almost 
single-handed Father Nerinckx led a district from backwardness, wildness and ignorance 
to an appreciation for education, both spiritual and academic. Well educated, power- 
ful in physique, with the zeal of Peter the Hermit, he set about to administer to 
hundreds of families, scattered over hundreds of miles, in a wild primitive country. 
"His courage was unequaled; he feared no difficulties and was appalled by no dangers. 
Through rains and storms, through snow and ice, over roads almost impassable by 
the mud, over streams swollen by the rains or frozen by the cold, by day and by night, 
in winter and in summer, he might be seen traversing all parts of Kentucky in the 
discharge of his religious duties. . . . He crossed wilderness districts, swam rivers, slept 
in the woods among the wild beasts. . . . He never took any rest or recreation. He 
seemed always most happy when most busily engaged. . . . But it was on the children 
that he lavished his labor with the greatest relish."" 

To establish a teaching order of women seems to have been a fixed idea of Father 
Nerinckx, and an inspiration as early as September, 1805. At that time he had twenty 
young women eager to be taught and to teach. Father Nerinckx's idea was to build a 
large log house for them and to have them support themselves by spinning, weaving 
and sewing. Aside from teaching these young ladies were "to take care of the sick 
irrespective of religious belief." 

In 1808, a wilderness philanthropist, a Mr. Dant, donated a hundred acre tract of 
land on which to build the proposed convent. With the help of Father Stephen 
Theodore Badin, Father Nerinckx set about to erect a log structure, doing a large 
part of the manual work himself. When the building was practically completed, it 
took fire and burned to the ground. However, undismayed Father Nerinckx set about 
to establish another school. 

In 1812, with the help of Miss Mary Rhodes, who had been attempting to teach 
the little girls of the neighborhood, Miss Christine Stuart, Miss Ann Havern and Miss 
Ann Rhodes, the dream of a Catholic Academy to provide teachers came true. Miss 
Ann Rhodes, that year, with $75 which constituted her savings and $450 which she 
had received from the sale of her slave, bought fifty acres of land on Hardin's Creek 
in what is now Marion County on which stood a log house. To this house these 
consecrated young women, amid the uncharitable remarks of course scandal-mongers, 
went to live in it. Already Miss Mary Rhodes had secured another log house in 
which girls of the community were being taught. Miss Mary Rhodes was a talented 
and well educated woman lately arrived from Maryland. This "cabin had only the 
bare ground for a floor, but the roof and walls kept out a part at least of the snow 
and rain. . . . The little building was soon filled to its utmost capacity with others 
still eager for the same advantages.""" 

It was a grand day in the life of Father Nerinckx when on June 29, 1812, the 
young ladies were consecrated at his little log church of St. Charles. At the foot of 
a rude altar, after words of encouragement from Father Nerinckx, these young women, 
the first Lorettines, "made their application in form and gave their solemn promise 
to renounce the world and persevere in the choice of life they had made. They were 
then clothed with the habit of novices."" 1 

They took vows to live a life of sacrifice and suffering. Their dress was to be of 
black and homespun. Shoes were to be worn in winter, but in summer all were to go 
barefooted. They were to sleep on straw "with convenient covers, but no fancy quilts." 
The meals were to be in accordance with the poverty which they professed. The day 
was to begin at four o'clock in summer, and at half-past four in winter. "The sick 


were to be tenderly cared for, and the dead buried in the religious habit, without 
coffiins . . . charity, love and concord were especially inculcated and ... a poverty 
disengaged from the least affection to ownership in any kind of property . . . , and 
they were to do all kinds of labor for their own support and that of the orphans."' 

The cabin in which the novices lived was enlarged by Father Nerinckx, in order 
to receive those who had asked to be received. Lofts were prepared where the sisters 
could sleep, and the beds of the boarders were laid on the floor of their living rooms 
at night. "They had a combined kitchen and refectory, and the table was made of 
boards nailed on a stump that had been left standing in the middle of the cabin. 
... A work table was made from half of a log with the split side upwards, and sup- 
ported by four legs set into the lower side with an auger. The rest of their furniture 
was in keeping with this." 

The pupils who came in, many of whom were orphans, were instructed in sewing, 
spinning, weaving, music, culinary work, Latin, Mathematics and religion. 

Thus did Father Nerinckx's dream come true. Thus was the beginning of the first 
permanent school for girls in the West. It began a spark, but now it is a flame which 
warms and enlightens on three continents. 


As can well be imagined higher education in Kentucky was not fast in developing, 
although as early as 1783 an institution of higher learning was contemplated by a few 
able men. Professor Lewis thinks that "Judge Caleb Wallace was perhaps more 
thoroughly identified with the cause of education, at least higher education, in Ken- 
tucky than any other one man before or since his time." 

After the chartering of a seminary in Kentucky and the giving of land for its sup- 
port by Virginia, the matter of establishing such a school was partially forgotten. 
In 1783, however, Judge Wallace, then representative from Kentucky in the Virginia 
Legislature, recalled the grant and pressed through the Legislature a measure pro- 
viding for twenty-five trustees — the most prominent men in Kentucky — and for a 
name for the proposed seminary. The name given was Transylvania. A further grant 
of twelve thousand acres of land was made, which enhanced the proposed seminary's 
land holding to twenty thousand. The trustees were made a self-perpetuating body by 
the charter, which further provided that the seminary might grant degrees and assume 
with ease the role of college. Although the proposed academy was looked upon as 
a state school, "most of its chief promoters were Presbyterians, a denomination then 
and for sometime afterward largely predominent, as an intellectual factor at least in 
Kentucky affairs. . . . The Presbyterians are undoubtedly entitled to the credit of 
inaugurating higher education in Kentucky.""" 

Under their auspices Transylvania Seminary was opened at Danville, February 1, 
1785, at the home of Rev. David Rice, a Presbyterian minister. The tuition was fixed 
at four pistoles ($3.60) per year, and the Rev. James Mitchell was employed as 
teacher at £30 ($100) per year. The school was taught in the house of Mr. Rice, 
because no other suitable place could be found for it. "Such were the humble be- 
ginnings of the first institution west of the Alleghany Mountains, an institution 
which after a comparatively obscure history of a few years was to blaze forth with 
sudden effulgence and to remain for two generations the highest star of the Western 
literary firmament." 26 

Professor Mitchell remained as head of the new school long enough to woo and win 
the daughter of "Father" Rice and then with his bride returned to North Carolina. 
A period of nominal existance of Transylvania Seminary followed this change. As 


the thoughts of the good people of Danville were occupied at this time with Indian 
affairs and political conventions, the trustees of the new Seminary decided in 1789 to 
move the languishing school to Lexington where it was hoped that the literary inclined 
gentlemen of that thriving metropolis of the West would patronize it. The school 
grew slowly under the preceptorships of Mr. Isaac Wilson and later under Rev. James 
Moore, a Presbyterian. In 1793 the Transylvania Land Company, under the leader- 
ship of John Bradford, editor of the Kentucky Gazette, gave a lot and a building to 
the institution on condition of its permanent location in Lexington. 

The progress of Transylvania at Lexington was slow, but satisfactory. Before the 
turn of the century, however, other demominations growing strong in Kentucky, there 
was some opposition to the Presbyterian controlled board. People were very sensitive 
concerning doctrinal matters at that time, being certain that no space existed in Heaven 
for those who did not follow the beliefs of their peculiar sect. Some of the Presbyterian 
members of the board retired. They were satisfied with the school and were willing to 
patronize it as long as it conformed to their ideals of what such a school should be, 
but when its religious tone or teaching, by reason of other control, became what they 
considered dangerous, they simply withdrew their patronage and established one that 
better suited their ideas and aims, one of which was to prepare suitable ministers for 
the church." 

With a change in the personnel of the board the Rev. James Moore for some reason 
became unsatisfactory and retired. In 1794 the Rev. Harry Toulmin, a prominent 
Baptist minister recently come from Virginia, was elected as master. Unfortunately for 
him Mr. Toulmin, a very able man indeed, he had been a friend of Thomas Jefferson, 
"which was not in his favor, especially in the eyes of the Presbyterians, as on that 
account he was supposed to be tinctured with French philosophy, or infidelity, as they 
considered it." 29 

To have been a friend of Jefferson was bad enough but to have been a Baptist at 
the same time was more than some of the pious brethren could endure. There was a 
move, therefore, on the part of "Father" Rice, Judge Wallace, and other prominent 
Presbyterians to establish another school more to their denominational tastes. Kentucky 
Academy was consequently granted a charter, December 12, 1794. It is interesting to 
note that in seeking funds for the new school, the trustees sent the Rev. David Rice 
and Rev. James Blythe to the East to solicit among prominent men there. They suc- 
ceeded in obtaining $10,000. Among the contributors were George Washington, who 
is said to have inquired very carefully in regard to the state of learning and literature 
in the West, as Kentucky was then called, John Adams, and Aaron Burr, who was 
unusually interested in education. Many friends of the Presbyterian Church contributed 
books as well as money. The new school was located at Pisgah, seven miles southwest 
of Lexington, near the home of Judge Wallace. The Kentucky Academy got off to a 
good start. However, it was short-lived, because in 1796 Mr. Toulmin voluntarily 
withdrew from the headship of Transylvania Seminary. With the obnoxious Mr. Toul- 
min, later Secretary of State under Governor Garrard, out the Presbyterian trustees of 
Kentucky Academy saw no reason why the two schools, Transylvania and Kentucky 
Academy, should not be united. Accordingly, on December 22, 1798, an act was 
passed by the Legislature providing for the consolidation of the two schools into a 
university, Transylvania University. And on January 1, 1799, with the Rev. James 
Moore as first president, Transylvania University was born, an institution worth from 
$40,000 to $179,000. The University was established, "contemplating," as the preamble 
to the bill stated, "the many singular advantages to be derived to this remote country 
from promoting therein a university well-endowed and properly conducted, more es- 


pecially as by this measure many of our youths can be prevented from going into other 
countries to complete their education, where they must greatly exhaust their fortunes, 
and from whence they may probably return with corrupted principles and morals to be 
the pests and not the ornaments of the community." 

As trustees, the Legislature selected a number of the state's most prominent men, 
among whom were Judge Wallace, John Bradford, George Nichols, one of the out- 
standing lawyers of the entire nation, and James Garrard, later Governor of Kentucky. 
And among the faculty members were Rev. James Blythe and Rev. Robert Stuart, of 
the academic department; George Nicholas, of the department of law; and Drs. Samuel 
Brown and Frederick Ridgely, of the department of medicine. Later at various times 
Henry Clay, James Munroe, John Pope, and John Breckinridge lectured in the depart- 
ment of law. Thus from the initial years able and prominent men were associated with 
Transylvania University. 

This institution developed rather rapidly, reaching between 1817 and 1828 a plane 
of brilliancy seldom reached by any university at any time and perhaps, considering 
the time, higher than any state university has ever reached. 

This position of eminence blossomed into effulgence under the brilliant leadership 
of Dr. Horace Holley who came to the presidency in November, 1818. "The new 
president aimed to make of Transylvania a genuine University. Complete in every 
college and liberally endowed. He was in many ways admirably fitted for the under- 
taking. Having graduated at Yale in the class of 1763, when about 22 years of age, 
he had, after studying law for a while in New York and then abandoning it for the 
ministry, pursued the study of theology under Dr. Dwight in New Haven, when he 
had become a Unitarian, not under his preceptor, but from his personal conviction. 
Since 1809, he had been the pastor of the Hollis Street Unitarian Church of Boston, 
Massachusetts, where he was greatly beloved and admired. He was a man of en- 
gaging manners and of great personal magnetism. Besides, his learning was very wide 
and his eloquence so stirring as to cause a staid New England audience to burst into 
noisy applause on the occasion of his delivering a sermon before the Ancient and 
Honorable Artillery Company of Boston. In Lexington he entertained freely patrons 
of learning and distinguished strangers, and captivating, as he did, all who came near 
him, was calculated to interest them in the welfare of the university. This he did in 
a very successful way in the case of the State Legislature and of such public-spirited 
citizens as Col. James Morrison, Henry Clay, and others." 32 

Circumstances were highly favorable at that time for the pursuit of Dr. Holley's aims. 
The state had recently emerged from the War of 1812 with everlasting glory to herself, 
and Indian troubles for her were extinguished. The people were disposed to look upon 
education more favorably and the Legislature once more took a lively interest in the 
University. The names of the members of the board of trustees, the chairman of which 
was the celebrated Robert Wickliffe, were so prominent that they seem to have been 
taken from the pages of history. These men for the time being were unusually friendly 
to Dr. Holley, and, being as influential as they were, had little difficulty in influencing 
legislative aid. 

Reading the roster of names of Transylvania's faculty during Dr. Holley's administra- 
tion is like perusing a directory of the empyream, so distinguished was it. Among the 
names were: John Roche, master of languages; Constantine S. Rafinesque, eminent 
instructor of natural history; B. O. Peers, tutor and great friend of popular education; 
William T. Barry and Judge Jesse Bledsoe, instructors in law; Dr. Charles Caldwell, 
Dr. B. W. Dudley, Dr. Samuel Brown, Dr. Daniel Drake, Dr. James Blythe, all of 
the medical department. 


Professor Constantine S. Rafinesque was probably, at that time, the most eminent 
scientist in America. The names Drake and Dudley are still household names in the 
medical profession. Both were regarded as among the outstanding men of medicine 
not only in America but Europe as well. Barry and Bledsoe, both eminent lawyers, 
achieved places in public life acclaimed not only by the state but by the nation as 

"Dr. Drake tells us, in speaking of this faculty . . . *that they were men of brilliant 
talents and wide reputation, and collectively constituted a greater array of strength and 
brilliancy than was scarcely ever collected in any institution at one time'." J 

During Dr. Holley's presidency the library increased from 1,300 volumes to about 
6,500, among which were some of the priceless books of Europe. Furthermore, the 
enrollment was astonishing for the time. In March, 1821, Transylvania had 282 
students; while Yale had 319, Harvard 286, and Princeton 150. 

Dr. Holley's administration lived through the era of "good feeling" in the nation — 
that time when there was peace at home and abroad, great expansion, prosperity, 
spiritual growth and happiness. Kentucky's rich lands were producing lavish wealth 
and the Ohio River trade was increasing spectacularly. Her people, feeling that they 
had won the War of 1812. were proud, confident, able and contented. Magnificent 
mansions, the pride of the Old South, were being erected, and beautiful nature — the 
fine blue grass and stately oaks — enhanced their charm. A degree of opulence had 
come which permitted leisure for study and the pursuit of the social graces; a gallant, 
courtly, handsome gentry and a class of womankind lovely, charming, and gracious arose 
to make Kentucky Blue Grass society the most charming, the most hospitable, the. 
most fascinating in the West. Truly, Lexington was both the Athens and the Versailles 
of the West. 34 

At the very zenith of this era of good feeling the aging hero General LaFayette 
visited Kentucky. The occasion was an epoch-making time for the people of the state; 
they could show to the world their attractiveness and hospitality — and they did. Amid 
pageantry — music, flags, soldiers, flowers, beauty, gallantry, dazzling splendor, the old 
hero of the Revolution entered Lexington, on a bright May day, 1825. 

By 1825, in spite of the brilliancy of Dr. Holley's administration, bickerings could 
be heard against him, particularly among the Presbyterians, who, in fact, had opposed 
him throughout. He was a Unitarian and a free-thinker and rash enough to proclaim 
his beliefs. His ideas of living were rather free, too. Doubtless, though, had he been 
quieter before students and townspeople, he could have avoided trouble. He did not, 
however, and lost his position. 

The story of the vicissitudes of the noble old institution in the years following the 
golden era of Holley is quoted from Mr. Hamlett. It follows: 

The Rev. Alva Woods, D.D., was president from 1828 to 1831, when he resigned 
to become the first President of the University of Alabama. During his term the 
City of Lexington donated over ten thousand dollars to meet expenses of the school. 
On May 9, 1829, occurred the loss by fire of the central hall, built during the pre- 
ceding administration. John Lutz, A.M., was at the head of the University from 
1831 to 1833. 

"From 1833 to 1834, the Rev. Benjamin O. Peers was president. On November 4, 
1833, a new building, the present Morrison College, was dedicated. This was built 
from funds from the bequest of James Morrison, a wealthy landowner and a trustee 
of the University. This hall was located about two hundred yards north of the old 
college row, upon an eminence in the centre of an additional campus of fourteen acres 
adjoining the smaller one. 


"The next administrations were those of Rev. Thomas W. Colt, D.D., 1835 to 1837; 
of Rev. Louis Marshall, D.D., 1838 to 1840; and of Rev. Robert Davidson, D.D., 1840 
to 1842. In 1841, the trustees committed the academic department, then known as 
Morrison College, to the Kentucky Conference of the Methodist Church. Under its 
auspices the Rev. Henry B. Bascom, D.D., LL.D., held the presidency from 1842 to 
1849. He, like Holley, was a man of great natural power; but, unlike Holley, he 
enjoyed none of the advantages of collegiate training. He was, however, in all his 
youthful wanderings as a circuit rider a hard student and his own severe master. An 
orator and a natural leader of men, he had attracted the notice of Henry Clay, through 
whose commendation Bascom was, in 1823, made Chaplain of the House of Represen- 
tatives at Washington. A second era of great growth began for the University; in 
1843, five hundred and fifty-two students were in attendance, a revival of influence 
which continued after Bascom's resignation in 1849, to become later a bishop of his 

"James B. Dodd, A.M., was acting-president until the academic department was 
reorganized in 1856, under the presidency of the Rev. Lewis W. Green, D.D., as a 
State school for teachers. At the close of his administration in 1858, the University, 
owing to the unrest of the years of the Civil War, became almost dormant. Only 
small classes were in attendance in Morrison College, chiefly in the Law Department. 
During the height of the war, the buildings were seized by the Federal Government as 
military hospitals: 'groans of wounded and dying filled the classic halls which had sa 
often echoed to the logic of Holley, the fire of Bascom, or the eloquence of Clay.' 

"During the seventy-five years of old Transylvania's existence, thousands of students 
from all over the South had been in attendance and about two thousand degrees had 
been granted in Arts, Medicine and Law. The Medical Department alone had registered 
six thousand, four hundred and six pupils, and had one thousand eight hundred and 
fifty-four graduates. 

"On February 28, 1865, through the efforts of John B. Bowman, LL.D., Transylvania 
University was consolidated with Kentucky University, then located at Harrodsburg 
under the patronage of the Disciples of Christ. 

"Kentucky University had grown out of Bacon College, the earliest literary insti- 
tution of its grade among the Disciples of Christ, which had been established in 
Georgetown, Kentucky, in 1836. The college was removed to Harrodsburg in 1839, 
where it was conducted until insufficient means led to its suspension in 1850. 

"In the winter of 1855-56, Major James Taylor and Mr. John B. Bowman, both of 
Mercer County, entered on the work of founding a university which should be the 
successor of Bacon College. Mr. Bowman's appeals for financial aid were successful 
beyond expectation, and the preparatory department was opened in 1857. An amended 
charter, approved January 15, 1858, in which the provisions of the first charter were 
greatly extended and the name of the institution changed to Kentucky University was 
accepted by the trustees of Bacon College, February 2, 1858. The collegiate department 
was opened under the presidency of Robert Milligan, A.M., September, 1859. The 
destruction of the college building by fire in 1864, necessitated the removal of the in- 
stitution from Harrodsburg. After invitations from Louisville and Covington had 
been considered, an offer of the property of Transylvania University that had been 
made and declined in 1860, and that was now renewed, was accepted. 

"The first session of Kentucky-Transylvania University began in Lexington, October 
2, 1865. To the College of Liberal Arts and the Academy, which had been conducted 
at Harrodsburg, the College of the Bible was added and the College of Law was 
resumed. The office of regent of the University was created July 17, 1865. John 


B. Bowman, LL.D., the founder of Kentucky University, was elected regent, which 
office he held until June, 1878. During his administration, in 1865, the Agricultural 
and Mechanical College of Kentucky was affiliated with the University. This ar- 
rangement proved unsatisfactory, and was discontinued in 1878. 

"In this year also the last session of the College of the Bible under the charter of 
Kentucky University closed, and the new College of the Bible, which had been 
established in 1877, took its place. Since then this college, organized under its own 
charter, is in administration and control entirely independent of the Transylvania. 

"The office of regent was discontinued June 12, 1878, at which time Henry H. 
White, LL.D., was elected president of the University. He filled this office until, on 
his resignation in 1880, Charles Louis Loos, LL.D., was elected to succeed him. In his 
administration, in 1887, the College of Liberal Arts and the Academy were opened to 
women. The department of physical culture was opened in 1894. 

"The presidency of the University having again become vacant by resignation, 
Reuben Lindsay Cave, A.M., was, in the summer of 1897, elected to succeed President 

"The hundredth anniversary of the opening of Transylvania University was com- 
memorated in Morrison Chapel on the evening of January 1, 1899. The Governor 
of the Commonwealth was present, and the parts of an appropriate program were 
borne by gentlemen at the head of sister institutions of learning and by prominent 

"On the resignation of President Cave, in February, 1900, Alexander R. Milligan, 
A.M., served as acting-president until June, 1901, when Burris A. Jenkins, A.M., B.D., 
was elected president of the University. 

"At the annual commencement in June, 1905, the fortieth anniversary of the 
removal of Kentucky University to Lexington and its consolidation with Transylvania 
University was celebrated with a great reunion of alumni. Wednesday, June 14, 
was devoted to anniversary exercises. 

"In October, 1906, ill-health, which had been increasingly recurrent for more than 
a year, forced President Jenkins to lay down the duties of office. Thomas Benton 
Macartney, Jr., M.A., Ph.D., Dean of the College of Liberal Arts, was forthwith 
elected acting-president of the University, which office he held until October, 1908. 

"By an act of Legislature, approved March 20, 1908, and effective on June 12 of 
that year, the charter of that University was so amended as to confer upon the Cura- 
tors of Kentucky University all the rights and privileges of the Trustees of old Tran- 
sylvania University; the requirement as to particular church affiliations of the members 
of the Board was annulled and the name of the institution was changed back to 
Transylvania University. In the same year the Medical Department, in Louisville, 
and the Commercial College, in Lexington, were discontinued. The College of Law 
was suspended in June, 1912. 

"In June, 1908, Richard Henry Crossfield, M.A., Ph.D., was elected president of 
the University, assuming the duties of office October 22, 1908."'° 


Notwithstanding the fact that numerous elementary schools and academies were 
established during the pioneer period and following, a vast majority of the children 
of the state were not in school and the percentage of illiteracy was appalling. The 
masses of the people in the rural districts, however, were apathetical toward education 
and saw no reason why their children should be sent to school, especially as long as 
there was work to be done on the farm. Many of the true friends of democracy and 


learning, viewing the situation sorrowfully, yet hopefully, set about to make possible 
the education of a larger number of children. This, they realized, could be done only 
by making education cheaper and by convincing the people that public education was 
worthwhile. Massachusetts had furnished a model system of public education and 
other states had followed her lead. Kentucky leaders, therefore, were not obliged to 
leap in the dark. Accordingly, in the year 1821, an attempt was made to establish 
a system of public education. That year the state Legislature passed an act providing 
that one-half of the clear profits realized from the state's Bank of the Common- 
wealth was to be set aside as the "Literary Fund" and devoted to the establishing 
of a public school system. Most of the members of the Legislature were uncommonly 
interested. The time appeared to be auspicious. Pursuant to this act a committee of 
able men was appointed to devise a system of common schools. This committee corres- 
ponded with John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and Robert Y. Hayne, 
each of whom expressed their faith in schools and suggested a plan of democratic 
education. The committee reported an elaborate and ambitious program. Unfortu- 
nately, however, the Legislature by the time that the report was submitted had lost 
some of its ardor for public education. Furthermore, in a few years the Bank of 
the Commonwealth failed, causing a school fund of sixty thousand dollars per annum 
to dwindle to practically nothing. Then the Legislature inaugurated the policy of 
making the school fund subservient to every other public interest: The revenue proper 
became insufficient to defray the expenses of the state government; the little funds 
which the school fund retained were seized, and naturally enough this attempt to 
establish a general system of education ended a total failure. "" 

After this system of education had languished helplessly for a number of years, an 
opportunity was afforded the Legislature to make a third attempt to establish a system 
of common schools. This opportunity was made possible by a large gift from the 
Federal Government. As early as 1821 a Kentucky Legislature had passed reso- 
lutions calling upon Congress to pass a law allotting to Kentucky her equitable portion 
of the public domain, the return from which was to be devoted to public education. The 
appropriation was finally made by an act passed by Congress in June of 1836, under 
which act Kentucky received the sum of $1,433,757. Unfortunately an act of the 
state Legislature passed in February, 1837, providing for the investment of the fine 
gift from the Federal Government, dedicated only $1,000,000 to education, thus ignoring 
at the outset the pledge to devote the entire gift to the advancement of learning/' 

It would have been well had the fund remained at $1,000,000, but the act of 1837 
was an entering wedge. At that time an internal improvement program was the most 
popular function on the legislative mind, a costly internal improvement program. In 
that mind this program must not be slighted, no matter what else suffered. By an 
act of 1838 the school fund was reduced from $1,000,000 to $850,000. However, for 
the sum which the state took bonds were caused to be issued to the State Board of 
Education, a corporation created by an act of the General Assembly, and an interest 
of 6 ( /< per annum was authorized. 

The most important feature relating to educational legislation passed during the 
session of 1838 was the general law establishing a system of common schools, a law 
which was approved, February 16, 1838. The most important provisions of this law 
were: (1) The entire school fund, which was the interest on $850,000, amounting to 
$42,500 annually, was to be distributed among the counties in proportion to the 
number of children reported to the commissioner, but a schoolhouse had to be erected 
and a school tax levied in the district before a school was entitled to its proration. 
(2) A state board of education, consisting of the attorney general, secretary of state, 


and the superintendent of public instruction, was provided. (3) The office of state 
superintendent of public instruction, the superintendent to be appointment by the 
governor every two years and confirmed by the senate, was established. (4) The 
counties were to be divided into school districts, no district to contain more than one 
hundred pupils nor fewer than thirty pupils. (5) The people of each district were 
to vote as to whether or not they wanted the new system. (6) Provision was made 
for the school affairs of the county to be managed by five commissioners appointed by 
the state superintendent and for the election by the people of five trustees in each 
district. (7) The commissioners and district trustees were empowered to examine 
teachers and grant certificates to teach in the common schools. (8) "No district was 
entitled to any part of the state fund until a common school had been regularly 
organized, a schoolhouse procured at the expense of the inhabitants thereof, and a 
tax levied upon the inhabitants thereof sufficient, when added to the state fund, to 
equal the expenses of the school." (9) The whole number of white children over 
seven and under seventeen were pupil children. (Hamlett, pp. 11,12) . 

Scarcely had the school system begun to function even feebly before the Legisla- 
ture began to deny the State Board of Education the funds which were due it by 
every law of ethics known. Here was a state with thousands of illiterate and un- 
schooled people. Here was a state which had been given $1,433,000 to be devoted to 
education. Here was a state that had launched a system of public schools, to give 
educational opportunities to the countless thousands to the end that life might be 
abundant and democracy might live. Here was a state whose representatives were 
rapidly depriving her of a fund which had been consecrated to the noblest of all 

Fortunately, during the trying infancy of public education in Kentucky, Dr. Robert 
J. Breckinridge, in 1847, became Superintendent of Public Instruction. Few men of 
the nation, if a single one, were as well qualified for the task as was Dr. Breckinridge. 
A man of recognized scholarship in both America and Europe, powerful of intellect, 
indomitable in courage, eloquent of expression, pleasing mien and polished manner, 
fascinating in conversation, resourceful, aggressive and confident, this unusual man 
brought all the powers of his great personality to play in an heroic fight for popular 
education in Kentucky. "For long years the system (of general instruction) had dragged 
along heavily, one after another (superintendent) accepting reluctantly the herculean 
task of trying to bring order out of confusion, only to become discouraged and abandon 
the task to some one else who could be found willing to make the trial."" But Dr. 
Breckinridge, after a hard fight which continued for a number of years, succeeded 
where others had failed. Under his wizardous guidance, in less than a year after 
his accession to office, Dr. Breckinridge had been instrumental in securing a bond 
from the state for the arrears of interest due the School Board, an arrear of $308,- 
268.42 and had gone before a people, who had been practically dead to the cry of 
public education, with a plea so eloquent and compelling that by a large majority they 
voted, in 1848, a general property tax upon themselves of two cents on each one 
hundred dollars of property. In less than three years' time under Dr. Breckinridge's 
vigorous administration, instead of the 170 public schools in the state in 1847, there 
were 3,704; instead of 20,000 school children reported for 1847, there were in 1850 
reported by the counties 178,559. But the most dramatic episode in the educational 
career of this great superintendent was his heroic fight, in 1850, to save the School 



In 1850 Governor John J. Crittenden, a staunch friend of public education, resigned 
the governorship to accept a post in the cabinet of President Fillmore. The guber- 
natorial vacancy was filled by Lieutenant Governor John L. Helm. At that time the 
constitution of 1850 was going into effect. Governor Helm thought that a .section of 
this new instrument was so worded as to relieve the Commissioners of the Sinking 
Fund from further responsibility of the payment of interest on the school bonds. In 
endeavoring to establish his contention, the Governor devoted more than half of his 
message of 1850 to the General Assembly to this unusual construction. He contended, 
among other suggestions, that under the constitution it was the Assembly's duty to 
make provision by law for payment of the interest on the school bonds. He denied 
that the intention on the part of the state to pay the principal of the school bonds 
had ever existed. Governor Helm further stated that the Sinking Fund should have 
no connection with the School Fund whatsoever. "Let each look to and rely upon its 
own resources," he said. "The general education of the people," he had stated further, 
"is an object of very high importance in all possible conditions of human society, and 
is absolutely vital in free states . . . Now, more than ever, we must consider it as one 
of the settled and most important questions of public policy of Kentucky, to bring 
the blessings of education within the reach of all our youth.'* Yet in spite of this 
friendly gesture to public education, one, in analizing Governor Helm's message, is 
impressed with the idea that his principal purpose was not to help education but to 
save money for the Sinking Fund, so that the indebtedness from public improvements 
could be paid quickly. Desiring to rid the state of indebtedness, the Governor 
naturally wished to be relieved of the indebtedness of $1,400,000.01 to the Board of 
Education, although each would mean leaving the schools to the generosity of the 
General Assembly or leaving them to look out for themselves as best they could. 
But — a fact that had not been mentioned — the state was honor-bound to repay the 
money which she had arbitrarily borrowed from the School Fund; that solemn obligation 
hovered about the state government like the ghost of Banquo, giving it no rest. When 
it appeared that the state would repudiate finally her sacred obligation, when it seemed 
that public education in Kentucky was doomed, Robert J. Breckinridge, stirred to 
indignation by outraged honor, like a crusader of old thrilled by the prospect of battle 
in a holy cause, rose to the defense of waning education, and with all his enthusiasm, 
with all his great powers of intellect, with all the force of his masterful personality, 
prepared for battle. 

The scene of Dr. Breckinridge's great fight to save the school fund was the chamber 
of the House of Representatives. This hall is in the Old Capitol at Frankfort, and 
is now used as a museum by the State Historical Society. The time was the evening 
of December 10, 1850. Dr. Breckinridge had been invited by the two houses to 
speak on the condition of education in Kentucky. 


He was tall, perhaps six feet, and slender. His complexion was rather fair; grayish 
blue eyes and reddish brown hair. His general demeanor suggested culture, refine- 
ment, and scholarship; his voice was soft and resonant, having rare range, and was 
strangely compelling; it was perhaps a high baritone. His mood in speaking was 
usually serious, humor only now and then appearing; yet he often became thoroughly 
aroused, at which times he was likely to be impulsive; there was a compelling con- 
ciseness, simplicity, and logic about his diction, which, although at times trenchant, 
was usually beautiful and eloquent. The qualities which he was able to bring forth 


in debate were often overwhelming, so overwhelming indeed that he was often 
characterized as truculent. As Dr. Breckinridge had had the honor many times of 
having engaged in public debate with a few of the most famous controversialists of 
both the United States and Europe, he was not lacking, as one can easily imagine, 
in self-control and confidence upon this occasion. Being a minister, he wore sombre 
ministerial clothes. He was usually very neat and tastefully, yet not conspicuously, 
dressed. His general personality was such that he was fascinating to most people, 
particularly women. On the present occasion, the Doctor was stirred to indignation 
by the aspect of a public school system threatened with ruin, a public school system 
which if destroyed would leave the youth of the state without the hope of enlighten- 
ment — all because, he thought, political leaders, blind to plighted honor, were selfishly 
bent upon enhancing their own political fortunes, with little regard for the welfare 
of future generations. 

The high point of the scene came at a point in Dr. Breckinridge's speech which was 
delivered on Tuesday evening, December 10, 1850, before the General Assembly. 
There were approximately a hundred legislators present, beside numerous spectators, 
men and women, who filled every available seat in the main hall and in the balcony 
behind and above. Dr. Breckinridge stood in front of the speaker's desk; he was 
straight, dignified, and impressive. On the wall directly behind the speaker's desk 
hung two large portraits: that of Washington on the right; that of Daniel Boone on 
the left. A clerk sat at a small table immediately in front of and to the right of the 
speaker's desk. George W. Johnston, of Shelby County, was the Speaker. Among 
the well-known personages of the General Assembly (House and Senate) were: 
Joseph H. Lewis, George W. Williams, Samuel Hanson, Lucius Desha, Norvis Green, 
Alexander Churchill, Samuel Geiger, William Preston, Thomas Todd, James P. Met- 
calfe, Col. Richard M. Johnson, Hiram McElroy, Thomas S. Grundy, Caleb B. 
Wallace, Robert A. Patterson, Benjamin Edwards Grey, Hamilton Pope, Camden 
Ballard, William C. Bullock, Thomas P. Linthicum, James P. Barbour, Beriah 
Magoffin and John P. Bruce. 

The Frankfort Commonwealth, December 17, 1850, made the following comment 
upon Dr. Breckinridge's address: "The great power of the speaker was shown not only 
in the manner in which he treated his subject, but in holding, as he did, the profound 
attention of a very large audience for two hours and a half — a speech, which could 
only be properly appreciated by those who heard it; and which, considered merely as 
an effort of human intellect and eloquence, was such as has seldom fallen upon our 



"It would be impossible, on an occasion like the present, to attempt any reply to 
the various arguments that have been brought forward, and which able and ingenius 
men may easily multiply, upon this, as upon every other subject — to favor views 
opposite to those here stated. I the more readily omit any such attempt — not only be- 
cause I have much reason to believe that the interpretation I have given will turn out 
to be in full accordance with the sense of the convention which made the constitution 
— many of whose members are now in the two houses of the general assembly — as I feel 
satisfied it is the necessary sense of the language they have used; but also because I 
have very lately had the honor of going over the whole ground, first, before a joint 
meeting of the two legislative committees on education, and, secondly, before the 
legislature itself. I cannot, however, wholly omit to notice one topic which has 
occasioned me great surprise. It is alleged that the bonds of the state, held by the board 
of education, are not — in any proper sense — much less in any constitutional sense, a 


state debt, or any part of that state debt, and, for that reason, are not chargeable on 
the sinking fund. For myself, I cannot tell what language means, what facts signify, 
or what it is men intend by public faith, or by the obligations of law and equity, truth 
and honor — if these bonds do not constitute, in the clearest, fullest, and most complete 
sense, a public debt. There they are. Executed, one after another, by authority of 
law. Signed, all of them, by successive chief magistrates of the state. All of them 
recognized in act after act, by many legislatures, as bonds of the state of Kentucky; 
and finally by an act of absolute sovereignty, recorded upon the face of her constitution 
— as debts which her plighted faith, her stainless honor, and her most enduring interests 
not only require her to pay, but having paid, to manage as a sacred trust, as long as 
her everlasting mountains stand unmoved, and her broad plains nourish patriots. If 
we consider the origin of this fund, the debt is thereby rendered only the more im- 
pressive in its vast obligation. It was a gift from a great nation to a generous state; 
a gift accepted only to be used for noble ends, and with a high instinct, consecrated to 
the noblest of them all. So to that very end — how does it magnify and enlarge the 
obligation — to pay the debt, if it should cost our very last farthing; the glory of our 
race — the hopes of our children — the destiny of all who are to follow us! Nay, if we 
go behind the bonds, and beside all collateral consideration of their validity — there is 
one single and conclusive fact, final both against the state and the sinking fund. The 
sinking fund was created, by law, to pay, first, the interest and then the principal of 
the internal improvement debt of the state. The money represented by every dollar of 
state bonds held by the board of education went into the internal improvement system; 
for the whole of these bonds represent the original sum dedicated, and the larger 
portion of its accruing interest, since its dedication. These bonds are, therefore, in 
every equitable view of them, a portion of the specific debt which the sinking fund was 
originally created to discharge; and would be entitled to be placed on that fund upon 
principles of general equity, independently of any specific provision of the new consti- 
tution — and were so placed, upon those principles, as I have clearly shown — before the 
act of March 1, 1850, and before the new constitution existed. It would require a very 
clear declaration of that instrument, under such circumstances, to disallow a state debt 
of this description; and to do it, in the face of contrary provisions, clearly recognizing 
it, would be an act which I will forbear to characterize, and one which I do not believe 
the state of Kentucky will ever perpetrate." 40 

A short time following Dr. Breckinridge's address, a bill was introduced into the 
Senate by Br. Beriah Magoffin, directing the Commissioners of the Sinking Fund to 
pay, out of any moneys in their hands, the amount of interest due the common school 
fund. This bill passed both houses but was vetoed by Governor Helm. It then repassed 
both houses by 28 to 6 and 64 to 26 majorities, thereby becoming law, and Dr. Breckin- 
ridge had won his great fight. Free common school education now was assumed in 

In 1849 a constitutional convention met in Kentucky, perhaps the most important 
constitutional convention ever held in the state. One of the burning questions was 
public education. The friends of the denominational schools and public academies, and 
the politicians who wished never to repay the school fund — it could be more conveniently 
employed for things more political — were determined and bitter in their opposition to 
free public education. Yet there was an able group of the friends of public education 
in the convention, and they were ably directed by the brilliant state superintendent of 
public instruction. The debate which issued was a battle of giants. Allied with the 
group to thwart the public school system was one of the ablest lawyers of the state, 
an exCongressman, a veteran debater, a master of repartee, sarcasm, ridicule, irony, as 


well as of eloquence, Hon Ben Hardin, of Bardstown, No champion of the common 
schools was as well-known as the aging Hardin; yet the friends of popular education, 
feeling that their cause was just and noble and right, threw themselves into the battle 
with all their might. The blows struck on each side were not of the sewing circle variety, 
but were strong, sometimes bitter, and always virile. The debate on education began 
early in December, 1849, after the reading of the report by the chairman of the com- 
mittee on education. The bill, reported sought to put into the new constitution a clause 
recognizing the legitimacy of the state's debt to the State Board of Education and 
requiring the regular annual payment of interest on the school fund. Mr. Hardin jumped 
to the floor immediately following Mr. Taylor's report, and the battle was on. 
The education section of the constitution of 1849 is here carried in full: 
"The capital of the fund called and known as the 'Common School Fund,' con- 
sisting of $1,225,768.42, for which bonds have been executed by the State to the Board 
of Education, and $73,500.00 of stock in the Bank of Kentucky; also the sum of 
$51,223.29, balance of interest on the school fund for the year 1848, unexpended, 
together with any sum which may be hereafter raised in the State by taxation or 
otherwise for purposes of education, shall be held inviolate, for the purpose of sus- 
taining a system of common schools. The interest and dividends of said funds together 
with any sum may be produced for that purpose by taxation or otherwise, may be 
appropriated in aid of common schools, but for no other purpose. The General 
Assembly shall invest said $51,223.29 in some safe and profitable manner; and any other 
portion of the interest and dividends of said school fund, or other money or property 
raised for school purposes, which may not be needed in sustaining common schools, shall 
be invested in like manner. The General Assembly shall make provision, by law, for the 
payment of the interest of said school fund: Provided, That each county shall be entitled 
to its proportion of the income of said fund, and if not called for, for common school 
purposes, it shall be reinvested from time to time for the benefit of such county. 

"A Superintendent of Public Instruction shall be elected by the qualified voters of 
this Commonwealth at the same time the Governor is elected, who shall hold his office 
for four years; and his duties and salary shall be prescribed and fixed by law." 4 " 


The condition of the common schools in 1867 when the able Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, Zachariah Frederick Smith, took office was critical. This condition had 
been predicted by Robert J. Breckinridge in 1850 as a result of a lack of funds. He 
had stated that without local support the school fund would be able to keep open the 
schools not longer than six weeks during the year even though in 1848 the people had 
voted a two-cent property tax. Dr. Breckinridge asked that the districts make greater 
efforts at cooperation. It should be noted that the schools established during his ad- 
ministration were not free, although it was not his fault. 

Z. F. Smith found that the tax of five cents being collected at the beginning of his 
administration was producing $185,000. He suggested that the amount should be 
increased to the unheard of sum of $740,000 annually. This amount would keep open 
the schools for five months during the year, pay the teachers from $19 to $25 per 
month; it would actually amount to $2.37 per pupil child! But this stupendous sum 
(as it was regarded by the public) would require a property tax of twenty cents! Z. F. 
Smith, himself, probably thought this tax high, yet when he considered the sad plight 
of the school system he was emboldened. He declared, "I assumed the duties of my 
office in September last, under the prejudicial conviction of the popular mind, that the 
Common School System of Kentucky, no longer worthy of the grave consideration 


of our men of public trust, had been discarded from the policies of State legislation, 
and abandoned to whatever fate fortune might hold in reserve for it. This popular 
conviction was the logical conclusion of the treatment it had received at the hands of 
those who should have felt an ever-abiding obligation to sustain, foster, and build up 
so vital and important an interest to the people of the state — the legislators of the 
sessions of the past thirty years. Beyond the acts for local and personal accommodation, 
in which the Legislatures inclined to be prodigal, but little attention had been given to 
the wants of the institution (the common school system) . The pro rata distribution 
of funds had fallen off thirty-three per cent . . . the vitality and efficiency of the 
administration of local interests of the system were becoming continually more impaired. 
The fatal and steady processes of decay were . . . painfully evident from year to 
year, where sagacious and conscientious statesmanship should have infused life, strength 
and energy in the only measure of general benefit for the people now incorporated in 
the policy of our State." 4 ' 

The grand work of the brilliant Dr. Breckinridge was being permitted to fall into 
decay. Children in the back country were growing up in ignorance; they ran through 
the forests like animals. Ambitious parents were leaving Kentucky that their children 
might have better educational opportunities. And in vain did the journals of the state 
attempt to entice foreigners to the old land of Daniel Boone. 

Somehow "Zack" Smith, masterful man that he was, succeeded against the most 
determined opposition in getting the General Assembly to adopt most of his program, 
and the people ratified it. The tax was increased from five to twenty cents, thus in- 
creasing the school receipts from $185,000 in 1867 to $968,176.80 in 1871. Districts 
were consolidated; teachers were better paid; the school term was increased from a few 
weeks each year to five months; something was done toward uniform textbook adoption. 
And began a new public school system — a free public school system. 

Z. F. Smith's comprehensive work infused new life into the educational development 
of Kentucky. Great improvement was quickly realized. The increase of funds did 
wonders, and for a number of years all seemed well with the common schools. 

Yet, great as was the reformation brought about by Mr. Smith, all of the abuses 
were not eradicated, and so by 1887, the year of the beginning of Ed Porter Thompson's 
administration, the public school system, although receiving about $2,000,000 annually, 
was failing to achieve the expected results. Mr. Thompson struck at the heart of the 
difficulty when he indicted persons of the districts in charge of the school administration, 
the trustees for failing to do their duty. He stated: "Instead of considering the school 
money as a donation made by the state to her pupil children, to be devoted to the 
express purpose of educating them, it seems to be regarded, in many instances, as a 
kind of bonus to the district, to which some kinsman or other favorite has more claim 
than the children to whom it is meant to furnish the key to the temple of knowledge. 
. . . The fact that it is a sacred trust is lost sight of. Its power to give the poor, as 
well as the rich, a priceless boon, receives no consideration." Mr. Thompson stated that 
some applicants for schools, with no thought of fitness, actually go to the polls and 
work for the election of the trustee who has promised to give him or her the school; 
that there is constant dissatisfaction, strife, and dissention in hundreds of communities. 

Mr. Thompson, aside from advocating a change in the district and trustee system 
advocated a longer school term, and especially the transferring of the power of appointing 
teachers from the district trustee to a county board. But Ed Porter Thompson ac- 
complished very little. The General Assembly again was interested in things more 
political and the masses of the people were unconcerned. The noble, intelligent Wil- 
liam M. Beckner, of Winchester, by constant vigilance and active fighting in the con- 


stitutional convention of 1899 kept the new constitution free from clauses which would 
limit state support of public education to the common schools, thus paving the way 
for public high schools and larger support of schools of higher learning. But Judge 
Beckner was unable to insert clauses in the constitution providing for educational reform. 

By 1905, the Kentucky Educational Association had come to the realization that if 
a revival in education were not given to the people, who seemingly were steadily be- 
coming more apathetic, that Kentucky would sink to the lowest place among the states 
of the Union in education. The Educational Improvement Commission which drew 
up a reform program and carried a plea for modernized education to the people. 
Marked results were obtained in the General Assembly of 1906, when the normal 
schools were established. 

The most enthusiastic campaigns to cause Kentucky's citizens to be conscious of the 
value of education and of educational reforms was launched by Dr. John Grant Crabb 
in 1909, while State Superintendent. Dr. Crabb, aside from being highly intelligent 
and highly learned, was deeply interested in the educational and spiritual growth of 
Kentucky, and used his indefatigable energy, always cheerfully to further it. He knew 
how to get along with people and was a born organizer. Dr. Crabb called his cam- 
paigns the "Whirlwind" campaigns. These were conducted for a few days in 1908 
and in 1909. He marshalled aid of the K. E. A., the press, the women's clubs, prominent 
laymen and scores of able school men. "The campaign was a continuous cyclone bom- 
bardment against illiteracy and ignorance," wrote Mr. Hamlett. 4 ° The entire state was 
canvassed and every county was visited by a speaker or speakers. There were rallies in 
the county seats, with special programs, brass bands, placards, and general enthusiasm. 
Loyal, poverty-bitten women teachers donned in their gigantic hats, tight shirtwaists, 
and sweeping skirts, lifted their chins, and marched in the parade for a better Kentucky. 
Governor Augustus E. Wilson, Tom McGregor, Judge John P. Haswell, H. H. 
Cherry, Harry V. McChesney, Cotton Noe and numerous others took the stump. 
T. J. Coates, McHenry Rhodes made the welkin ring for better education. Miss Lelia 
M. Patridge, Mrs. Desha Breckinridge, Mrs. J. M. Mitchell told the story on many 
platforms. George Colvin raised his great voice — there were enthusiastic speakers 
everywhere. The state was moved for education as it never had been before. And 
a new day began in education in Kentucky. The old delapidated district system was 
swept away, and in its place the county district system was inaugurated. Local taxes 
in the counties and districts increased from $180,000 in 1907-08 to $1,000,000 in 1909. 
A child labor law was enacted. A compulsory school attendance law was passed. 
Large appropriations were made to the State University and to the two normal schools, 
and a law was passed providing for the establishing of an educational planning com- 

mission. 40 

Superintendent Crabb's administration marked the beginning of a new era in public 
education in Kentucky. Since his time progress has been steadily made. Subsequent to 
his progressive era there have been seasons of transcendent melioration. In 1920 George 
Colvin became Superintendent of Public Instruction. He loved the school child and 
public education to a degree of few others. To improve standards of teaching and to 
give the country child an opportunity equal to that of the city child he gave all his 
great magnetic strength. Day in and day out all the elements of that fine personality 
and powerful physical strength were freely, joyously given for finer educational op- 
portunity in Kentucky. 

George Colvin caused the people of Kentucky to feel that a heart and a soul existed 
in education. Neither the taunts of enemies nor pain of sickness could kill his faith 
that every person was worth educating. Even when his great strength was exhausted, 


his fine love for the school child and for teachers was as bright and unselfish as when 
in the full strength of happy manhood he had found joy in fighting for the weak. 
George Colvin's administration will be remembered as a landmark in the history of 
public education in Kentucky. ' 

As if the gods, sorry for the tardy growth of public education in Kentucky during 
her early history, would make recompense, soon after the administration of George 
Colvin came that notable season of progress under James H. Richmond, a man with 
an idea for betterment of education and with the determination and tact to carry it 
through. Mr. Richmond gave his strength unsparingly for the advancement of learning 
in Kentucky. He sympathized with the teachers, and grieved that Kentucky was not 
in the front rank in education among the states of the Union. His work was great, 
his achievements were many. Among many outstanding achievements, the most out- 
standing of all was the adoption by the General Assembly of the School Code, an 
educational law so replite with reforms that the state has not yet begun to realize fully 
the complete scope of its benefits. In years to come Kentucky will be deriving benefit 
from it. The last thirty or more years have been brilliant ones in the history of 
education in Kentucky. 

Following the administration of Dr. Richmond, progress in public education continued 
satisfactorily. Superintendent Harry W. Peters concentrated the efforts of the De- 
partment upon the improvement of the rural school, particularly the establishment of 
county high schools. Superintendent John W. Brooker centered his objectives around 
two points, namely equalization and curriculum. Concerning the first objective, a 
constitutional amendment was passed which enabled the superintendent to distribute 
funds other than upon the per capita basis up to 10% of the per capital appropriation. 
This was an outstanding achievement which made possible the distribution of funds to 
poor counties with sparce populations for the purpose of raising teachers' salaries. As 
its making is a gradual and long-time process, curriculum development under Mr. 
Brooker cannot be easily measured; however, progress was made, and certainly movement 
along this line was a needed advance in the right direction. 

Unfortunately war conditions brought an acute crisis to the public school system of 
Kentucky. The war caused salaries (in most fields other than education) , prices and 
costs of living to skyrocket. The severest need of the state's educational system has 
been always adequate funds. Educational funds did not appreciably increase with the 
other rises caused by the war. Consequently teachers began leaving the schoolroom for 
the factory, the plant and the office; county superintendents began finding that their 
available dollars would purchase very little; and school plants began to fall into dis- 
repair. More than 5,000 of Kentucky's 18,000 teachers quit the profession — and few 
blamed them. The average salary for the Kentucky teacher in 1942-1943 was $782 per 
year, or $85 per month. Instructors found that maintaining themselves upon salaries 
received, with living costs steadily mounting, to be a very difficult matter indeed. They 
discovered that they could easily make $1,800 a year working in a war plant or office — 
and hundreds changed. In fact, they discovered that waitresses, with no education 
whatsoever, were earning more money than they. 

With the loss of several thousand teachers, the system suffered. County superintend- 
ents had to close many schools, and the State Department began issuing emergency 
certificates enabling high school graduates with no teaching experience to teach. In 
1943, the Department issued 4,100 of these emergency certificates, and during 1944 
it will issue roughly 4,500. Of course, all this confusion, to the child and to the 
state is so stupendous and overwhelming that it is palpably incalculable. The war is 
not altogether to blame for this devastating crisis. The studied niggardliness of the 

3— Vol. II 


public and of the Legislature upon matters of public education for more than a 
century is the main cause; the war simply brought the thing to a head. 

Governor Keen Johnson sought to improve the situation in 1943 by appropriating 
from the Governor's Emergency Fund between $600,000 and $700,000 to supplement 
teachers' salaries. Though the idea was good, the amount was not enough — approxi- 
mately $3.00 per month increase — not a drop in the bucket! 

The Republican Party in its canvass of 1943 pledged support of a $15 per capita, as 
did also the Democratic Party. The successful Republicans, true to their promise, 
appealed under the leadership of Governor Simeon S. Willis and Superintendent of 
Public Instruction, John Fred Williams, to the Legislature for approximately $15,000,000 
upon the per capita and equalization basis. So many people had left the state that the 
per capita rate actually amounted to $19, by far the largest in the state's history. Though 
the amount requested was granted, the fund yet, in the light of present day conditions, is 
not large enough. Comparison of the well-educated teacher's salary with that of the 
uneducated war plant or factory worker — even the bus or taxi driver — is very sad indeed 
for the former. Even though the Kentucky teacher (1944) is receiving a larger 
salary than ever before, he (really should be she, because low salaries have practically 
driven men from the profession) is not receiving adequate pay. 

War conditions, for one thing, have made children restive, so that thousands have 
quit school to do other things. The entire school system has come in for acute public 
scrutiny and criticism — curriculum, buildings, facilities, seemingly everything but the 
teacher (who is himself doing a bit of criticising, fortunately) . 

A recent report of the National Commission for the Defense of Democracy Through 
Education reveals Kentucky's educational conditions as very unsatisfactory. These are 
some of the findings: (1) Per cent of population 25 years of age and over who have 
completed four years of college or more — Kentucky with 2.9 per cent ranks forty- 
seventh among the states. (2) Percentage of high school graduates — Kentucky with 
15.5 per cent ranks forty-eighth. (3) Percentage who have completed one year of 
high school or more — Kentucky with 25.2 percent ranks forty-ninth. (4) Percentage 
who have completed only the sixth grade or less — Kentucky with 36.1 per cent ranks 

Obviously vast reforms need to be made. These are a few things which seem most 
obviously to need being achieved: 

(1) Twenty- five dollar per capita; (2) a change in the law enabling counties to levy 
up to a maximum of $1.50 on each $100 worth of taxable property for school purposes, 
so that the rural areas will be, in a measure, on the same footing as city districts; 
(3) a minimum of $100 per month per teacher for twelve months — salary on the twelve 
months basis; (4) a minimum of nine months of school for every public school in the 
state, with each school beginning in September; (5) a more satisfactory arrangement 
of the school bus program, with the State Department assuming greater leadership in 
the matter — perhaps in time buying, financing and operating them altogether; (6) 
Federal aid (the South attempts to educate a larger proportionate group of children 
on less per capita money than any other section of the nation; (7) in general a state- 
wide campaign for school-community building, progress and uplift, which will inspire the 
entire state to a realization of the vast importance of Kentucky's catching up and forg- 
ing ahead in education — for the sake of the happiness and well-being of Kentucky in 
the years just ahead — is most desirable. 




In 1838 when Kentucky was passing legislation to provide for the establishment of 
a system of common schools, Massachusetts was establishing her first state school for 
the training of teachers. However, the first Superintendent of Public Instruction in 
Kentucky, the Rev. Joseph J. Bullock, asked the General Assembly in 1839 to estab- 
lish a school or schools for the training of teachers, saying that "in those countries 
where education has been carried to the greatest perfection, schools for teachers have 
formed an important feature in their systems, and with the best results." But Mr. 
Bullock's plea went unheeded by the State Legislature. 

Every Superintendent from 1838 to 1906 pled, begged, implored the General As- 
semblies to establish normal schools. Even the brilliant Dr. Robert J. Breckinridge 
speaking with logic and eloquence, "with the power to move mountains," pled in vain. 
In 1856 when Transylvania University was given to the Legislature — money, equipment, 
faculty, library, all — to be converted into a state normal school, the General Assembly 
accepted reluctantly and made an appropriation only after it was discovered that no 
sensible argument against doing so could be found. "No school of similar character 
in this country ever commenced . . . under such favorable auspices . . . (yet) the day 
of its birth was the day of its manhood." Even though the school was surpassingly 
successful and promised a brilliant success in the future, the next General Assembly 
with wanton recklessness, demolished their school for teachers by repealing the previous 
act, and the friends of public education were plunged into grief once more. 

In 1859, Robert Richardson, Superintendent of Public Instruction, said to the Legis- 
lature, "Teaching is a profession and, like other professions, must be learned in schools 
of a higher grade. ... In deep conviction that schools for teachers are necessary, I 
recommend them. . . . Established they must be. We should provide Kentucky teachers 
for Kentucky youths, to guard against that degeneracy and decline which will always 
threaten us without them."* This recommendation, like others, went unheeded. 
Legislators were uninterested. The people were apathetic, and the private schools, 
which profited by helping to kill all movements for the state normal schools, were 
actively arrayed against such institutions, both at home and at Frankfort. 

In 1880 the Normal School Department of the Agricultural and Mechanical College 
at Lexington was authorized. "The atmosphere of this institution was not conducive 
to develop trained teachers," and it failed to reach any considerable number of 
teachers. But the teachers of the department did noble work with what they had. 

By 1880 there were many private normal schools, some little better than "old field" 
schools and some much better — fine schools with able teachers. Perhaps the out- 
standing private normal school in Kentucky at that time was Southern Normal School, 
established at Glasgow and moved to Bowling Green in the fall of 1884. This institu- 
tion at Bowling Green was known as the Southern Normal School and Business College. 
The school after a trying decade was reorganized by two remarkable school men, the 
Cherry brothers, H. H. and T. C, and chartered as the Bowling Green Business 
College and Literary Institute. After a few years T. C. Cherry became superintendent 
of the city school of Bowling Green, in which capacity he has enjoyed a long, honorable 
and distinguished career. Henry Hardin Cherry continued as head of the reorganized 
Southern Normal School until he became President of the Western Kentucky State 
Normal School. So remarkable was H. H. Cherry's career in the training of men 
and women that no history of education of Kentucky would be complete without de- 
voting a chapter to his life and achievements. 

Born in Warren County, Kentucky, one of numerous children, Henry Hardin Cherry 


somehow was too restless and ambitious to remain a farm boy. He appeared in 
Bowling Green as a lad selling the products of the farm — a slender awkward lad with 
long dark hair, yet with strong chin and determined mouth and grey eyes bright with 
energy and intelligence. A restless, nervous lad who seemed to have a dream and a 
vision. After a few months at the Southern Normal School at Glasgow, H. H. Cherry 
knew that it was in the vast world of education that his boundless energy was to be 
unloosed. And in a short time he was at Bowling Green salvaging the wreckage of 
a shipwrecked school; with not the least doubt but that success would come. "He was 
ever a fighter — always one fight more. . . . While he did not fight with a sword, his 
office reverberated with the spiritual approximations of martial thunder. . . . Ever a 
fighter!" He opened his school at Bowling Green in 1892 with twenty-eight students. 
"The teachers taught and starved and waited, but that slender student body merely 
signaled the president to go into action. He did. He drove his buggy into every 
hamlet in West Central Kentucky. He represented to young men and women whom 
he met by the way or called upon in their homes the overwhelming and utter desira- 
bility of attending the Southern Normal School. His eyes glowed, and his voice burned 
with the zeal of the crusade. It was a contagious zeal, and those twenty-eight grew 
and grew. . . . Every time the tuition bulged ahead a bit, he put in another table or 
hired another teacher, or tapped another precinct in Louisiana. Anything to push the 
Normal's radius out a bit. All this time his brother, T. C, was teaching with might 
and main and voice and gesture those whom H. H. brought in. . . . J. R. Alexander 
. . . came back to his classroom at the Normal . . . Lewis Harman, the institution's 
understudy in penmanship, was performing feats of lyric sweetness with his pen. 
Seven o'clock in the morning found students reciting in the classrooms. Classes were 
still in action until ten that night."' All of H. H. Cherry's money was invested in 
that school. That school was his work, his life, his future. Then in November, 1899, 
came the fire destroying everything. It was a sad Henry Hardin Cherry who viewed 
the remains of years of hard work. It was a test of the man's character. 

But Henry Hardin was not whipped. He determined to build the greatest normal 
school in the South. The citizens of Bowling Green "yielded their cooperation under 
the spell of the magic of the young president's desperate enthusiasm."' And came 
a season of prosperity. 

Gradually the conception of the state's obligation to train its teachers gained focus. 
H. H. Cherry, an individualist, always sensed the potency of organized action. He 
perhaps more than any other man helped to achieve that focus. He was for forty- 
five years an active member of the K. E. A. Twice he was its president, and for two 
decades he was a director. The Association, meeting in Maysville in 1904, took formal 
notice of the state's educational situation in its resolutions. The next meeting, held 
at Mammoth Cave, June, 1905, projected the Kentucky Education Improvement Com- 
mission. Dr. Cherry was one of the five members of the Commission's Executive Com- 
mittee. Then began a campaign, the equal of which the state had not witnessed to that 
time, for the establishment of state normal schools for the better training of Kentucky's 
teachers. For a century while other states had forged ahead in education, Kentucky's 
state superintendents, and friends of public education, had pled to the legislature and 
to the people to establish state normal schools, but they had pled in vain. This time 
the friends of public education, realizing that Kentucky's children had been for a 
century starved and cheated and that, consequently, the state was suffering while 
other states forged ahead; these friends made doubly courageous by a realization that 
they were fighting for the honor and glory of Kentucky, fighting against the selfish 
mechanizations of pseudo-patriots who had throttled the Commonwealth's progress for 


generations — these friends entered the battle for state supported institutions for teacher 
training. It became a holy crusade. Poor teachers' organizations raised money. Many 
laymen spoke and wrote, and teachers worked unceasingly. They told the sad but 
challenging truth that Kentucky was one of the two states of the Union that did 
not maintain a system of state normal schools, that there were only three states of 
the Union that showed a greater percentage of ignorance among their white population, 
that less than one-half of her pupil children were attending any school whatever, that 
Kentucky was not keeping pace with other states of the South in the great educational 
move sweeping the country, and that public sentiment on educational matters was at 
a very low ebb.'" J Rice Eubank and Tom Vinson devoted the columns of the Southern 
School Journal to the campaign. Two distinguished laymen, Judge M. C. Saufley, 
of Stanford, and Judge W. M. Beckner, of Winchester, wrote and spoke as heroically 
as the enlightened patriots of any land. Judge Beckner wrote: "If it be conceded that 
properly prepared teachers are necessary to the proper organization of a school system 
in Kentucky, the question of normal schools is no longer one of policy. The Legisla- 
ture has no discretion in the matter. Our new constitution declares that the 'General 
Assembly shall by appropriate legislation provide for an efficient system of common 
schools throughout the state.' Can the system be 'efficient' when its chief cornerstone 
has been left out?" Newspapers and magazines issued broadside after broadside; 
speakers took the stump; members of the General Assembly were swamped with 
memorials. James H. Fuqua, Superintendent of Public Instruction, seldom rested. 
H. H. Cherry's "eleven hundred" sent a petition. 

Hon. Richard W. Miller, Representative from Madison County, introduced the bill 
to establish the state normal schools. Then began righteus lobbying. Hon. Jere A. 
Sullivan, Hon. Rodes Shackelford, and Judge Anthony R. Burnam came to Frankfort 
from Richmond. Judge Louis McQuown and H. H. Cherry came from Bowling Green; 
Judge John M. Lassing from Covington. Governor J. C. W. Beckham was favorable. 
The bill passed; it provided for two state normal schools. Richmond and Bowling 
Green were selected as the sites. The noble educator, Rurick Neville Roark, was 
chosen president of the Eastern Kentucky State Normal School at Richmond and 
H. H. Cherry of Western Kentucky State Normal School at Bowling Green. The 
great battle had been won, after a century of desperate fighting. All hail to those who 
refused to be beaten! 

At Bowling Green on the Hill the years came and passed. Each year something 
new was begun and something was completed on the old Hill. Thousands of lives were 
quickened when they came, and the thousands who left went to hundreds of commu- 
nities throughout the Southland to impart the larger vision to the thousands of others. 
The day came when the Hill was crowned with magnificent structures of steel, brick 
and marble. 

On a beautiful June day when the air was sweet with the fragrance from trees and 
blossoms and flowers, hundreds of bright, eager young people, their faces radiant with 
health, intelligence and ambition waited in the Chapel. It was commencement day. 
On the stage, dignified, impressive, stood the well-known and beloved man, Henry 
Hardin Cherry. The light shining through the windows revealed his fine, strong 
patrician features; a bit grey, a bit sad, but the chin and mouth were still strong and 
noble and the eyes were bright. His work was almost finished. He had fought the 
good fight; he had ever been a fighter, and he had won. He had found thousands 
struggling blindly at the foot of the "Hill" and had helped them to the top — there to 
find life. He stood for a moment looking into the eager young faces. Perhaps his 
thoughts went back a half century when the old Hill was a wilderness. Perhaps he 


thought of his early struggle to get an education. Now the Hill was full. No longer 
would the struggle be so hard. His countenance lighted, and he began talking the 
same simple words of wisdom, but words which those who have heard will never forget. 
He was not merely talking to the students of Western, but to all the teachers' colleges: 

' r My boy, give good measure.' These are the words of a noble father when he 
spoke to his boy who had gathered a load of apples and was ready to start to market 
to sell them. He took a half-bushel pail and filled it to the rim and told the boy that 
was not good measure. He put on apples until they were above the rim and rolled 
off, at the same time admonishing the boy to give that kind of measure. 'That other 
thing' is the thing above the rirn. It is the plus of the soul. It is the plus in demo- 
cratic education and in democracy. It is the plus in the life of every great teacher. It 
is the spirit of good measure and a square deal that holds the civic, social, and indus- 
trial world together and gives every human being a chance to live, a chance to grow, 
and an opportunity to enjoy the blessings of life. It makes the home, builds and 
maintains the church, supports the schools, establishes libraries, endows hospitals, 
feeds the hungry, and promotes every effort that advances humanity." 

The normal schools and teachers' colleges have not only improved teaching in Ken- 
tucky, but they have made possible college attendance of thousands who otherwise could 
not have advanced above high school graduation. Although they have brought the 
vision of greater service, of fuller scholarship, of the more abundant life to thousands, 
their work has just begun. 


Following the glorious period of Transylvania during which time Dr. Holley was 
president, higher education in Kentucky slipped from the control of the state to 
religious denominations. The last quarter of the eighteenth and first half of the 
nineteenth centuries were years in which the people of the various religious denomina- 
tions took the tenets of their sects as among the most serious things in life, and any 
change in an educational institution which might smack slightly of a departure from 
a particular sect's belief would cause that body to busy itself with plans for building 
an educational institution more to its liking. Thus the Presbyterians, who had been 
largely instrumental in establishing Transylvania Seminary and University, because 
of a slight departure from accepted Presbyterian policy, secured, in 1819, a charter 
for Centre College. Although a state school at first, Centre College was taken over by 
the Presbyterian Synod of Kentucky in 1830, and then began that long period of 
distinction which has made Centre College respected at home and honored abroad. 
This small ivy-covered college of the Youngs and the Breckinridges has had a history 
more unique in some respects than any college in the nation. But the other denomina- 
tional colleges — Georgetown, St. Joseph's, St. Mary's, Transylvania, and Wesleyan — 
are to be accorded high praise for noble service and for a rich production of distin- 
guished men. And to this group of colleges, distinguished for meritorious service, 
may be added the name Berea — a school founded upon the idea of complete freedom, 
democracy and opportunity. The day will never come in Kentucky when Kentuckians 
will cease to honor and revere the great names — Young, Breckinridge, Green, Flaget, 
Priestly, Batson, Weber, Malcolm, Campbell, Dudley, Fee, Rogers, Frost, Bowman, 
McGarry and the hundreds of distinguished men who caught their inspiration from 

After many vicissitudes during which she was buffeted between State Legislature and 
religious denominations, Transylvania passed in 1865 to the control of the Disciples 
of Christian Church, and seemingly the restless, fitful idea of a great state university 


passed into a quiet and long sleep. Alas, Kentucky legislatures, that they had been 
so niggardly, so unkind. Noble Transylvania! Conceived by our beloved mother, 
Virginia, and dedicated by the daring pioneers who had conquered the wilderness. 
Transylvania, where bloomed the genius of Dudley and matured the talents of Holley, 
in whose classic halls had echoed the fire of Bascom and the eloquence of Clay. Here 
was the most magnificent university of the West; starved to an early decline by 
unsympathetic legislatures and sectarian strife and cut oif an orphan to be taken in 
by a kindly church. May Kentuckians of future generations study the story and never 
cease to revere noble Transylvania. 

The idea of a state college revived somewhat following the passage of the Morrell 
Act by the Federal Government in 1862. By this act Kentucky was the beneficiary of 
330,000 acres of land. Yet the state authorities showed neither an appreciation for 
the possibilities of a great state institution of higher learning nor business acumen, 
because the new Agricultural and Mechanical College made possible by the nation's 
generous grant, was established as one of the colleges of Kentucky University at 
Lexington, a denominational school recently transferred from Harrodsburg and united 
with Transylvania, and the huge grant of land was disposed of for $165,000. An 
amount per acre of almost fifty cents less than the minimum price per acre fixed by 
the Federal Government in 1785 and 1787. This shameful disposal of land for a 
mere pittance was as deplorable as the wanton dissipation of the old seminary grants. 
The apostasy of numerous political servants to education through the course of Ken- 
tucky's history looms large in practically every chapter. 

From 1865, the date of the founding of the A. and M. College, there was factional 
strife until in 1878 the General Assembly severed the connection with Kentucky 
University, appointing a commission to re-locate the college. "Kentucky University 
claiming and retaining the former site of the college; the sole property of the latter 
after the severance was an income of $9,900 derived from the land grant."' 

The city of Lexington offered inducements for the location of the college and in 
1880 it was permanently located in that city. The same year a Normal Department 
was added to the college and a general tax of one-half cent on each hundred dollars 
of assessed value of all property in the state liable to taxation and belonging to white 
inhabitants was levied for the support of this state school. In 1880 also were added 
the Classical Department and the Academy. 

About this time there burst into flame embers which had smoldered and burned at 
intervals for a century. It was the old controversy between the friends of denomina- 
tional-controlled institutions of higher learning and the friends of a state system of 
higher education. President James K. Patterson of the A. and M. College, feeling that 
his program for the expansion of his school to a state university was being thwarted 
by the partisans of the denominational colleges, published a letter in the Courier- 
Journal, December 11, 1881, stating very strongly the issue, presenting his program, 
and indicting the influences which impeded progress to a great state university. Dr. 
Patterson's dream was to build from the modest beginning of the A. and M. College 
a university at public expense — a university to prepare men for every calling and pro- 
fession of life, including "Law, medicine and theology." A school for every young 
man of the state, whether rich or poor, who desired an education. He envisaged an 
institution of higher learning comparable to Harvard. Yet he was conscious that in- 
fluences were working at the General Assembly to deprive his college even of the small 
appropriation which was necessary for bare existence, and conscious, too, of the fact 
that reports were being spread about indicting him as an enemy of the clergy and of 
the forces of righteousness — and there were thousands who were ready to believe. 


Fortunately, fighting on the side of Dr. Patterson was that picturesque Kentuckian, 
Henry Watterson, and in and out in fair weather and foul were those champions of 
state-supported education, Judge William M. Beckner and Judge W. T. Lafferty. 

In spite of heart-breaking obstacles Dr. Patterson was not defeated. Year after 
year the appropriations increased, the national government helped; the school grew. 

At this point the author feels that the story of the development and progress of 
the University of Kentucky should be carried forward by the eminent educator, Dr. 
M. E. Yigon, of the College of Education of the University. Dr. Ligon has written 
an excellent sketch of that school's history. A large part of that sketch is here quoted 

b» 59 


The reorganization of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Kentucky as the 
State University is significant in the history of education in Kentucky. First, the 
reorganization was coincident with the reorganization of the state public school system 
and the establishment of rural high schols in every county. Second, it marked the 
close of the educational career of President Patterson. Third, the state had established 
two normal schools in 1906. Fourth, the violent opposition of the private colleges to 
the support of the college by the state had almost disappeared. 

The transition of the Agricultural and Mechanical College to the status of a state 
university was gradual. The University was administered by a board of trustees in 
the same manner as the college had been, in fact, by the same persons. Changes in 
the constituency of the board were made from time to time in much the same way as 
they had been made during the life of the college. In 1916, when the name of State 
University was changed to the University of Kentucky, the commissioner of agriculture 
and seven members of the State Board of Agriculture were made members of the board 
of trustees. In 1918 the president of the institution and the seven members of the 
State Board of Agriculture were dropped from the list of members ex officio, leaving 
the governor, the superintendent of public instruction, and the commissioner of agri- 
culture as members ex officio. Six additional members were added to a board of fifteen 
in 1914. The board was reduced to fifteen members in 1916 and further reduced to 
twelve in 1918. In 1914 the number of alumni on the board was increased from four 
to six members. In 1916 the number of appointive members was fixed at fifteen of 
which one-fifth were to be appointed from persons who had attended the institution. 
In 1918 the number of appointive members was reduced to twelve, of which one-fourth 
must be alumni. The length of term for appointive members was six years. The board 
in 1922 was composed of the governor, the superintendent of public instruction, and 
the commissioner of agriculture as members ex officio and twelve citizens of the state. 
Four members were to be appointed each biennium for a term of six years. One of the 
four must be a member of the State Board of Agriculture, one an alumnus of the 
institution and two distinguished citizens. 

In 1915 the number of board members constituting the executive committee was 
increased to seven, three of whom were to be graduates of the institution. This 
number was reduced to five in 1918. The functions of the executive committee con- 
tinued to be about the same as they had been in the administration of the Agricultural 
and Mechanical College. 

On June 4, 1908, President Patterson delivered the commencement address of the 
University. In that address he gave a very good overview of the institution at that 
time, as follows: 

The city and county gave the grounds and the money in 1880 for the erection of buildings. 
Since then additional buildings have been added, until now, instead of two, there are fourteen 
buildings upon the college campus, with the prospect of two more during the present biennial 
period. The equipment for mechanical and electrical engineering is the best south of the 


Ohio River. The departments of chemistry, physics, botany, biology, geology, anatomy, and 
physiology, languages ancient and modern, meta-physics, ethics and physical culture, are second 
to none in the South. The faculty of instruction numbers nearly fifty persons. The heads of 
departments rank among the ablest in the country, while the majority of the assistants are 
developing a talent for instruction, which places them in the line of promotion. In the mean- 
time, 250 acres of land have been bought for experimental purposes, representing an actual 
outlay of about $100,000, and an actual present valuation of a£>out $130,000. The college 
campus, with buildings and equipment, represents about $850,000. 

The work of the reorganization of the Agricultural and Mechanical College took 
place during the spring and summer of 1908. The several departments were grouped 
and each group was designated as a college. The liberal arts subjects were continued 
in one college, which was rechristened the College of Arts and Sciences. John Henry 
Neville, Professor of Greek and Latin, was appointed the first Dean. The departments 
of agriculture were brought together as the College of Agriculture under the direction 
of Clarence W. Mathews, Professor of horticulture and botany, as Dean. The subjects 
of civil engineering were grouped as the College of Civil Engineering, and Walter E. 
Rowe was appointed Dean. F. Paul Anderson was made Dean of the College of 
Mechanical and Electrical Engineering. A College of Mining Engineering was organ- 
ized and Charles J. Norwood was appointed Dean. The General Assembly in the Act 
of 1908 gave the department of education collegiate rank. Dr. L. F. Snow was made 
Dean of this department, but it does not appear that a separate college was organized. 
Judge W. T. Lafferty, a member of the board of trustees and a practicing lawyer of 
Cynthiana, was appointed Dean of the new College of Law. The State Experiment 
Station was changed very little by the reorganization. These colleges and the Station 
will be discussed briefly in the following pages. 

In his report to the General Assembly for the biennium, 1907-09, President Patterson 
pointed out the functions of the University, as follows: 

Since the college has become a university, it may be well to inquire what the distinction 
between college and university work may be. Stated in general terms, the function of the 
college is to teach, the function of the university is to discover. Collegiate instruction consists 
mainly in communicating to students the contents of knowledge or discovery verified and ac- 
cepted. The function of the university, on the other hand, is to extend the boundaries of human 
knowledge, to proceed from the known to the unknown, using the former as the basis for the 
discovery of truth. Research then may be described as the characteristic of university work, 
but under existing conditions, in all the universities of America, except Johns Hopkins, collegiate 
work is carried on concurrently with university work proper. Freshman, Sophomore, Junior 
and Senior classes are maintained, but after undergraduate courses have been completed, those 
who elect to remain enter upon university work proper. 

The special work then of the University is to uplift and to develop the educational interests 
of the Commonwealth. The inspiration must come from above, not from below. The aim 
of the University is and must be to improve and to perfect as far as practicable the high 
schools of the Commonwealth, and through them to improve the education of the common 
schools. An improved common school will therefore be the guarantee of a well-developed 
and well-equipped high school, and a high school well organized, with a high standard of 
graduation will provide annually in increasing numbers a large supply of well-equipped 
matriculates for collegiate and university work. 

These are fitting words with which President Patterson closed his last report to the 
General Assembly. He had rounded out forty years as president of the college that 
had been and of the University that was to be. He was in his seventy-eighth year at 
the time of writing this report. In June, 1909, some months preceding this report, he 
had given notice to the board of trustees of his intention to retire. There is no note 
of sadness or regret in his report. It is in the same vigorous and comprehensive style 
of his former reports. He gave a vision of what the University was to become with 
a clarity that leads the reader to feel that the grand old President was to have a part 
in its consummation. 

President Patterson retired from the activities of the presidency on January 15, 1910. 


James G„ White, Professor of Mathematics and Physics since 1880, was made acting 
president and served in this capacity from January, 1910, to January, 1911. In his 
communication of June, 1909, to the board, announcing his intention to retire, Presi- 
dent Patterson described the type of man whom he preferred to have succeed him. 
This description follows: 

I should like to see selected a man abler than myself, well educated, with a mind sym- 
metrically developed, not a specialist in any direction, but a man of views sufficiently large 
to promote the growth of the institution along co-extensive lines, giving due and proper 
encouragement to every department and every college of the University, yet showing special 
favor to none. I should like my successor to be a man of proved executive and administrative 
ability, of good personal presence, prolific in thought and facile in expression, able to defend 
th'e institution from whatever point assailed and able to take aggressive measures in its 
behalf, without unnecessarily ruffling the susceptibilities of those whom he opposes. He should, 
moreover, be a man of high moral character, with a reverent attitude toward things sacred and 
divine, not necessarily a churchman, but in sympathy with the religious beliefs and aspirations 
of Christianity. 

The board appointed a committee composed of Henry S. Barker, Claude B. Terrell, 
Tibbis Carpenter, Richard C. Stoll, and President Patterson to recommend a successor. 
Later Dr. Henry S. Pritchett, President of the Carnegie Foundation, was asked to 
assist the committee in finding a successor to President Patterson. On February 3, 1910, 
the board elected Judge Henry S. Barker, one of their own number, President of the 
University. At the time of his election, Judge Barker was a member of the Court of 
Appeals of Kentucky. He was fifty-nine years old and had practiced law since 1874. 
He had held successively the offices of city attorney of Louisville, Judge of Jefferson 
County Circuit Court, and Judge of the Court of Appeals of Kentucky. He had 
been a member of the board of trustees for eleven years, and had been considered a 
faithful and outstanding friend of the University. 

The election of Judge Barker distressed President Patterson. They had been warm 
friends for many years, but President Patterson could not reconcile himself to the fact 
that a university man had not been chosen for the presidency. In a letter to Governor 
Augustus Willson, prior to Judge Barker's election, he gave his frank opinion of 
Judge Barker's qualifications for the office, as follows: 

He is not a graduate of any institution — either college or university — and this, in my opinion, 
constitutes an essential disqualification for the office. . . . He has had no experience whatever 
in collegiate or university organization or administration. Nowadays, men who aspire to high 
positions in educational institutions have, without exception, so far as known to me, been gradu- 
ates of colleges or universities of high standing; they have done graduate work at some 
institution such as Harvard, Columbia, Johns Hopkins or Princeton; and, in addition thereto, 
they have spent years abroad in order to qualify themselves for responsible positions in Uni- 
versity life. Moreover, they have, almost without exception, risen through assistant professor- 
ships, headships of departments and deans of courses of study to the headship of a University. 
These qualifications, you will readily see, are wholly lacking in Judge Barker; and in my 
estimation, no other qualities, however excellent, can compensate for the lack of these. 

The election of Judge Barker was the beginning of an estrangement between these 
friends that was never repaired. Upon his retirement President Patterson was made 
President Emeritus with the honor of sitting as a member of the board of trustees 
without the right to vote. Furthermore, he was permitted to occupy the president's 
house on the campus. These intimate contacts gave President Emeritus Patterson an 
advantageous position for observing the work of his successor. He was in intimate 
contact with members of the faculty, some of whom imparted to him the administrative 
policies of Judge Barker. The campus gossip resulting from this intimate critical 
evaluation of the new president and his policies tended to develop an unhealthy internal 
administrative atmosphere which was stifling. 

Judge Barker's experience had been obtained in the field of law as it applied to the 


problems of society. This experience had developed in him traits of magnanimity, 
generosity, charitableness, justice, and democracy found in few administrators. He 
assumed office January 1, 1911. At once he placed all administrative officers at ease 
by delegating to them authority to carry forward the work of their offices unmolested. 
This policy was in direct opposition to the policy of President Patterson. The officers 
became intoxicated by their new freedom. Jealousies developed between departments, 
between colleges, and among individuals. The president's generosity and his lack of 
experience in dealing with these university problems prevented his coordinating the 
internal administrative and instructional forces of the University into one great whole. 

The administration of President Barker is not marked by any outstanding accomplish- 
ments. The income of the University remained practically the same throughout this 
period. The total number of students increased from 803 in 1911 to 1,445 in 1916. 
During this same period the faculty increased from 72 to 100 members. An addition 
to the Experiment Station building was completed. The academy or preparatory school 
was abolished, and college entrance was fixed at fifteen Carnegie units earned in an 
accredited secondary school. The name of the institution was changed in 1916 from 
State University, Lexington, Kentucky, to University of Kentucky. Agricultural Ex- 
tension Work received great impetus by the passage of the Smith-Lever Act by the 
Federal Congress. . . . The registrar's office and the business office were expanded and 
developed in accord with modern practices in university administration. 

President Barker was unable to develop a smooth-working organization of the Uni- 
versity. Discontent among the alumni, the student body, and the general public de- 
veloped toward the administration. The discontent became so great that the board of 
trustees passed a resolution in December, 1916, authorizing the chairman to appoint a 
committee of non-resident trustees to investigate the causes of discontent and the ex- 
pediency of consolidating the colleges of mechanical and civil engineering. The scope 
of the investigation was to include the Experiment Station and the University proper. 
The committee employed Dr. Kendrick C. Babcock, Dean of the College of Liberal 
Arts and Sciences at the University of Illinois, Dr. Thomas F. Kane, President of 
Olivet College, and Charles M. McConn, Registrar of the University of Illinois, to 
make the investigation. This commission completed its work during the spring of 1917, 
and the committee under whose direction the investigation had been made reported the 
findings and recommendations to the board in June, 1917. 

The survey report was thorough and frank in stating the conditions of the adminis- 
tration and organization of the University. It covered such subjects as administrative 
policies, internal organization, academic standards, the faculty, efficiency in adminis- 
tration, and the University in its relation to the state. The recommendations were 
concise, clear, and unequivocal. The report covered the personnel, appointments, legis- 
lation, plans for the campus, the Peabody fund, administration, publication of the 
board's minutes, the plant, and the executive committee. All of the recommendations 
of this report were adopted except the one relating to the immediate removal from the 
campus of President Patterson, President Emeritus. 

The first recommendation of this report called for the retirement of President Barker. 
This recommendation was based not upon the mistakes of the president in his admin- 
istration but upon the things he had left undone. 

And the reason he has omitted to do the things he has left undone is because he did not see 
what needed to be done. Being outside his own field, he could not interpret situations or 
handle them. . . . 

We feel distinctly that Judge Barker has been grievously sinned against in this matter. So 
far as we can learn he did not seek the position in any way, but on the contrary persistently 
disclaimed either desire of fitness for it, and resisted for many months the pressure brought 


upon him by misguided friends to accept it. He has brought to an impossible situation — that of 
being the captain of a ship without ever having studied navigation — a largeness of soul, a 
devotion to his duty so far as he was able to see it, a loyalty to his friends and a charity for 
his enemies which are beyond praise. He has, moreover, a charm of personality that makes 
scores of people who now believe he should retire regard him nevertheless with sincere affection. 
He has succeeded but meagerly in the impossible task which he understood ; but if he has failed, 
it is with honor. 

This report recommended further that the chairman of the board of trustees be 
authorized and directed to appoint a committee consisting of four members of the board 
and three of the University faculty to nominate a new president. This committee was 
to consider such professional qualifications as had been specified in the report. 

In response to this recommendation Governor A. O. Stanley, Chairman of the board 
of trustees, appointed Richard C. Stoll of Lexington, Frank M. McKee of Versailles, 
J. Irvine Lyle of New York, and Robert G. Gordon of Louisville, members of the 
board, to serve on the committee to nominate a president. The faculties of the College 
of Arts and Sciences, the College of Agriculture, and the College of Engineering elected 
Paul P. Boyd, George Roberts, and W. E. Freeman, respectively, to places on this 
committee. Mr. Stoll served as chairman. This committee entered upon its duties at 
once and presented its report to the board of trustees August 15, 1917. The committee 
recommended unanimously Dr. Frank LeRond McVey, President of the University of 
North Dakota, as a suitable person for the presidency of the University of Kentucky. 
The report of the committee was adopted unanimously by the board. 

On July 18, 1917, the executive committee of the board of trustees elected Dr. Paul 
Boyd, Head of the Department of Mathematics, Dean of the College of Arts and 
Sciences. He was "empowered to act as Chief Executive of the University in the 
absence of President Barker, and that he exercise all powers and perform all duties 
imposed upon the President during such absence, but the said executive powers hereby 
conferred shall cease upon the installation of a regular successor to President Henry S. 
Barker." He served in the capacity outlined in this section until September 14, 1917. 
He carried on the correspondence of the office of president, completed the faculty for 
1917-18, assisted the several deans in the solution of their problems, planned for the 
opening of school in September, supervised the registration of students, and per- 
formed the duties of his office as Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences. 

Dr. McVey accepted the presidency of the University and assumed the duties of 
that office on September 14, 1917. He possessed in a splendid way the qualifications 
outlined by the report of the Survey Commission. He had attended the public schools 
of Toledo, Ohio, and Des Moines, Iowa. He had earned his baccalaureate degree at 
Ohio Wesleyan University, and pursued his graduate work at Yale University where 
he had earned the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in 1895. At Yale he had specialized 
in the field of economics. In 1910 Ohio Wesleyan had conferred upon him the degree 
of Doctor of Laws. He had served one year, 1895-96, as instructor in history, Teachers 
College, Columbia University. From 1896 to 1907 he had been instructor, assistant 
professor, and professor of economics in the University of Minnesota. In 1907 he had 
resigned his position in the University to become the first chairman of the State Tax 
Commission in Minnesota. In 1909 he had been elected president of the University 
of North Dakota, in which capacity he had served until he came to the presidency of 
the State University of Kentucky. 

In addition to his training and experience, Dr. McVey was a member of the principal 
learned societies and associations of America in his fields of work. In several of these 
he had served as the presiding officer or secretary. He was author of many magazine 
articles and several books. Prior to his coming to Kentucky, his best known works 


were the Populist Movement, published in 1896; History and Government of Minne- 
sota, 1901; Modern Industrialism, 1904; Transportation, 1910; The Making of a Town, 
1913; Economics of Business, 1917. At the time of his coming to Kentucky he had 
in course of preparation The Financial History of Great Britain, which was completed 
in 1918. He brought to the presidency of the University scholarly attainment and a 
broad, thorough knowledge of university problems. 

The board of trustees was committed to the policies embodied in the report of the 
Survey Commission. Dr. McVey's task was to reduce these policies to administrative 
machinery. He began his work by leading the faculty in the construction and adoption 
of a constitution for the University. This constitution outlined the organization of 
the University; defined the duties of the president; designated the constituency of the 
council, senate, and assembly, and denned the duties of the deans, the faculties of 
the several colleges, and of the departmental staffs. The duties of the Dean of Men, 
the Dean of Women, the Director of the Summer Session, the Dean of the Graduate 
School, the Registrar, the Business Agent, the Librarian, and the Superintendent of 
Buildings and Grounds were set out in some detail. The conditions of appointments, 
promotions, removals, terms of employment, tenure, and leave of absence were defined. 
This instrument enabled each member of the staff to orient himself with reference to 
every other member. This constitution was followed by a similar instrument prepared 
by the board of trustees for the organization and conduct of its business. These 
documents have been potent factors in the development of cooperation and good will 
among the entire staff of the University. 

The coming of Dr. McVey to the University marked the beginning of a period of 
expansion. This expansion has been symetrical along all lines. Funds for the support 
of the institution have been increased. Buildings have been added and the grounds 
have been landscaped. The number of students has increased four-fold. The staff 
has been nearly trebled. The graduate school has grown from a very small enrollment 
to 797 students. The number of volumes in the library has been more than trebled. 
The College of Education and the College of Commerce have been organized. 

The income of the University is drawn from the state, from the federal government, 
from tuition fees, and from miscellaneous sources. The state has provided for the 
support of the University by a property tax, a special tax, and special appropriations. 
The University has received a portion of the taxes derived from property since 1917. 
The amount from this source has increased from year to year as the property of the 
state has increased in value. Since the passage of the law levying a tax upon property 
transferred by inheritance, the University has received a definite portion of this tax. 
At present the University receives one-half of the taxes collected from this source. 
From time to time the General Assembly has made special appropriations to the Uni- 
versity for the purchase of lartd, the erection of buildings, and the purchase of equip- 

The federal government has assisted the state in the support of the University since 
it was established. The state had paid the University semi-annually six per cent on 
$165,000, the amount received from the sale of the land scrip appropriated by the 
federal government in 1862. The Hatch Act passed by the Federal Congress in 1887 
appropriated $15,000 annually for the purpose of assisting the state in the maintenance 
of the State Agricultural Experiment Station. This annual appropriation was increased 
in 1906. Further appropriations were made in the Smith-Lever Act of 1916 and the 
Smith-Hughes Act of 1917. 

A small tuition fee has been charged each year upon enrollment. The fee has been 
increased from time to time as the demands upon the resources of the University have 


increased. A small income annually has been received from miscellaneous sources. This 
amount has been derived from sales and service fees of the Experiment Station, gifts, 
and other minor sources. 

The buildings of the University have been erected from time to time as the need 
arose. They have been constructed of brick and trimmed with stone. In the beginning 
there was no comprehensive planning in the placement of buildings. The campus was 
spacious, and the first buildings were placed where they would appear to best advantage 
and where they would be most convenient at the time, without due consideration for 
the placement of future buildings. No uniform style of architecture was adopted. 
The whims of the architect and of others in authority are displayed in each building. 
The lack of plans for the placement of these buildings and of uniformity of design 
has made it difficult to landscape the campus in more recent years. About the best 
that can be said for these old buildings is that they are habitable. 

Eighteen buildings occupied the main campus in 1917 at the time the survey of the 
University was made. No superintendent of buildings and grounds had been provided. 
The Survey Commission recommended the appointment of such an officer. In accord- 
ance with this recommendation the board of trustees appointed A. O. Whipple of the 
University of North Dakota to this position. Mr. Whipple assumed the duties of his 
office April 1, 1918. The repair of buildings, the organization of the janitorial service, 
the improvement of the grounds, superintending the erection of new buildings, and the 
general oversight of the buildings and grounds were some of the major duties of this 
new department of the administration of the business of the University. Mr. Whipple 
continued in the service of the University until February 1, 1925. During his admin- 
istration five new buildings and the stadium were completed; one building was pur- 
chased; and two buildings were under construction at the time of his resignation. He 
was succeeded by Maury J. Crutcher. Mr. Crutcher has served the University to the 
present time. During his administration ten new buildings have been completed and one 
has been purchased; walks and driveways have been built; trees and shrubs have been 
planted. The Department of Buildings and Grounds has become an indispensable 
division of the administration of the University. 

The act establishing the Agricultural and Mechanical College restricted the num- 
ber of students who could enter the college to three properly prepared pupils for each 
representative in the General Assembly. In 1878 the appointments were further re- 
stricted to one pupil each year for each representative. These appointees received 
tuition, matriculation fees, room rent, fuel and lights, and traveling expenses. The 
plan of appointment was further modified in 1908. Each county in the state was 
entitled to select one or more students, one for every three thousand of the population 
and one for each fraction thereof over fifteen hundred, based on the official census. 
This method of making appointments always gave the college two groups of students — 
those receiving instruction free and those paying tuition. The provisions of the law 
of 1908 continued in operation until 1917 when the court declared the law unconstitu- 
tional. Since that time all students of the state have been admitted on the payment of 
a small incidental fee. This fee has become known as a payment of tuition. 

A need for advanced work leading to the master's degree was sensed by the faculty 
in 1879, and requirements were given for earning the degree. The administration of 
this advanced work was conducted by the faculty, guided by that member of the faculty 
under whom the candidate did his major work. This method of administering the work 
resulted eventually in the appointment of a graduate committee. In 1911 Professor 
Alexander St. Clair Mackenzie, Head of the Department of English, was appointed 
Dean of the Graduate School. The requirements for the master's degree were revised 


and requirements were set up for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Professor 
Mackenzie resigned from the faculty in 1916. After his resignation the work of the 
Graduate School was administered by a committee. In 1924 Dr. Edward Wiest was 
appointed Acting Dean of the Graduate School. He served in this capacity for one 
year. In 1925 Dr. W. D. Funkhouser was appointed Dean of the Graduate School, in 
which capacity he serves at the present time. In 1927 the University Senate recom- 
mended that graduate work leading to the degree of Doctor of Philosophy be offered 
in the fields of chemistry, education, economics, mathematics, physics, and psychology. 
Since that time the degree of Doctor of Philosophy has been granted to several can- 
didates. The enrollment in the graduate school has grown from 155 in 1924-25 to 625 
in 1930. The Graduate School is now on a good, sound basis and the work done in 
this school is equal to that done in other state universities. 

The development of the University library has been a slow process of evolution. 
There was no central library until 1909. Prior to this date the library facilities consisted 
of collections of books in the several departments of the institution. Small amounts 
of money were appropriated from time to time for the purchase of books. The books 
were not catalogued and there was no librarian. Such books as the several departments 
added were placed in offices or classrooms of the departments and used there. If books 
were lent, they were dispensed by professors. United States Government documents 
were placed in the administrative offices in the Administration Building. This method 
of administering the library continued until 1909. 

In 1906 Mr. Andrew Carnegie gave the University $20,000 with which to erect a 
library building on the campus. In June, 1907, Mr. Carnegie made an additional gift 
of $6,500, making a grand total of $26,500. The building was completed and dedi- 
cated on November 24, 1909. Dr. Henry S. Pritchett delivered the dedicatory address. 
The books belonging to the several departments were transferred to this building, and 
during the school year of 1912-13 the books were catalogued and the library service 
was organized. The Survey Committee of 1917 said: "Perhaps there is no part of 
the University where improvements are more urgently needed. In the first place the 
number of volumes for a university with the departments of work developed that are 
found at the University of Kentucky is very small, 15,000 volumes in the general 
library. At that time the annual appropriations to the library were between three and 
four thousand dollars annually. 

In 1917, when Dr. McVey became president, the number of volumes reported was 
36,201 and the amount expended that year was about $2,600. At once he enlarged the 
staff and increased the annual budget for the library. Under his encouragement the 
library outgrew the Carnegie library building. Plans for a new building were approved 
September 20, 1928. This building was completed during the spring of 1931 and was 
occupied in June of that year. It was formally dedicated October 23, 1931. Dr. 
John H. Finley, associate editor of the New York Times, delivered the dedicatory 

The new building and equipment cost approximately $450,000. Stacks give space for 
more than half a million books. Eighty-four cubicles for the use of faculty members 
and graduate students are located in the stacks. Five spacious reading rooms are pro- 
vided in this building, one each for the reference books, reserved books, periodicals, 
material for graduate students, and browsing room. The third floor consists of a 
mezzanine on the east side of the building. In this part of the building are located 
the classrooms, workrooms, and equipment for the classes in library science. On the 
fourth floor are located the graduate reading room and twelve seminar or conference 
rooms for use of graduate classes. Ample space throughout the building is provided for 


workrooms and offices for the administrative staff. This building is planned in such 
a manner that an addition may be made to it when the growth of the University 
requires it. The law library and the library of the Experiment Station are independent 
of the general library. 

A brief history of the University such as this chapter affords would not be complete 
without a brief account of the organization and administration of the Agricultural 
Experiment Station. In 1885 the executive committee of the board of trustees author- 
ized the establishment of an agricultural experiment station as a department of the 
Agricultural and Mechanical College. Professor Melville Amasa Scovell, Superin- 
tendent of the United States Experiment Station at Ottawa, Kansas, was elected di- 
rector of the Station and took up his duties in November of that year. He held the 
degrees of Bachelor and Master of Science from the University of Illinois. He came 
to Kentucky with good training and experience for his work, having served his alma 
mater as instructor, assistant professor, and professor from 1875 to 1884. 

He organized the work of the Station in the basement of the Administration Building, 
then the only classroom building on the campus. Analyses of fertilizers, milks, waters, 
feeds, and soils were some of the first services planned by the Station. In April, 1886, 
Governor J. Proctor Knott approved an act of the General Assembly for the regulation 
of the sale of fertilizers. This act recognized the Experiment Station established by 
the Agricultural and Mechanical College as the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment 
Station. Since that time the Experiment Station of the college and the Kentucky 
Agricultural Experiment Station have been one and the same station. In 1889 the 
first Experiment Station building was completed and occupied. The work was carried- 
forward in this building for a period of sixteen years. In 1905 a new building was 
completed and occupied. Seven years later an addition to this building was erected. 
The work of the Station at this time is conducted in this building. Professor Scovell 
directed the work of the Station until his death in 1912, a period of twenty-seven years. 
He saw the work grow from modest beginnings in the basement of the administration 
building to an organization of nine departments. 

Dr. Scovell was succeeded by Dr. Joseph Hoeing Kastle, Head of the Department 
of Chemical Research of the Station. He was an alumnus of the Agricultural and 
Mechanical College, and had earned the Doctor's degree at Johns Hopkins University. 
His administration was cut short by his death in 1916. Upon the death of Dr. 
Kastle, Professor Alfred M. Peters, Chief Chemist of the Department of Chemistry, 
was made acting director of the Station, and served in this capacity until January 1, 
1918. He was succeeded by Thomas Poe Cooper, Director of the Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station of North Dakota. Mr. Cooper has served continuously in this capacity 
until the present time. Under his administration the Station has extended its influence 
throughout the state to all phases of production on the farm. 

In the course of its development the Station has acquired a farm of 562.5 acres 
adjoining the main campus of the University. This land is used for the production 
of crops and for experimentation in soil management, in crop production, in horticulture, 
in poultry, in the production of livestock, in dairying, and in storing and marketing. 
For these purposes the farm is equipped with modern farm machinery, buildings, and 
appliances for carrying forward the work of the Station. The farm has buildings, 
valued at $450,582, adapted to its needs. These buildings contain equipment and stored 
materials valued at $92,023. The land was formerly in the suburban area of Lexington, 
but is now almost surrounded by residential sections of the city. 

Research, teaching, and extension are the three major divisions of the activities of 
the Station. Under the Act of the General Assembly authorizing the reorganization 


of the college as a university, the College of Agriculture was organized in 1908. The 
administration of this college was placed in the hands of a dean separate and distinct 
from the director of the Station. The primary function of the college was the organ- 
ization and teaching of curricula in agriculture, and that of the Station was research 
and extension. It became apparent that under this plan of organization the best results 
could not be obtained. In order that there might be unity of purpose and of cooperation 
in agricultural instruction, the College of Agriculture was placed under the administra- 
tion of the Director of the Station. Since that time the administrative officer of the 
agricultural division of the University has been known as the Director of the Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station and the Dean of the College of Agriculture. Under this 
plan of organization the Director of the Station can administer the whole program of 
agricultural education to the advantage of all members of the staff, the students, and 
the citizens of the state. Some members of the staff teach in the college, some conduct 
research in the laboratories of the Station, and others work in both divisions. This ar- 
rangement places the experimental farm and all of its equipment at the disposal of all 
members of the staff. 

Since the coming of Dr. McVey to the University, two colleges have been organized. 
The College of Education was organized in 1923. The history of this college is treated 
elsewhere in this narrative. The College of Commerce was organized in 1925. Dr. 
Edward Wiest, then Acting Dean of the Graduate School and Head of the Department 
of Economics and Sociology, was made Dean, in which capacity he still serves. This 
college "aims to train young men and women for business careers and also to provide 
instruction intended to give an understanding of the general aspects of economic relation- 
ships." Several curricula leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Commerce 
have been organized. Three of these curricula are general business, commercial-law 
and secretarial training. The enrollment in this college has increased from year to year. 
A strong faculty has been built up and the college is now in position to meet the de- 
mands made upon it by the people of the state. 

The University is a creature of the state. It has been subject to the wishes of the 
General Assembly. At times the friends of the institution have had to meet strong 
opposition. The General Assembly has succeeded in maintaining the University and 
the University has responded in service to the state. The financial support given by the 
state has not been generous. The University is now in the throes of a financial de- 
pression and the method of financing the institution is not well adapted to meet the 
conditions. The future of the University is assured but its progress will be slowed down 
for some years. (End of Professor Ligon's statement.) 

John Wesley Carr's Recollections of Murray State Teachers College 

(An unpublished history, 1944) 

The Kentucky Educational Commission submitted its report to Governor Edwin 
P. Morrow in November, 1921. In his message to the legislature which met in January, 
1922, the Governor commended the report of the commission and recommended that 
the legislature enact such educational measures as "experience, wisdom and patriotism 
dictate." The Governor's message in part was as follows: 

"Within the past eighteen months, a thorough, impartial and scientific survey has 
been made of the schools of our state. This survey has been made by educational 
experts. I earnestly hope and urge that each of you will study this report and give 
heed to its recommendations. It is no time for boasting. The brag dies upon our lips 

4— Vol. II 


when we know the facts. It is time for grim determination and a high resolve to 
remedy educational conditions in Kentucky. 

"We will not have good schools until Kentucky realizes the tragic cost of our poor 
schools. Education is an investment; ignorance is a tax. I recommend that in your 
deliberations concerning this most important matter, that you hold fast to all that is 
good in the legislation of the past. I challenge you to take no backward steps. I 
recommend that you enact such new legislation as experience, wisdom and patriotism 

Early in the legislative session, measures were introduced for the purpose of enacting 
into law the various recommendations of the Educational Commission. On January 10, 
1922, Hon. Brig. H. Harris, of the 34th senatorial district, introduced one of the 
most important of these measures. This was Senate Bill No. 14 which provided for 
the establishment of two additional state normal schools for white elementary teachers. 
The bill was referred to the committee on University of Kentucky and Normal Schools, 
Senator Hiram Brock, Chairman. 

On January 20, the committee made a favorable report and on January 27, Senate 
Bill No. 14 was passed by the Senate. The affirmative vote was thirty, the negative 
vote, two. 

As the bill had been drawn in accordance with the recommendations of the Educa- 
tional Commission and with the approval of State Superintendent Colvin, it seemed 
likely that it would encounter no serious opposition in the house. 

Soon after the passage of the normal school bill by the Senate, the lobbies were 
filled with strange faces from different parts of the state . . . especially from the 
eastern and extreme western parts of Kentucky. It was evident that a new group of 
persons were becoming "interested" in Senate Bill No. 14. It was soon whispered 
that a scheme was being devised to insure the location of each school before the 
House passed the bill. 60 

After a delay of nearly a month, Senate Bill No. 14 was made a special order in 
the House for Tuesday, February 21, at 11 o'clock a.m. 

When the bill came up for consideration, Mr. Jeter of Lincoln County offered an 
amendment in the usual form by striking out certain parts and inserting so and so in- 
stead. His amendment when properly inserted in the bill was as follows: 

"That a Commission is hereby created to be known as the Normal School Com- 
mission, consisting of eight members, who are citizens of the State of Kentucky, and 
over 21 years of age, to be appointed as follows: Five by the Speaker of the House 
of Representatives and three by the President of the Senate, which is authorized and 
empowered to establish two new normal schools for the training of white elementary 
teachers, one in the western part of the state and one in the eastern part of the state. 
The said commission is hereby authorized to receive gifts of land, buildings, or money 
for the establishment of these two normal schools for elementary teachers." 

The fight which had been anticipated was now on. Mr. Truesdell offered an amend- 
ment to the amendment proposed by Mr. Jeter as follows: 

"Amend the amendment of the representative from Lincoln County by substituting 
the number of the commission to be appointed by the Speaker of the House from five 
to three members." 

The amendment to the amendment was lost. 

Then the Jeter amendment was agreed to . . . ayes, 60; nays, 28. 

Mr. Boyd offered an amendment to be known as Section 5: 

"If any section of this act shall be held unconstitutional, the remainder of the act 
shall not be affected thereby." 


This amendment was agreed to. 

The fight continued and other amendments were offered only to be rejected. 

Finally, Mr. Jeter moved the previous question which was carried. 

The final vote for Senate Bill No. 14 — the Normal School Bill — was . . . ayes, 69; 
nays, 6. 

Two days later, February 23, the Senate approved the bill as amended in the House, 
and on March 8, 1922, Governor Edwin P. Morrow signed the bill. 

Senate Bill No. 14 as amended became the first charter of the two additional state 
normal schools which were to be established. The First Charter in full is as follows: 

"An Act to provide for the establishment of two normal schools for the training of 
white elementary teachers, and appropriating money for the maintenance and operation 

"Whereas, the greatest need of common schools is trained elementary teachers, and 

"Whereas, the state normal schools already established can neither reach nor train 
all the elementary teachers needed for the common schools; therefore, 

"Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky: 

"1. That a commission is hereby created, to be known as the State Normal School 
Commission, consisting of eight members who are citizens of the state of Kentucky and 
over the age of twenty-one years, to be appointed as follows: Five by the Speaker of 
the House of Representatives and three by the President of the Senate, which is 
hereby authorized and empowered to establish two new normal schools for the training 
of white elementary teachers, one to be located in the western part of the state and 
one to be located in the eastern part of the state. The said commission is hereby 
authorized to receive gifts of land, buildings or money for the establishment of these 
two normal schools for white elementary teachers. 

"2. The management and control of these two normal schools, when established, 
shall be and is hereby vested in the State Board of Education. 

"3. There is hereby appropriated, out of the general funds of the state, for main- 
tenance and operation, the sum of thirty thousand dollars annually. The auditor of 
the Commonwealth is directed to draw his warrants for said sums, above appropriated, 
upon requisitions signed by the chairman and secretary of the State Board of Educa- 
tion. Provided, that the above appropriation for maintenance and operation shall not 
become available for said normal schools until the said commission has received for 
each of said schools gifts of land suitable to the purposes of each school, and also 
gifts of buildings or money, or both, equivalent in value to at least one hundred thou- 
sand dollars. Provided, further, that if gifts and donations are made, sufficient to 
establish one of said schools, then the sum of thirty thousand dollars shall be available 
for the maintenance and operation of said school. 

"4. All laws and parts of laws in conflict with the provisions of this act are hereby 

? 5. If any section of this act shall be held unconstitutional, the remainder of this act 
shall not be affected thereby." 

In compliance with the act providing for a Normal School Commission, Speaker 
James H. Tompson appointed the following members of the Normal School Commis- 
sion: Edward C. O'Rear, Frankfort; Earl W. Senff, Mt. Sterling; W. S. Wallen, 
Prestonburg; Thomas A. Combs, Lexington; Sherman Goodpaster, Frankfort. 

Lieutenant Governor, Thruston Ballard, President of the Senate, appointed Alex. 
G. Barret, Louisville; J. L. Harman, Bowling Green; A. Peter, Louisville. 

Messrs. Barret and Harman had been members of the Educational Commission 
which made the school survey. The other members were all prominent citizens of 


the state, and highly respected in the community in which each resided. Judge O'Rear 
was a prominent lawyer and formerly Judge of the Court of Appeals; Judge Senff 
was County Judge of Montgomery County; Mr. Wallen was representative from Floyd 
County; Judge Peter was a prominent lawyer of Louisville; Mr. Combs was a prominent 
business man of Lexington and former senator from Fayette County; Mr. Goodpaster 
was a prominent business man in Frankfort. 

Even before the Commission was named it was common rumor that Murray and 
Morehead would be the new normal schools. After the Commission was appointed, 
you could hear from supposed 'insiders" the remark, "there is no doubt about it now, 
Murray will get the western and Morehead the eastern school." 

"How do you know?" was the question asked by many. 

"Just wait and you'll see Rainey Wells and Allie Young are too smart for the other 
boys. They've got the jump on them." 

Such was the common gossip about the Capitol. Personally, I did not know the real 
situation. I am confident that Superintendent Colvin did not either. 

The people of Murray and Calloway County were among those who believed that 
if they raised the specified amount of money, the Western Normal School would be 
located at Murray. Hence, as soon as Governor Morrow signed the Normal School bill 
on March 8, 1922, the campaign to raise $100,000 began. It was a rainy March and 
the roads were muddy, but the Callowayans were undaunted. The campaign committee 
consisted of the following persons: James G. Glasgow, Chairman; Robert E. Broach, 
County Superintendent of Schools, secretary; O. T. Hale; Nat Ryan; Thomas A. 
Stokes; and Ben Grogan. A canvass was made, not only in Murray, but throughout 
the county. Every school district made its contribution. The speakers gave assurance 
that if the $100,000 was raised, the Normal School would be located at Murray. 

"But what if it is not located there," said a few doubting Thomas's. 

"But it will be," rejoined the speakers, "and if it is not located there, it will not 
cost you a red cent, so sign on the dotted line." 

Practically everybody who was abe to do so made his contribution. The subscription 
books contain the names of more than 1,100 persons who contributed from $500 to 
$2,500 each. Before the end of March, the $100,000 was guaranteed— $50,000 by the 
Bank of Murray and $50,000 by the First National Bank of Murray. 

Soon after its appointment, the State Normal School Commission met and organized 
by electing Judge E. C. O'Rear, chairman, and Mr. W. S. Wallen, secretary. 

A date was set by the Commission to hear the representatives of the different cities 
wishing to secure the location of either of the two State Normal Schools. At the 
appointed place at the appointed hour the delegations from the various cities desiring 
one of the schools assembled. The "glories" of each city was set forth to the members 
of the Commission. 

Among the cities bidding for the Western State Normal School were Owensboro, 
Henderson, Hopkinsville, Morganfield, Princeton, Paducah, Benton, Mayfield, Clinton 
and Murray. Lots were drawn to determine the order in which the representatives would 
appear before the Commission. Murray drew last place. 

Judge Rainey T. Wells was chosen to speak for Murray. He spoke of the new 
$125,000 high school building, sanitary conditions, character of the Murray people, etc. 
But the most effective part of his speech was the presentation of two certified checks 
for $50,000 each. 

"It is not what the people of Murray promise to do, but what they have already done 
that counts," he said in concluding. 

During the summer of 1922 the Commission made a tour of inspection of each city 


bidding for the Western School. The purpose of the tour was to enable each member 
of the Commission to see for himself just what each city really had to offer in the way 
of material and cultural facilities, as well as cash. 

The inspection tour was a delight from start to finish. "Every place we went," 
said one member of the Commission, "the folks polished up the handle of the big 
front door, dusted the sidewalks with flannel rags, cut the weeds, carried our baggage 
and dined us." 

By the end of summer the joy ride was over. The voting was about to take place. 

On Friday, September 17, 1922, at the meeting held in Judge O'Rear's office in 
Frankfort, Murray was chosen as the site of the Western State Normal School by the 
votes of O'Rear, Wallen, SenfT, Combs and Goodpaster. These were the members 
of the Commission appointed by Speaker James H. Thompson. The three members 
appointed by Lieutenant Governor Ballard — Barret, Harman and Peter — voted for 
Mayfield. More than twenty ballots were taken before a choice was made. Almost 
every city in the contest received one or more votes on some ballot. Finally the con- 
test narrowed down to Mayfield and Murray and on several ballots the vote was a 
tie — four votes for Mayfied and four votes for Murray. 

How was the news received? 

What were some of the comments? 

A few quotations from the Paducah Evening Sun or of the State Journal of Frank- 
fort are given. 

Murray Citizens Stage Jubilee 

"News of the award of the Normal School for the Western district to Murray 
caused an impromptu celebration there yesterday that rivaled the Armistice Day 
jubilation at the end of the war. When the word came, men 'cut loose' and everyone 
in downtown Murray joined in a good old fashioned joy fest." 

Mayfield Leaders to Probe Award of Normal — Princeton Joins In 

"Directed by W. J. Webb, Attorney and Chairman of the Mayfield Normal Com- 
mittee, Mayfield attorneys and committee members will insist that the State Board of 
Education begin an immediate investigation of the State Normal School Commission in 
the selection of Murray as the site of the school. 

"A circular letter to all competing towns is being sent out by Homer W. Nichols, 
Chairman of the Princeton Committee . . . demanding an investigation." 

Normal School Commission Defy Charges 

Proceedings of the Normal School Commission ... to select sites for the two 
normal schools have been kept in detail and will soon be made public, it became known 

Judge E. C. O'Rear, Chairman of the Commission, stated that he caused complete 
minutes of all meetings to be kept, and that the record would be made public as soon 

as it could be transcribed He said that he would telegraph Secretary W. S. 

Wallen to send the minutes to Frankfort at once, so that they could be given out. . . . 

"I invite investigation; I challenge it; I defy it," Judge O'Rear said, speaking of 
reports that Mayfield interests demanded an investigation of the work of the Com- 
mission. He said the Committee chose Murray because it made a showing that placed 
it ahead of other cities. 

"I was for Henderson first for the Normal School," said Judge O'Rear. But other 
members of the Commission soon voted me out of that. When Henderson was dropped, 


I voted for Mayfield without change until it appeared that there would be a hopeless 
deadlock and then I voted for Murray. 

"I figured that Mayfield was a little better than Murray for geographical reasons, 
and therefore I was for it. But Murray is one of the most attractive towns in Ken- 
tucky and showed a fine community spirit. It made the greatest evidential showing 
of any town in the state. 

"Mayfield and Murray were not first contenders by any means. Members voted for 
various towns. I even voted for Paducah once, and in my opinion such a school as this 
should dominate the community in which it is located and not the community dominate 
the school as would have been the case with either Paducah or Owensboro, both of 
which are big shop and manufacturing centers." 

Normal Location to Stand 

"It is unfortunate that this feeling should be stirred up between the western towns," 
said George Colvin, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, to the Louisville Times 
today. "Murray is a fine community with splendid people and a splendid spirit. The 
only objection the Department of Education has to the town is its geographical situation. 
It is too near the edge of the state, being just six miles from the Tennessee line." 

Mr. Colvin said he did not see any way clear toward blocking the selection of 
Murray and Morehead. 

State Superintendents Term of Office 

Joseph J. Bullock 1838-1839 

Hubbard H. Kavanaugh 1839-184(T 

B. B. Smith 1840-1842 

George W. Brush 1842-1843 

Thompson Dillard 1843-1847 

Robert J. Breckinridge 1847-1851 

John Daniel Mathews 1853-1859 

Robert Richardson 1859-1863 

Daniel Stevenson 1863-1867 

Zack F. Smith 1867-1871 

H. A. M. Henderson 1871-1879 

J. D. Pickett 1879-1887 

Ed Porter Thompson . 1887-1895 

W. J. Davidson 1895-1899 

Harry V. McChesney 1899-1903 

James M. Fuqua 1903-1907 

J. G. Crabbe - 

Ellsworth Regenstein 1907-191 1 

Barksdale Hamlett 1911-1915 

Virgil O. Gilbert 1915-1919 

George Colvin 1919-1923 

MacHenry Rhodes * 1923-1927 

w. c Beii ;;;;;;; 1927-1931 

James H Richmond 1931-1935 

Harry W. Peters 1935-1939 

John W. Brooker 1939-1943 

John Fred Williams f 1943-1947 



Zachary F. Smith 


J. G. Crabbe 


Robert J. Breckinridge 


George Colvin 


James H. Richmond 




A few of the superintendents, because of a propitious mixture of personality, knowl- 
edge, favorableness of time, elements and people were fortunate enough to have the 
distinction of having been instrumental in bringing about unusual and epoch-making 
reform, or to initiate it. The author, because of lack of space, is able to select only 
five for consideration. 

Robert Jefferson Breckinridge 


(Biographical sketch quoted from The Courier- Journal, December 28, 1871.) 
"Rev. Robert J. Breckinridge died at his home in Danville yesterday. Though his ill- 
ness has been protracted and his condition for a week past has given little or no room 
for hope, the news of his death will not be received without a shock and regret. 
The deceased was one of the most distinguished members of the illustrious Breckin- 
ridge family, whose name has adorned the history of Kentucky since the days of 
the administration of Thomas Jefferson, and tracing thence its line back through 
Virginia for a century. 

"Robert J. Breckinridge was born at Cabell's Dale, Kentucky, on the eighth 
of March, 1800. He studied successively in Princeton, Yale, and Union Colleges 
(New York), graduating at the latter in 1819. He then fitted himself for the 
bar and practiced law in this state for eight years from 1823, being in that period 
several times a member of the State Legislature. His family had been Presbyterians 
since the time of the Reformation, and, upon profession of his faith in 1829, he 
joined that church. He was ordained pastor of the First Presbyterian Church in 
Baltimore in 1832, in which position he remained 13 years, and rose to eminence 
for his eloquence and power in the pulpit. In 1845 he was elected president of 
Jefferson College, Pennsylvania, where he remained for two years, at the same 
time being pastor of a church in a neighboring village; after which he removed to 
Kentucky, assumed the pastorate of the First Presbyterian Church in Lexington, and 
became Superintendent of Public Instruction for the state. In 1853 he resigned 
these charges, having been elected by the General Assembly professor of Exegetic, 
Didactic and Polemic Theology in the newly established seminary at Danville, an 
office which he held until within a year of his death. He has participated largely 
in the religious, moral and philanthropic movements and discussions of the last 
forty years. 

"While in Baltimore he edited the 'Literary and Religious Magazine' and the 'Spirit 
of the Nineteenth Century,' and his discussions with the Roman Catholics which ex- 
tended over the whole field of faith and practice, gave evidence of the extent of his 
knowledge of church history and systematic thology. In the General Assembly of the 
Presbyterian Church, in which he often had a seat, he has exerted a commanding influ- 
ence. During the controversies which led to the disruption of the church into the 
old and new schools, he steadfastly maintained the old landmarks in opposition to 
every innovation; but was efficient in removing from the discussion all personal aspects, 
and in basing it upon fundamental principles. He took an active and prominent part 
in the religious discussions, in Kentucky especially, which grew out of the animosities 
engendered by the war. Espousing the cause of the North, he was an active partisan, 
and for a time during the war, was considered as the mouth-piece of the administration 
in Kentucky. He is the principal author of the common school system of Kentucky, 
and the prosperity of the theological school at Danville is almost wholly due to him. 
His published works consist of a great number of tracts, esrays, and letters; two volumes 


of ^Travels in Europe,' an important work on theology, objectively considered, and 
other books on various subjects." 

Superintendent Robert Richardson said of him: "To Doctor Breckinridge, above all 
others, the people of Kentucky owe the establishment of our System of Common 
Schools. He found that system a ruin; he left it a majestic fabric; he found it a 
prey to the timidity of legislation and the plunders of party; he left it beyond legisla- 
tion and beyond party, fixed immovable among the powers of Government in the 
Organic law of a great Commonwealth."' 

Dr. Breckinridge's Statement Concerning the Advancement of His 


"The school fund itself is large and productive, an honor to the State, a monument 
of public wisdom and virtue, an ample and noble provision, and if properly managed, 
sufficient for the education of the children of the State. It consists: 1. Of a tax of 
two cents on every hundred dollars worth of taxable property in the State. 2. Of 
State bonds to the amount of $1,326,770.01. 3. Of 735 shares in the capital stock of 
the Bank of Kentucky, whose par is $100 each, $73,500. 4. Of a certain bonus on 
other bank stocks, whose value is not capable of being precisely reckoned. The income 
of this fund ought to be at present about $150,000; and for ten years to come, it 
ought to average about $160,000; and it ought to increase with the continually increas- 
ing value of the property of the State. There are eight State bonds, of which the first 
six exists in copies only, the originals having been burnt by law some years ago. One 
copy of these bonds has been in my custody during the six years I was Superintendent, 
and has been delivered by me, to the present Superintendent. The seventh bond, being 
for $308,268.42, dated December 20, 1848, was never in my possession, but remains 
in the office of Secretary of State. The eighth bond, being for the sum of $101,001.59, 
dated January 1, 1850, was never issued at all, as far as I can ascertain, otherwise than 
by being inscribed at large upon the Executive Journal of Governor Crittenden. Cer- 
tificate of stock for the 735 shares in the Bank of Kentucky, was in my custody and 
was delivered with the copies of State bonds above mentioned, to the present Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction; to whom I have also delivered the books and papers 
belonging to the office. I may add that no public money ever passed through my hands, 
except that appertaining to my private account with the State; and that all my accounts 
with the Auditor for the large public drafts I drew, were always in a condition for 
immediate settlement, and were in fact, in a perpetual state of settlement, as they 
progressed from quarter to quarter; and that upon my resignation, only the fractional 
quarter remained for closure, which was done in a few moments, by the Auditor. It 
seems to me that a system upon which hundreds of thousands of dollars were applied 
during many years, to immense public interests, by means so simple and complete that 
loss, or even delay, was impossible, did not deserve special mutilation in the Revised 

Sound Building 

"A vast work has been done for public education in this State. But it has been 
done under vast opposition, and against vast obstacles. To my predecessors in the 
office of Superintendent, I have never failed to ascribe a large part of whatever has 
been accomplished, and to claim for them the respect and gratitude of the people; I 
have held the office much longer than any of them, and besides what I may have done 
myself, I have reaped in some degree the fruits of their labor. What we have all done, 
is capable of being generally, but distinctively summed up. An immense fund has 
been created, organized and secured; and when in a moment of political phrenzy it 


was destroyed, it has been by a glorious series of legislative and popular acts, retrieved, 
restored, augmented and made sacred. The whole State has been organized into school 
districts, and a complete and general system of popular education, in its lowest stages, 
has been firmly and universally established. Many thousands of comfortable school- 
houses have been erected, and many thousands of additional teachers have found honor- 
able and remunerating employment. Many tens of thousands of the sons and daughters 
of the State have received, in these schools, the first elements of education; great multi- 
tudes of whom, but for these schools, would never have received any education at all. 
And, perhaps more than all, a public sentiment, and what is better and deeper, a public 
principle, fixed, general and earnest, has been begotten in the mind and settled in the 
heart of our people, that the work can be done, and shall be done. Our superintendents 
have not done all this, though without them it could not have been done. The public 
press, that noblest gift of liberty to knowledge, has done its part. Many statesmen 
have done their part. Many philanthropists have done theirs. And many virtuous 
citizens in the private, and not a few in the humble walks of life, have done theirs. 
As for my part I count it one of the most fortunate events of my life, as it will always 
be one of the most precious reminiscences, that I also have had my share in a work 
so full of good, and good only." 

Work for the Future 

"For the further advancement and complete development of the system of public 
education in this State, an immense work remains to be done. I have never ceased to 
urge upon the legislature and the people of the State, that although the primary educa- 
tion of all the children of the Commonwealth, in every generation ought to be con- 
sidered the first and most important part of the work of public education, yet it was 
only a part, and moreover, a part which could be accomplished far more speedily and 
perfectly in its relations to a grand and complete whole, than it could be if attempted 
as the sole object of our efforts. Until the passage of the calamitous law in the 
Revised Code, all our laws on the subject of education were conceived in the spirit 
of an equal interest in the State, in every grade and department of education, up to 
the highest and in the idea of all being parts of a grand and comprehensive movement of 
society, for its universal perfectionment in knowledge, under the guidance of its own or- 
ganized force, that is, the law itself. So that in the large views I have cherished, I have 
only developed and defended the spirits of those numerous enactments, by which Univer- 
sities and Colleges have been founded, by which Academies have been endowed out 
of the public domain, by which Institutions for the Blind and Deaf have been erected 
at the public expense, and by which in so many forms, and for so long a period, the 
public treasure has been bestowed, and the public will be made manifest, in favor of 
universal education; universal alike in its subjects, as far as possible to every citizen, 
and for every useful part of knowledge. I believe that each one of my six reports to 
the legislature, assumes or expressly utters this broad, and as it appears to me only 
worthy view of the subject; and several of them argued it at length. In a calm retro- 
spect of the whole ground, from the position I now occupy, of a simple but deeply 
interested spectator, I see nothing to change in what I have so repeatedly advanced on 
this part of the subject. On the other hand, if the great experience it has been my 
lot to have acquired during the past thirty years on the whole subject of education, 
may be supposed to give any weight to my opinion, I frankly declare that I see nothing 
more plainly than that the interests and the glory of this Commonwealth, are both put 
in peril, precisely in proportion as low and narrow views are cherished, touching the 
sublime duties which the State owes to her children, in connection with this great 





Importance of Knowledge 

"It may be that men will not always bear to hear it, and it may be, too, that it is 
not the part of carnal wisdom always to utter it. But wise and thoughtful men all 
know it, and they have long toiled in the sacred cause, may not ever be silent and forbear 
to proclaim it, even where none will hear. There is glory, greater than the glory of 
wealth, and power, and arms, and conquest — the glory of loving, getting, cherishing, 
diffusing, perpetuating knowledge, whereby men may adorn their lot in this life, what- 
ever that lot may be; and whereby, as far as knowledge can, they may be led to know 
a better life to come."' 

Dr. Breckinridge's Achievement 

The following bit of statistical information gives a clear picture of Dr. Breckin- 
ridge's labors for common education. Writes Mr. Hamlett: 

The fourth report of Superintendent Breckinridge is a remarkable document. In 
it he triumphantly announced the complete establishment of the system, and con- 
gratulates the Legislature and the country upon the consummation of an event so 
full of blessings. He furnishes us with the following statistics: 

Number of children reported in 1847 20,775 

Number of children reported in 1848 33,311 

Number of children reported in 1849 - 87,498 

Number of children reported in 1850 1 78,5 59 

Number of counties reported organized in 1847 27 

Number of counties reported organized in 1848 44 

Number of counties reported organized in 1849 , 71 

Number of counties reported organized in 1850 98 

Two counties remaining both actively engaged in organizing. 

Number of children reported in 1847 m cities 8,702, in county 12,330 

Number of children reported in 1848 in cities 7>475, i n county 25,836 

Number of children reported in 1849 in cities 9»7!6, in county 77,782 

Number of children reported in 1850 in cities 8,653, i n county 169,906 

Number of schools in State in 1847 170 

Number of schools in State in 1848 406 

Number of schools in State in 1849 -— 825 

Number of schools in State in 1850 3>704 

Whole number of children between 5 and 16 in 1847 173,968 

Whole number of children between 5 and 16 in 1848 183,458 

Whole number of children between 5 and 16 in 1849 - T 9 2 ,999 

Whole number of children between 5 and 16 in 1850 202,840 

Years Reported | 1841 | 1842 

Whole number of 
children reported 
by Superintendent 
of Legislature 


Average number re- 
ported in district 
schools I 2160 




3384I 8533 


JL 8 +5_ 







_1 8 49_ 





73 no 69 

(Quoted from The Courier-Journal, July 5, 1911) 

"Vertigo aggravated by the hot weather resulted in the death of Zachariah Fred 
Smith, for two terms State Superintendent of Public Instruction, and author of 
"Smith's History of Kentucky," in his apartments at the Hotel Watkins, Chestnut 
Street, between Fourth and Fifth Streets, yesterday morning between three and four 
o'clock. He was found dead in bed by his wife. Besides his wife, who was Miss 
Anna Pitman, of Louisville, he is survived by a daughter, Mrs. W. Hume Logan, of 
Louisville, and two sons, Virgil D. Smith, of this city, and Dr. Austin D. Smith, of 


Brooklyn, N. Y. The latter was notified yesterday of his father's death, but will 
not be able to reach Louisville in time for the funeral. 

"Mr. Smith was a native of Henry County and was 84 years of age. He spent 
the greater part of his life as an educator and wrote a number of historical articles. 
At the time of his death he was just completing a history of the Christian Church 
in Kentucky. Professor Smith set forth in his almost completed history of the Chris- 
tian Church that Barton W. Stone was preaching the Christian Church doctrine in 
Kentucky in 1803, several years before Alexander Campbell took up the work. Later, 
according to the history, Alexander Campbell and Barton W. Stone joined hands in 
the work of organizing the Christian Church. 

"Mr. Smith was educated in the old Bacon College at Georgetown. Later the 
college was moved to Harrodsburg, and finally it was merged with what is now Tran- 
sylvania University at Lexington. Mr. Smith was one of the first curators of Tran- 
sylvania University, then known as the Kentucky University, and was the last of 
the original curators of the institution to die. He was an active member of The 
Filson Club, of Louisville, and wrote a number of interesting articles for that organiza- 
tion, among them The Life of Henry Clay, The Battle of New Orleans and The 
Reformation Under Barton W . Stone. 

"Mr. Smith at one time was president of the old Cumberland and Ohio Railroad 
Company, which failed after he resigned as president. The company projected a road 
from Eminence, on the Short Line Road, owned by the Louisville and Nashville 
Railroad Company, to Nashville, Tennessee. Bonds were floated and the grading for 
the full length of the road had been completed when Mr. Smith resigned his office. 
That was back in the seventies. The country shortly afterward experienced a panic 
which resulted in the death of the project. 

"For the last thirty years Mr. Smith had been a resident of Louisville. He was 
twice married. His first wife, who died about thirty years ago, was Miss Sue Helm, 
of Henry County. Mr. Smith retired from active business several years ago, since 
which time he had been living quietly, spending a great deal of his time writing. 
He was looked upon as one of the best-informed men in the matter of history in the 
country, and contributed a number of historical articles to various magazines during 
his lifetime. Before coming to Louisville, Mr. Smith conducted a private school at 
Newcastle for a number of years. He was keenly interested in the welfare of struggling 
young men, especially those who aspired to the ministry, and at one time was president 
of an organization which raised funds to help defray the cost of educating those who 
aspired to become ministers. 

"Although he had been in failing health for some time Mr. Smith was able to get 
about, and on last Thursday dined at the home of his son-in-law, W. Hume Logan, 
on Third Street. Last Monday he was on the street for a short while, but in the 
afternoon complained of feeling badly. He seemed to suffer a great deal from the 
heat, but Mrs. Smith said she did not think his condition warranted calling a physician, 
as he was subject to attacks of vertigo and she knew what to do in such cases. 

"Shortly before three o'clock yesterday morning Mrs. Smith left her apartment, 
which adjoined that of her husband, and stepped into his room to see if he wanted 
anything. He seemed to be resting easily and she returned to her room. At four 
o'clock she made another trip to her husband's apartment, and was startled by the 
pallor of his face. She immediately summoned aid from downstairs and upon exami- 
nation it was found that Mr. Smith was dead. 

"The body was taken to the home of W. Hume Logan, 2008 South Third Street, 
where the funeral service will be conducted this afternoon at 2:30 o'clock by Pro- 


fessor W. H. Bartholomew, of the Girl's High School. Following the service, the 
body will be taken to Eminence, Mr. Smith's old home, for burial. Those who will 
act as honorary pallbearers at the funeral are W. B. Carter, George L. Sehon, Henry 
L. Stone, Judge J. Wheeler McGee, T. B. Duncan and W. S. Caldwell." 

Mr. Smith Describes the School System 

"I assumed the duties of my office in September (1867) last, under the prejudicial 
conviction of the popular mind, that the Common School System of Kentucky, no 
longer worthy of the grave consideration of our men of public trust, had been dis- 
carded from the policies of State legislation, and abandoned to whatever fate fortune 
might hold in reserve for it. This popular conviction was the logical conclusion of 
the treatment it had received at the hands of those who should have felt an ever- 
abiding obligation to sustain, foster, and build up so vital and important an interest 
to the people of the State — the legislators of the sessions of the past thirty years. 
Beyond the acts for local and personal accommodation, in which the Legislatures in- 
clined to be prodigal, but little attention had been given to the wants of the insti- 
tution. This treatment has been unfortunate; and, if persisted in longer, must be 
disastrous. The pro rata distribution of funds had fallen off thirty-three per cent, 
while the vitality and efficiency of the administration of the local interests of the 
system were becoming continually more impaired. The fatal and steady processes of 
decay were thus made painfully evident, from year to year, where sagacious and con- 
scientious statesmanship should have infused life, strength, and energy in the only 
measure of general benefit for the people now incorporated in the policy of our State. 

"Whilst our legislative bodies had been almost uniformly unfriendly, indifferent, 
and evasive, the people, whenever permitted an expression, were unwaveringly firm in 
advocacy and indorsement of the measures which proposed the inestimable boon of 
education to their children. 

"Could this be the popular sentiment of Kentucky, and yet her Representatives 
elect from the people, the exponents of their sentiments, be antagonistic to the policy 
it indicated? The inquiry suggested doubt at once. Might not this anomalous dis- 
crepancy between the acts of legislation and the indices of public sentiment have been 
the result of a want of properly matured, well concerted, and persistent efforts to 
develop the strength of the friends of the cause? Or might it not have been that 
an unfriendly, vigilant, and obstinate minority had been able to baffle and defeat all 
such efforts, and thus to have postponed the issues of success? 

"In adopting a free school system under the patronage of State aid, it is the pro- 
fessed intention to provide a sufficiency of means to extend its benefits to every district 
of the State. In view of this most evident proposition, the question to be decided is, 
not whether a tax of ten, twenty or forty cents will be popular, but what amount of 
tax is necessary to accomplish the purpose desired? 

"After a full survey of the premises and a careful study of the wants of Kentucky, 
my estimate is that an additional tax of fifteen cents on the one hundred dollars is 
necessary as the basis of an effective and vigorous system, that will guarantee a free 
school for five months in each year, in every district — the shortest time for which 
tuition should be given, to educate the masses for good practical results. The present 
tax of five cents produces about $185,000. Fifteen cents additional tax would in- 
crease the amount to $740,000. Estimating the school revenues from all other sources 
at $90,000, would give an aggregate of $830,000, to be annually distributed from the 
State Treasury for free school purposes, or about two dollars and thirty-seven cents 
per capita, supposing there are 350,000 children to be schooled. A proper re-district- 


ing of the State will leave but one hundred as the maximum number, of pupil ages. 
The amounts to be distributed, therefore, to the various country districts, would range 
from $95 to $237. Supposing that the more populous districts employ two teachers 
for each school, this estimate will give from nineteen to twenty-five dollars per month 
towards the wages of teachers; or from one-half to three-fourth of the full amounts 
required, estimating the salaries paid at from twenty-five to fifty dollars per month. 
I would recommend that the balance of the salaries, ranging from one-fourth to one- 
half the amounts thus estimated, be required from the people of the district by local 
taxation, or substitute voluntary subscription, if preferred. The law should provide 
for the assessment of a local school tax at the option of the people of each district, 
not exceeding twenty cents on the one hundred dollars, to be used in cooperation with 
the State funds; thus guaranteeing five month's free school and securing the use of 
the distributable share of the State funds for the benefit of the district and no district 
should be allowed to draw its quota from the State Treasury unless it thus provides 
by local liberality and enterprise to continue the school. This is the law of Illinois; 
and so admirable has been its effects, that ninety-one per cent of the school districts 
of that State kept open free schools for an average of six and one-half months in the 
year, 1865 and 1866. The importance of the State funds to the district, and the ap- 
prehended contingency of its total loss, operate as a powerful stimulant to urge vigor- 
ously measures for the organization of means, with a well-adjusted and ably-ad- 
ministered school law, will kindle an enthusiasm for education among the people of 
our beloved Commonwealth such as never inspired them before; and will result, in 
establishing elementary schools of excellent character in every neighborhood of the 
State besides grade and high schools at all central points. 

"Our school system needs remodeling throughout, on the basis of modern reforms 
which have been fully tested and approved by practical experience. It is not necessary 
or proper that I should here formally present a plan, but will simply refer to some 
of the leading defects of the present system, and suggest some outline features of a 
needed revision. Such revision, could not be properly matured and perfected for 
adoption before the next meeting of the Legislature; for which work I trust the Legis- 
lature, during the session at hand, will make suitable provision, in conjunction with 
the proposed increase of tax. The remedies and changes needed are — 

"1st. The character and qualification of County Commissioners should be more 
strictly guarded, their duties and responsibility made more imperative and an adequate 
compensation provided and paid for their official services. Reason and experience 
teach the impracticability of administering the local details of so vast and complex a 
system with vigor and success, without competent and reliable local agents. The 
county official representative is justly described by an able State Superintendent to 
be 'the right arm of power to the system.' The position should be made to command 
first-class men. His legitimate functions are, not simply those of statistical reporter 
and financial agent, but to superintendent the districts, organize the schools, visit 
and inspect the same, lecture upon the importance of them, mix and counsel with the 
parents in public and at their homes, examine and certify teachers, conduct teachers' 
institutes, adjust difficulties, encourage educational interest, provide teachers, and do 
all in his power for the promotion of education. If competent and faithful, the county 
superintendent will revolutionize his county in a year or two, and bring it in to complete 
and active harmony with the general system. 

"2nd. There should be provisions made to rear up a corps of professionally trained 
teachers from our own population, for the supply of the public schools. The neglect 
of this essential feature of a State system is seriously felt, both in regard to quantity 


and quality of teachers, by us. It would open a useful and honorable field of industry 
to seven or eight thousand young men and women of our State, who, as a resident 
and professional class of enlightened educators, would become a valuable and powerful 
agency towards the advancement of our social, civil, and material interests and insti- 
tutions while the wages paid them, being residents, would be nothing lost to the aggre- 
gate wealth of the body-politic. 

"3rd. The promotion of an educational literature. While this is held to be an active 
and powerful stimulus of educational interest and enterprise, we are utterly destitute 
of any such agency. We need an educational journal — which should be nearly if not 
quite, self-supporting; the establishment of district libraries; the introduction of books 
upon the science of art of teaching, popular lectures, etc. The State could do much 
to accomplish these ends without cost to its Treasury by proper legislation. 

"4th. More effective legislation looking to the organization and support of grade and 
high schools in our towns and populous centers. Our present law simply permits this, 
but enjoins no decisive or definite measures upon the local authorities to accomplish it. 
There should be a free grade-school in every village-district of one hundred and fifty 
children, and an additional free high school department in every town district of two 
hundred children. 

"5th. We should endeavor to have a uniformity of text-books. The great variety 
and frequent changes of those now in use have become a costly and serious evil, under 
our unprotected system. 

"6th. The reconstruction of our district organization upon the plan of consolidation. 
This has been done by most of the States north of us, under the style of the township 
of six miles square which embraces one district, all the schools of which are under 
one board of trustees. It is simply adopting for the country the same kind of organiza- 
tion that controls the free schools of cities, and is done to simplify and energize the 
local operations of the system, by getting rid of three-fourth of its official machinery, 
and securing a better selection of managers. 

"Complaints have been lodged in this office that the Commissioners of certain counties 
are in the habit of using the school funds, belonging to their counties in their business 
or in speculations, before paying it out, for the benefits of the teachers, to the trustees, 
thus delaying payment to those who have earned it by their hard labor for weeks and 
months. I cannot too severely condemn such a reprehensible practice. If not positively 
dishonest, the selfishness and injustice which would prompt such a practice would soon so 
blunt the moral sensibilities of the man as to lead him on to dishonesty. The present 
imperfect law forces the teacher, in every case, to wait for his wages for months. This 
is a severe hardship, for which a remedy will in due time be proposed. 


Honorable Richard H. Collins' Estimate of Z. F. Smith as Superintendent 

of Public Instruction 

"Of the eminent men who have championed the cause of public education in the 
state, no one has more clearly apprehended its vast and vital importance, and the 
comprehensiveness of its universal relations. Realizing that to increase the facilities 
for public education, the essential and indispensable need was an enlarged financial 
basis, he applied to the legislature to increase the school tax from 5 cents to 20 cents 
on the $100 — to be submitted for ratification to a vote of the people. Such active 
and persistent opposition was developed as delayed the passage of the bill until the 
second session; but the efforts of Mr. Smith and the friends of the cause succeeded 
at last. The canvass before the people, into which he threw his whole strength, was 


marked by such energy and practical wisdom as never fails of success — resulting in 
a majority for the law of 24,679 in a total vote of 133,493. 

"The full fruits of Mr. Smith's reform policy — as set forth in his special report 
to the legislature, and embodied in a bill for the organization, endowment, and manage- 
ment of the common schools — were defeated for the time. Some of its important 
features were adopted; others then rejected, have already been engrafted upon the 
law; the leaven is working still. Revolutions sometimes move slowly; a tremendous 
impetus to the cause of public education was given by the popular vote of 1869 — it 
was not to be expected that the whole work of improvement could be wrought at 
once. He struck for: 1. Higher qualifications and better compensation for county 
commissioners; 2. A trained corps of professional teachers in our home population; 
3. Educational literature, a journal, district libraries, popular lectures, etc.; 4. Graded 
and high schools in the cities and towns; 5. Uniform text-books; 6. Reconstruction of 
district organization, and enlisting more competent trustees; 7. Increased importance 
to the Department of Education, as among the other State Departments; 8. The right 
of country districts to vote special taxation for increased school terms, permanent 
buildings, etc. Patience hath her perfect work in this, also. Mr. Smith is a practical 
philosopher; and while, in the changes of the day, this work was removed from his 
hands, can watch with proud satisfaction how other able men are developing and 
engrafting upon the state his noble policy. His friends point with thankful pride 
to the following results of his four years' administration: 1. The extension of the 
school sessions to five months, theretofore only three months; 2. Monthly wages of 
teachers doubled, and as a whole these wages were tripled; 3. Number of school dis- 
tricts increased; 4. Of schools taught, of census pupil children, and of attendance at 
school, the increase was twenty per cent — and in the amount and quality of education 
given, and in the active interest created in behalf of the public schools, the increase 
exceeded one hundred per cent. For the first time in Kentucky, institutes improvised 
for the normal instruction of teachers were put in operation; the standard of qualifi- 
cations of teachers was advanced, and officials and the people were awakened to new 
life and activity on the subject."' 2 

John Grant Crabbe, 1907-1909 

(Biographical sketch in Hamlett, History of Education in Kentucky, pp. 193, 194.) 
John Grant Crabbe, the seventeenth superintendent of public instruction of Ken- 
tucky, was born in Mt. Sterling, Madison County, Ohio, November 29, 1865. He 
is a son of Thomas W. Crabbe and Julia Catherine Baughman Crabbe. He married 
Miss Jennie Florence Graff, of Delaware, Ohio. 

Dr. Crabbe received his early education in the schools of Mt. Sterling, graduating 
from the high school of that city. Later he graduated from the Ohio Wesleyan 
University at Delaware, Ohio, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. Three years 
later he received the degree of Master of Arts, from the same institution. In 1897, 
he received the degree of Master of Pedagogy from the Ohio University. In 1909, 
Berea College, Kentucky, conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of Laws; again, 
in 1909, he received the degree of Doctor of Pedagogy from Miami University; and 
in 1911, the State University of Kentucky conferred upon him the degree of Doctor 
of Laws. 

President Crabbe has been all his life an exceedingly busy man. At the commence- 
ment of his career as an educator, he served as head of the department of Greek and 
Latin in the Flint (Michigan) Normal College. He was elected superintendent of 
the city schools of Ashland, Kentucky, in 1890, and ably and satisfactorily performed 


the duties of that office for eighteen years. In 1895, he was chairman of the Ken- 
tucky Committee of Ten, and wrote the able report of that committee. In 1900 he 
took a well-earned season of rest and recreation, which he passed in travel in Europe; 
and in January, 1908, he assumed the duties of State Superintendent of Public In- 
struction for Kentucky, to which position he was elected in the fall of 1907. He 
resigned the office of State Superintendent, April 9, 1910; and on the same date became 
president of the Eastern Kentucky State Normal School at Richmond, Kentucky. 
(He resigned his position at Eastern to become president of the Greeley Teachers 
College, Greeley, Colorado.) 

Superintendent Crabbe has held many other positions of honor and trust. He has 
been President of the Kentucky Educational Association, Chairman of the Kentucky 
Educational Commission to revise the school laws of the State; President of the De- 
partment of Normal Schools of the Southern Educational Association; State Director 
of the National Education Association, a member of the National Council of Education 
of the National Education Association, President of the Department of Normal 
Schools of the National Education Association, a member of the Phi Beta Kappa 
Fraternity, and Associate Editor of the Inland Educator. In every position and 
walk in life, Dr. Crabbe has made good. 

He has been prominent for years in religious, fraternal and musical circles. In 
religion, Dr. Crabbe is a Methodist. He is especially prominent as a Sunday School 
Superintendent. While at Ashland, he built up one of the greatest Sunday Schools 
in this country. He is a prominent Mason and Knights Templar. Music is one of 
his great hobbies, if hobby it may be termed. He is a composer of music; and while 
State Superintendent he composed and set to music the song, "Kentucky Schools," 
which has thrilled thousands of Kentucky children. 

Dr. Crabbe's work while Superintendent is part of the current history of the State. 
Probably the most noted events of his busy administration were the Whirlwind Cam- 
paigns and the County School Law. By the first, he aroused the State from center 
to circumference along the lines of educational needs; the second abolished an out- 
grown three-trustee system and started a growth in the schools of the State almost 
unparalleled in the history of education. 

Kentucky owes a debt of gratitude to this worthy man who started forces for good 
to work that will tell through the centuries to come.' 

Dr. Crabbe, energetic, dynamic, magnetic with ideals and visions of betterment of 
Kentucky through education, undertook during the short time of his incumbency to 
bring reforms which many other states had enjoyed for half a century. His task 
was extremely difficult; yet he set about with an inspiring optimism which was not 
easy to oppose. He had the full support of Governor Augustus E. Wilson, also 
intensely interested in general reform. 

Dr. Crabbe reported that Kentuckians had been and were more interested in national 
and international affairs than in local affairs. He declared: "The most important 
questions before the people of Kentucky today are the enforcement of the laws, the 
betterment of the schools, the improvement of the roads and the change in our system 
of taxation. These questions are of much more immediate concern to the citizens of 
Kentucky than any question relating to the tariff, to the national banking laws or 
the trusts." Dr. Crabbe contended that Kentucky's per capita return for education 
was near the head of the list of states (nearly $3,000,000 annually being received) . 
Yet he declared that in the 52 states and territories Kentucky ranked 49th in literacy. 
Only 46 per cent of the children of school age attended school. In fact, he said that 
Kentucky's education system was more wretchedly managed than in most any other 

5— Vol. II 



state of the Union. Five thousand of the school trustees of the state were illiterate! 
In this statement, Dr. Crabbe touched the acute spot: "The old school district system 
which has prevailed in Kentucky until recently, was discarded in the Northern States 
nearly 75 years ago, and has been discarded in every Southern State excepting Arkan- 
sas. Our whole school system has been disjointed and disconnected. It is not a 
connected, harmonious whole. We had no provision for county high schools; we had 
no common school system which led up to a high school or a high school which led 
up to a State college or university." ° 

After surveying the situation and preparing recommendations, Dr. Crabbe organized 
a state-wide speaking and publicity campaign for educational reform and improvement. 
This was the famous "Whirlwind" of 1908 (previously mentioned) . So successful 
was the enterprise that another was conducted during the following year. Many of 
the most prominent men of the state participated in this crusade for betterment, and 
the results were virtually miraculous. The state was aroused for educational reform 
as never before. Dr. Crabbe declared: "This campaign has had a wonderful effect 
in bringing the gospel of public education nearer to the hearts of the people. The 
people are thinking. Under the operation of the new "County School District Law" 
the local taxes in the counties and districts for the current year have been increased 
from the sum of $180,000 in 1907-08 to an amount estimated at $1,000,000 for the 
current year. Much has been accomplished, but the work is not complete. It is merely 
in its infancy and we propose "to fight it out on this line."' 

Perhaps the most important legislative achievement of his administration was the 
enactment of the County Board Bill. This law, House Bill 141, relieved the state of 
the curse of the old three-man district trustee system. Under this piece of medieval 
antiquity the state's school system had been administered by trustees (5,000 of whom 
were illiterate) in 8,500 districts. These trustees being all-powerful levied taxes, col- 
lected (spent, squandered or stole) , appointed the teacher, erected and repaired build- 
ings — and generally ran things backward. This bill provided for (1) the county board 
system of school government, (2) the creation of a county high school in every county. 

Summarizing his legislative gains to the end of 1908, Dr. Crabbe listed these points: 

"The General Assembly in 1908 passed the County School District Law, or the 
Sullivan bill, which calls for a complete reorganization of the school system and for 
the establishment within two years of a High School within every county in Kentucky. 

"It made State College a State University and enlarged the scope of its usefulness. 

"It appropriated two hundred thousand dollars to the State University, one hundred 
and fifty thousand to the Eastern Normal, and one hundred and fifty thousand to 
the Western Normal for additional grounds, school buildings, dormitories, equipment, 
etc.; and, in addition to what each school is now getting annually, it appropriated 
thirty thousand dollars annually to the Western Normal, twenty thousand to the 
Eastern Normal, and twenty thousand to the State University. 

"It passed a bill establishing the Educational Commission and instructed it to 
make a thorough investigation of the whole system and report to the next General 
Assembly of Kentucky. 

"It passed a bill appropriating forty thousand dollars for additional improvements 
at the Kentucky Normal for colored persons. 

"It passed an act changing the name of Kentucky University to Transylvania Uni- 

"It passed a bill regulating the Child Labor Law. 

"It passed a compulsory attendance and Truancy Law in cities of the first, second, 
third, and fourth classes." 


A state is seldom fortunate enough to have such a man as John Grant Crabbe at 
the head of its public school system. The two short years of service brought reforms 
that should have been made a half century before. Elements of his forward-looking 
program of reform were studied and copied by many states, and, of course, after a 
time, his services were obtained by another state, more interested in education than 
Kentucky. Our state's $5,000 salary limitation is more important to a majority of 
the voters than the services of supremely outstanding men. 

GEORGE COLVIN, 1920-1924 

Biographical Sketch 

(Quoted from The Courier-Journal, July 23, 1928) 

"George Colvin, president of the University of Louisville and former State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, died at 3:30 o'clock Sunday afternoon at St. Anthony's 
Hospital. He was 53 years old and resided at 1315 S. Sixth Street. 

"For the last two years Mr. Colvin had suffered mild attacks of appendicitis, and 
last Christmas received treatment at the hospital. An operation was suggested at 
the time, but was not performed because of his physical condition, according to Dr. 
Walter Hume. Last Monday Mr. Colvin went to the hospital and the operation was 
performed at 10 o'clock Wednesday morning by Dr. Hume. A small growth on 
one of Mr. Colvin's legs was removed at the same time. 

"Satisfactory progress was reported until Saturday morning, when complications 
caused a set-back. Consultations were then held by Drs. Hume, George A. Hendon, 
William Jenkins and John R. Wathen. As a result, a minor operation was performed 
Saturday night in an effort to off-set the complications, but the patient's condition 
grew worse. . . . 

"Mr. Colvin was born in an obscure corner of Washington County, September 7, 
1875, the son of a carpenter. He was one of eight children in the family, and partly 
to relieve his father of responsibility for a large family, left home at the age of ten. 

"He obtained employment at Williamsburg and attended school irregularly. He 
was able within six years to prepare himself, largely by home study, for entrance to 
Centre College, Danville, Kentucky. 

"His popularity was attested by his election as class president for four consecutive 
years. The Barrett Memorial Latin prize was awarded to Mr. Colvin in his sophomore 
year. He was elected president of the Deinologian Literary Society one year and was 
a member of the debating team, in addition to winning laurels on the football and 
track teams. In his senior year Mr. Colvin was captain of the football team. 

"Mr. Colvin was graduated from the college with a bachelor of arts degree in 
June, 1895, and returned to study law in the fall of 1896. After studying law one 
year, Mr. Colvin was admitted to the bar, but "postponed" starting his practice to 
take charge of a school for a few days at his adopted town, Springfield, Kentucky. 

"I expected to work for the school only a few days, Mr. Colvin once said. This 
actually lasted sixteen years. Thus his ambition to become a practicing lawyer was 
changed, but his legal training found outlet in educational reforms, that caused him 
to be regarded as one of the outstanding educators of the state. 

"After four years in the school at Springfield, Mr. Colvin came to Louisville, where 
he took a position in the legal department of the Louisville Title Company. He then 
entered partnership with John W. Lewis, the only Republican ever elected to Congress 


from the Fourth District, and began practicing law at Springfield. Again he was 
called to take over part of a term of the county school superintendent, who had failed 
to keep his contract. He never broke away from school work again. 

"He became a state wide figure in 1919 when he ran for the office of Superintendent 
of Public Instruction on the Republican ticket. Together with the entire ticket, he 
was elected. 

"His reforms in that office attracted National interest. One of his first acts was 
to foster an educational survey of the State, as a basis of almost revolutionary legis- 
lation that he later introduced. 

"Through the personality and executive ability of Mr. Colvin, a school legislative 
program was put through in 1920 which changed the head of the county school 
systems from an elective county superintendent to a county superintendent appointed 
by a non-political county board of education. This was opposed bitterly by politicians, 
who saw some of the powers of the party sacrificed to ? Colvin's Idealism.' 

"His next step was the standardizing of professional and educational qualifications 
for county superintendents and teachers. Under his reform system all examination 
papers were graded at Frankfort under the supervision of a staff of educators which 
he had added to this office. The temptation of superintendents to exchange certificates 
for political patronage was definitely removed. 

"Certificates were no longer issued for life, but held for short periods, after which 
the applicant must show additional credits and experience in the profession. The 
State Department provided summer schools for teachers and sponsored extension 
courses that would enable teachers to meet the requirements. 

"Salary schedules based on qualifications and professional fitness were inaugurated 
also. Teachers' institutes were abolished and summer schools given in their place. 
An arrangement was made for the State to pay most of the expenses of these schools 
where the counties were unable to bear the expense. 

"Mr. Colvin's diligence in uncovering frauds in many counties in connection with 
the school funds and county examinations left him many political enemies. 

"Teaching was made a profession under his four year administration. The teacher 
was rated on her qualifications and professional attitude rather than on one examina- 
tion, sometimes fraudulently passed, which was good for a lifetime. 

"The State's yearly expenditure for schools of $5,000,000 was placed under a staff 
of auditors and inspectors, who kept check on the use of state funds for 10,000 school 
districts of the state. Formerly, the work had been done by two inspectors on a salary 
of $1,000 a year each. 

"Mr. Colvin placed every department of the State Deparement of Education on a 
systematic basis with trained executives in charge of each. As a result, the county 
school systems have been placed on a sound basis, according to reports issued by the 
Department, and several other states have passed laws with Kentucky's system as 
a model. 

"Two honorary degrees were given Mr. Colvin in recognition of his work as an 
educator. His alma mater, Centre College, and the University of Kentucky each be- 
stowed upon him the degree LL.D. 

"The first to advocate an amendment to the State Constitution which would permit 
the distribution of school funds on the basis of local needs, Mr. Colvin fought for 
the reform through and since his administration. He also changed the school funds 
from interest bearing warrant basis to a cash basis. 

"Mr. Colvin resigned from the office near the end of his term to make the race 
for the Republican nomination for Governor in 1923 against Charles I. Dawson. 


With the support of the leading educators of the State, Mr. Colvin waged a strong 
campaign but lost in the convention. 

"Following his defeat, Mr. Colvin was appointed superintendent of the Louisville 
and Jefferson Children's Home. He held this position for three years after which 
he was offered the presidency of the University of Louisville. He took charge of 
the institution in 1926, and continued until his death. 

"He was married to Miss Mary McElroy, Springfield, Kentucky, in 1903. Three 
children were born to them, two of whom are living. The other died at the age of five. 

"Mr. Colvin was a member of the Christian Church and the Masonic and Elk 

The eminent educator, Dr. M. E. Ligon, wrote of Mr. Colvin and his work: "The 
year 1920 was epoch-making in education in Kentucky. In January of that year 
George Colvin, Superintendent of Schools in Springfield, became Superintendent of 
Public Instruction. He was a graduate of Centre College and had served Springfield 
as Superintendent for sixteen years. He was a man of high ideals and he understood 
the educational problems of the state. He brought to his task a sound body, a vigorous 
personality, some new ideas, a conviction that his ideas were sound, and a fearless 
determination to serve the state to the best of his ability. Under his leadership of 
four years, probably more significant legislation was enacted than under any superin- 
tendent since the days of Superintendent Robert J. Breckinridge. The legislature 
of 1920 may well be designated the "welfare legislature." It passed several laws 
which were planned to give the state a better system of public schools. The act creating 
a county board of education with power to select a county superintendent of schools 
on a basis of professional training and experience was outstanding. Another act 
created a commission for the purpose of making a survey of the public school system. 
County boards of education were authorized to issue bonds for the purpose of pro- 
viding funds for purchasing grounds and constructing buildings. The vocational 
education board was authorized to appoint an inspector of the schools which offered 
vocational courses. County boards of education were empowered to employ attendance 
officers. Provision was made for the certification of teachers on the basis of training. 
An increased appropriation for clerical and stenographic help in the State Department 
of Education was made. A minimum salary of seventy-five dollars per month for 
teachers was approved. Provision for teaching thrift and physical training was made. 
A State Board of Charities and Corrections was created. In 1922 two new normal 
schools were authorized, county teachers* institutes were abolished, summer teacher 
training schools were authorized, and the normal schools at Bowling Green and 
Richmond were made teachers' colleges."'" 

The 1920 General Assembly submitted a constitutional amendment making the office 
of State Superintendent of Public Instruction statutory instead of constitutional. 
The amendment would have led to the removal of this office from politics and made 
the superintendent appointive instead of elective. However, the amendment was de- 
feated. Many politicians opposed it, and the people either did not understand it or 
feared that it smacked of "Federalism," or both. The Kentucky voters throughout 
the life of the state have been reluctant to permit changes in their constitutions, and 
usually opposed to new constitutions — much to the detriment of the state and the 
stigmatizing of the people. Mr. Colvin spoke often and feelingly upon the subject 
of the amendment. Among other things he declared: "Education in Kentucky in the 
past has suffered more from a lack of definite policy and a continued program than 
from any other single cause. Every four years, administration of our schools is 
changed. Under the law no state superintendent can succeed himself. Our schools 


are a sort of legislative crazy quilt. Each succeeding superintendent adds a patch or 
two that may or may not harmonize with the whole. No business can succeed if its 
policies are changed every three or four years. The administration of schools is the 
State's biggest business. In no department of government is a permanent program 
more necessary than in the administration of schools. Kentucky will not have better 
schools until she has better administration of her schools so long as she has politically 
elected superintendents serving only four years. . . . Those who tell us that Ken- 
tucky has not suffered from politically elected superintendents are either misinformed 
or are deliberately misleading the people. In education Kentucky ranks forty-fifth 
among the states. Until recently the attendance in our public schools was 37 per 
cent. Our teachers are not only the most poorly paid, but they are also the most 
poorly prepared of any state in the Union with the possible exception of two. It is 
not because Kentucky children cannot be taught; it is not because Kentucky teachers 
lack capacity to learn or devotion to teach; it is simply because children and teachers 
alike have not been given a chance. No man who loves Kentucky, who loves Ken- 
tucky's childhood can be satisfied with Kentucky's condition educationally. Nothing 
has contributed to this condition more largely than lack of competent, conscientious, 
continued, educational leadership." 80 

Another amendment was proposed at the same time, namely to fix a minimum 
salary for the poor, underpaid teachers. Speaking upon this second provision, Mr. 
Colvin, who was both courageous and eloquent, with a fine, deep, musical voice, de- 
clared: "The adoption of the second amendment will make it possible for every 
teacher in Kentucky to receive at least the minimum salary of $75.00. per month. It 
will make it possible for every school in Kentucky to have at least a six months term. 
It will also make it possible to aid those high schools that can not now reach the state's 
standard. No greater opportunity ever came to the teachers of Kentucky than the 
opportunity to fight for the adoption of these two amendments. 

"I know that the professional politician has been accustomed, in the past, to treat 
the Kentucky teacher with contempt. They think that $450.00 a year is too much to 
pay for the most sacred and the most difficult work that is being done in Kentucky. 
They do not care whether this poor pittance is paid when it is earned or not. Other 
officials drawing their salary from the state must be paid promptly when the salary 
comes due; but the teacher could wait, and sometimes they did wait for as much as 
twelve months before receiving their pay check. The professional politician is no 
more interested in the teacher now than he has been in the past. The teachers of 
Kentucky will never be respected, will never be properly rewarded until they appreciate 
and exercise the power that is theirs. Fourteen thousand teachers fighting in the 
holiest cause that ever invoked the devotion and courage of men — the cause of the 
Kentucky child, are invincible if they do but stand together. 

"I challenge every Kentucky teacher to measure up to the high obligation that is 
his. We fight not for ourselves alone, but we fight for the rights of six hundred 
and fifty thousand Kentucky children. In the name of those children, I challenge 
every Kentucky teacher to use voice and vote in support of the whole school program. 
Let's have faith in ourselves. Let's have faith in our profession. Let's have faith in 
our cause. Let's have faith in Kentucky." 81 

This important idea was projected by the forceful, energetic Mr. Colvin. It is 
here explained by Miss Conroy: "Colvin developed the idea of an equal educational 
opportunity for every Kentucky child. He believed equal educational opportunity 
should depend upon taxation — not taxation of a city to support county schools, or 
taxation of a favored county to support schools of a less favored county, or taxation 


of the Blue Grass to support schools in the Mountains of the ^Knobs' — but taxation 
of city and county, rich counties and poor, Blue Grass and Mountains, for the equal 
benefit of all the children of the state. He believed in gathering Kentucky's taxes 
where her wealth lay and in distributing her bounties where her children were. Colvin 
believed in taking the fight for better schools back to the people. He believed that 
a good school system must reflect the genius of a people and must grow out of public 

Although he did not achieve a great deal in this fight, Mr. Colvin waged it heroically 
nevertheless. The interests were against it; some self-satisfied wealthy communities 
were opposed to it (but not all; many of those who stood to lose locally were among 
the strongest supporters) and thousands of the poor ignorant who had most to gain 
by its adoption voted against it. But it was neither the first nor the last time that 
Kentucky voters set their faces determinedly against progress. 

Mr. Colvin brought to the State Department of Education something new. He 
was powerful physically, striking and handsome in appearance, dynamic and forceful 
in personality, impulsive, emotional, fearless, big-hearted, sympathetic, with an intense 
love for Kentucky, a deep conviction in the rightness of democratic education and a 
positive mania for helping the downtrodden and those without opportunity for success 
and happiness. He was an educator who dared to stand up and boldly tell the poli- 
ticians that education was the first and most important consideration and that reforms 
would have to be made. This was something new in educational circles. Perhaps not 
since "Zack" Smith had any educator dared such a thing. 

Things at the Department "hummed" while he was there. His capacity for work 
was apparently unlimited. The office staff, soon growing to love him, worked at top 
speed — and never a dull moment. 

On a summer evening, across the way from the Capitol, shaggy-mopped George 
Colvin and his great bosom friend, Dr. John Wesley Carr, could be found seated 
on the porch, their sleeves rolled up, ecstatically spouting Shakespeare with the brilliant 
verve and fascinating enthusiasm of the "wonderful boy" Samuel Taylor Coleridge. 
Across the other way at the Mansion, there was a "sound of revelry by night." The 
beauty and chivalry of Kentucky in a gay, galaxy of rhythm gracefully glided in 
exhilarating convolutions to the melodic strains of Strauss' lilting waltzes. At intervals 
the silvery peals of Ed Morrow's resonant voice could be heard from the veranda 
telling his fascinating stories of Kentucky life. In the words of Wordsworth, "Great 
was it in that dawn to be alive." Morrow, Colvin, Ballard, Vaughan — all able, pro- 
gressive men — were in Frankfort with great dreams for Kentucky, there to serve the 
state with all their power. Reform was the harbinger; progress the watchword. Then, 
1920, 1921, the "Carpetbaggers" had not yet moved in; then the stifling jealousies and 
petty ambitions for personal preferment had not crept up to paralyze the glorious 
work — keen desire for vicarious labor for the good of the Commonwealth seemed to 
motivate each worker. 

Mr. Colvin gave all he had unstintingly to the work for educational progress in 
Kentucky. He knew the state's needs and was courageous enough to fight for them; 
he knew that he could not achieve all, realized in advance that some of the measures 
would be hopelessly defeated. Yet he dared be a pioneer, that the road might be 
easier for those who would follow. He dared make many enemies in the interest of 
reform and progress. Yet, it may be said, as General Edward Bragg, of Wisconsin, 
said of Grover Cleveland, "We love him for the enemies he has made." 



(Quoted from Peters, History of Education in Kentucky, 1915-1940, pp. 85, 86) 

James H. Richmond, the twenty-fourth Superintendent of Public Instruction of 
Kentucky, was born April 17, 1884, at Ewing, Virginia. He was the son of Nathaniel 
Ewing and Mary Morison Richmond, who were among the leading families of that 
section of mountain country. His father was a physician in a reasonably progressive 

James grew up under normal conditions, performing the usual boyhood chores. His 
chief recreation consisted of hunting, fishing, and playing baseball. He attended the 
elementary schools at Cumberland Gap, Tennessee, and completed his secondary school 
work in the Harrow High School. He attended college at Lincoln Memorial University 
and the University of Tennessee, where he received the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 
He did graduate work at Lincoln Memorial, University of Kentucky, and the Uni- 
versity of Louisville. He holds the honorary degree of LL.D conferred by the Uni- 
versity of Kentucky, the University of Louisville, and Lincoln Memorial University. 

On December 15, 1917, he was married to Pearl J. Thompson of Louisville, Ken- 
tucky. They have two daughters, Ruth and Anne Howell. 

Before his election to the office of State Superintendent, he served as principal of 
public and private schools in Tennessee, Texas, and Kentucky. He organized and 
successfully conducted for several years the "Richmond Training School for Boys" 
in Louisville, and in 1928 he accepted the position as State High School Inspector with 
office in the State Department of Education at Frankfort. This position he held until 
his induction into the office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. Mr. Richmond 
came into this position with unusual energy, vitality, enthusiasm and aspiration to render 
a real service to the State that had thus honored him. 

Since the expiration of his term as Superintendent of Public Instruction, Mr. Rich- 
mond has served as President of Murray State Teachers College, Murray, Kentucky. 
He is thought of in Kentucky as being capable, aggressive, and energetic. He has 
been called upon by the National Education Association and U. S. Office of Educa- 
tion, Washington, D. C, and has served as Chairman of the National Committee for 
Federal Aid for Education. 

Mr. Richmond is a member of the Christian Church, where he has given much time 
to procuring opportunities for orphans. He is a member of the Masonic Fraternity 
(Knights Templar and Shriner) and of the Rotary and Pendennis Clubs of Louis- 
ville. (End of quotation) . 

The native ability for leadership is rare in this age of socialization and standardiza- 
tion, which tend to make a mass product of human beings and to the leveling of 
individuality. Yet Dr. Richmond is one of those rare personages with ability to lead. 
He possesses a bigness of personality, a magnanimity of soul, an affability of manner, 
a benevolence of heart, a soundness of intellect, an abundance of energy, a purpose- 
fulness of being, an inate wisdom of human kind, all of which conspire to make of 
him one of the foremost Kentucky leaders of this century. And his leadership has 
been directed in the interest of human. It may be said of him as of George Colvin 
that he loves Kentuckians, particularly the youth, and has devoted his life to their 
betterment through educational advancement. Not content to sit and mark time, he 
has labored with the consecrated zeal of a prophet of old to break the shackles which 
hinder mankind and stifle progress and has labored earnestly for progress in Kentucky. 
He has never shunned a conflict for the betterment of the Kentucky boys and girls, 
has been a happy warrior, a hero in the fight. But he has known how to work with 


men. His achievements as State Superintendent of Public Instruction are summarized 
in the succeeding paragraphs. 

In seeking election at the hands of the people, James H. Richmond pledged them,, 
if he should be elected, to make every effort to do the following things: 

1. Reorganize the school laws of Kentucky; 

2. Secure an increase in the school per capita; 

3. Provide free textbooks. 

His efforts in endeavoring to revise the school laws, along with those of school and 
civic leaders throughout the state, resulted in the creation of the Kentucky Educa- 
tional Commission, whose responsibility would be to make necessary recommendations 
for an improved school set-up. The Governor appointed the following people on this 

Mrs. James G. Sheehan, President of the Kentucky Congress for Parents and 
Teachers, Danville; Dr. Frank L. McVey, President of the University of Kentucky, 
Lexington; Mr. J. W. Bradner, Superintendent of City Schools, Middlesboro; Mr. H. 
W. Peters, Superintendent of Christian County Schools, Hopkinsville; Honorable W. 
J. Webb, attorney, Mayheld; Mr. Yancey Altsheler, wholesale grocer, Louisville; Hon- 
orable Ben Williamson, former United States Senator, Ashland; James H. Richmond, 
Superintendent of Public Instruction and Chairman of the Commission, in accordance 
with section 3 of the Commission Act. 

James W. Cammack, Jr., Director of Research in the State Department of Educa- 
tion, was made secretary of the Commission. 

This Commission, working in close cooperation with the committees appointed by 
it, succeeded in writing a complete set of new school laws. It took two years to do 
this; and after the Commission's report was prepared, it was publicized throughout 
the state. Schools, churches, luncheon clubs, P. T. A. groups and many others were 
acquainted with the provisions of this proposed legislation. 

Mr. Robert K. Salyers, Jr. headed the publicity for this very important work. He 
did a magnificent job. During Governor Laffoon's second Legislature, this School 
Code was passed. It repealed all existing school laws, and gave Kentucky a new set 
of school laws, which have been recognized as among the best in the United States. 
Subsequently, other states have copied these laws. It is interesting to note that only 
two dissenting votes in the Legislature were cast against this measure. Incidentally, it 
should be observed that in addition to the services of the State Department, the Ken- 
tucky Education Association appropriated $7,500.00 to the Commission, the General 
Education Board, $5,000.00 and the Kentucky Negro Association, $500.00. 

The success in connection with the campaign for a new School Code in Kentucky 
reveals this fact: If the proposition is sound, and the people are acquainted with it 
— all the people — it will be adopted. 

The administration of James H. Richmond took place during the great depression. 
The per capita was decreasing steadily. In 1932-33, it was $7.00; in 1933-34, it 
dropped to $6.00; and if the Legislature had not changed the method of securing school 
money — giving a definite appropriation rather than depending upon the millage tax, 
the school per capita would have fallen below $5.00 in the year 1934-35. The Super- 
intendent recommended a $12.00 per capita. Such an appropriation was made by 
the Legislature. It happened, however, that the school census was greater than was 
anticipated, thereby making the per capita $11.60, which was the largest per capita, 
up to that time, in the history of the state. From that time on, $12.00 has been con- 
sidered the minimum for the school per capita. 

During the administration of Governor Sampson, a law was passed providing free 


textbooks for the lower grades, but no appropriation was made for this. Richmond 
succeeded in getting an appropriation of $500,000.00, annually, for this purpose; and 
such appropriations have continued to this date. 

It will be noted that the three main pledges of Superintendent Richmond were 
kept. In addition to the new School Code, an increased school per capita, a direct 
appropriation and not a millage tax being realized, and an appropriation for free 
textbooks, he reorganized the State Department on a functional basis, and established 
a central filing system. In passing, it will be observed that the per capita was almost 
doubled and the appropriation for free textbooks realized during the depth of the 
greatest depression in our history. 

Attention should be called to several fundamental changes, reflected in the new 
School Code, brought about during this administration: a State Board of Education 
appointed by the Governor supplanting the Ex Officio Board made up of the Attorney 
General, Secretary of State and Superintendent of Public Instruction; raising certifi- 
cation requirements, thereby guaranteeing better trained teachers; the creation of a 
Council on Public Higher Education; the improvement in school budgetary procedures; 
and provisions directed toward the elimination of weak independent school districts 
and the strengthening of county school districts. 

During the administration of Superintendent Richmond, much progress was made 
not only in improving the school laws and securing additional finances for the support 
of the schools but school morale was strengthened, and the lay public became more 
sensitive to the needs of the schools. 

Had Dr. Richmond achieved nothing else during his administration than securing 
the codification of the state's school laws, and the passage of the code by the General 
Assembly, he would be remembered as one of Kentucky's outstanding superintendents. 
This code is approximately one-seventh as long as a compilation of the old hetero- 
geneous, contradictory and obsolete school laws scattered through the statute books for 
generations. But the work was more than a mere codification; it introduced new laws 
in the nature of sweeping reform, such as the creation of a new, more workable State 
Board of Education, the creation of county districts, the provision for qualifications 
for county board members, the efficient management of school funds, the elimination 
of sub-district trustees, compulsory school attendance, revision of certification of teachers. 
What Justinian was to Roman law, Dr. Richmond was to Kentucky's educational system. 


A History by James Moreland 

Established by Pioneer 

An educational institution rooted in the soil of Kentucky at the very beginning of 
the settlement of that State was destined to develop through an unbroken line into the 
present Georgetown College. In November, 1775, John McClelland and a few 
pioneers floated down the Ohio River from Pittsburgh and settled on the present site 
of Georgetown. Attracted by the water of the "Royal Spring," as had been these 
pioneers, others came to take up their abode in the beautiful wilderness, and thus one 
of the earliest permanent settlements of the State was effected. 

Thirteen years after McClelland and his party first looked on the site of their future 
home, Elijah Craig established his Classical School and opened the doors for men de- 
siring to secure an education. This school was the forerunner of Georgetown College. 
It was maintained until 1798, when it was absorbed by Rittenhouse Academy. This 


latter institution was chartered, by the Legislature of Kentucky on December 22 of that 
year, and was endowed with 6,000 acres of the public lands of the State. 

Chartered by Legislature in 1829 

A building was erected by the Rittenhouse trustees, and the institution continued in 
its educational endeavors until well into the next century. On January 15, 1829, the 
Kentucky Legislature chartered "The Trustees of the Kentucky Baptist Education So- 
ciety," the corporate name of Georgetown College, and the trustees of Rittenhouse 
Academy transferred all the property of the Academy, real and personal, to the 
trustees of the new institution. 

On September 2, 1829, the trustees of the College elected William Staughton, D.D., 
a resident of Washington, D. C, president of the College. While preparing to come 
to Georgetown to assume his duties as head of the institution, Dr. Staughton died 
suddenly on December 12, 1829. 

In the meantime the trustees had ordered that the doors of the new college be opened 
for instruction, and on January 11, 1830, the first session was formally inaugurated 
with Thornton F. Johnson of Virginia as acting chairman of the faculty. Mr. Johnson 
was the first faculty member elected by the board of trustees of the College. The first 
session closed on June 11, 1830, and was followed, on July 26, with the opening of the 
second term. In the meantime Dr. Joel S. Bacon of Newton Center, Mass., had been 
elected president of the College, and he made his first address at the beginning of the 
second session. This session was opened at the Methodist Church in Georgetown, 
due to the lack of room on college property. 

Four Years Without President 

President Bacon resigned as head of the institution in 1832, and from this time 
until 1836 the institution was without a president. In the latter year Rev. B. S. 
Farnsworth was elected as third president, and assumed his duties. He resigned the 
same year, however, due to his inability to secure concord among the trustees, and 
again the educational guidance of the College devolved on the chairman of the faculty, 
until October, 1838, when Rev. Rockwood Giddings became president. 

The term of President Giddings was limited to only one year, due to premature 
death, but during his administration he demonstrated that the College had a future, 
and with the proper management could be made a great institution. During his 
term of office the first permanent building of the College was erected on the campus. 
This structure, known as Recitation Hall for years, but later renamed, in honor of 
its builder, Giddings Hall, is at present the central building on the campus, and the 
architectural type to which all other building are to conform. 

First Permanent Building 

The building, a large two-story brick, beautiful in the coloring of its walls, stands, 
a stately pioneer, in the center of the group of educational buildings of Georgetown 
College. Its prominent feature is the six Ionic columns of hand-made brick, solid to 
the core and strong as Gibraltar, that would mark it as Kentucky-designed were it 
on the plains of Timbuctoo. At present this building is used exclusively for instruction 
purposes, but is eventually to be converted into the College library and made the 
center of the new architectural plan of this seat of learning. It is claimed by men 
of the building profession that the columns of this building are the only ones of their 
kind in the world. The bricks for this structure were burned on the campus, and the 
bulk of the work of erection was carried out by students and faculty members. 


President Giddings did not assume any teaching duties, but gave his time to the 
raising of funds for the needs of the institution, and in securing harmony among the 
trustees. During his short term of office he erected the main building mentioned 
above, and secured pledges for $100,000 as an endowment fund for the College. The 
bulk of this was never collected, however, due to a financial crisis which swept the 
country and made impossible the payment of most of the pledges. 

On October 29, 1839, President Giddings died. He was succeeded early in 1840 
by Dr. Howard Malcolm, who served for ten years. It was during Dr. Malcolm's 
administration that many of the plans of Dr. Giddings and his predecessors were 
realized. A boys' dormitory was built, and named after Issachar Pawling, whose do- 
nation of $20,000 to the College represented the first large gift to the institution. 
This building brought the total up to three structures on the campus, which were 
destined to care for the College until late in the century. 

President Resigns Because of Politics 

In 1849, President Malcolm resigned from the College, being impelled largely by 
political conditions around him which did not have his sympathy. It was in the period 
of the anti-slavery agitation. He was succeeded by Dr. J. L. Reynolds of South 
Carolina, who served until 1851, when he, too, resigned to give way to Dr. Duncan 
R. Campbell, who took up the duties of his office in 1853. 

Changes Made in Charter 

During the administration of President Reynolds there were certain changes made 
in the charter of the College which had far-reaching effects, and which have played a 
large part in the development of the institution. By legislative act of November, 
1851, it was "enacted that each individual who since January 1, 1840, has donated to 
the Kentucky Baptist Education Society, $100, or shall do so in the future, shall be 
and are hereby constituted a body politic and corporate, to be known and designated 
by the name and style of Kentucky Baptist Education Society, and by that name 
shall have perpetual succession, and a common seal, with power to change and alter 
said seal at pleasure." 

These changes further provided that this Society should hold annual meetings during 
commencement week, that 25 members of the society should constitute a quorum for 
the transaction of business, and that this organization should have the sole power to 
appoint the trustees of the Kentucky Baptist Education Society, which were the trustees 
of Georgetown College. This change in the charter affected materially the operation 
of the institution, since before this time there were 24 trustees who were self-per- 
petuating, and from this time on, these 24 members were elected by the Society. It 
further changed a mere name into a working body constantly growing in numbers. 

President Campbell Advances Work 

When President Campbell entered on the duties of his office in 1853, the interests 
of the College were materially advanced. Of the "Giddings Fund" which had been 
raised in 1839 and 1840, only about $10,000 remained for general endowment uses, 
since a large portion of this money had gone into the completion of the main college 
building and into the erection of Pawling Hall, a boys' dormitory. President Camp- 
bell prosecuted a vigorous campaign for funds, and succeeded in securing pledges for 
$100,000 for the institution. Of this amount, about one-half was collected and in- 
vested as endowment by the trustees. The remainder was taken in the form of personal 
promises and notes, practically all of which was lost due to the Civil War, which made 


it impossible for many of the donors to meet their obligations. This part of the 
pledged amount was cancelled by the College. 

Notwithstanding this severe loss to the finances of the College, the institution 
weathered the Civil War much better than many institutions which went to the wall 
through this period. At the conclusion of hostilities the $50,000 invested had been 
little if any impaired. It was this fund which in a large measure made it possible for 
the College to survive the severe period which followed the war. 

Dr. Campbell died suddenly in 1865, and was succeeded in the presidency by Rev. 
Nathaniel Macon Crawford, who resigned in 1871 due to ill health, and who in turn 
was followed in September of the same year by Dr. Basil Manly, Jr., a native of 
Alabama and a graduate of the University of that State. Dr. Manly continued as 
president until 1879, when he resigned to accept again his old professorship in the 
Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, from which he had resigned to come to 

During these last two administration no general attempt was made to increase the 
funds of the institution, aside from an effort to endow a "Student's Chair" and toward 
which some $8,000 was collected through the zeal of Dr. J. J. Rucker, a professor of 
Mathematics in the College. Another forward step made during this period was the 
erection of a wing to Pawling Hall, which formed a new front to this building. The 
cost of the improvement was $7,000. 

President Dudley's Services 

Dr. Manly was succeeded by Dr. Richard M. Dudley as president. Dr. Dudley was 
born in Madison County, Kentucky, on September 1, 1838. He graduated from 
Georgetown College in 1860, and was the first graduate of the institution to be elevated 
to the presidency. He served in this capacity until his death, January 5, 1893, having 
acted as president for thirteen years, or since 1880. 

The impress made by Dr. Dudley on the institution was probably the greatest of 
any president up to his time. During his administration he tripled the endowment, 
new professorships were created, new courses were added, the student body was in- 
creased, and toward the close of his term coeducation was adopted by the College. 
As a direct result of his work, two large new building were added to the College, but 
these were not completed until after his death. 

Coeducation Introduced 

One year before the death of President Dudley, women were admitted to the College 
on the same basis as men. This radical change in the policy of the institution necessi- 
tates a flash back to the year 1845, when the college was only sixteen years old. At 
that time there was founded in Georgetown an educational institution for women, known 
as the Georgetown Female Seminary. From 1845 until 1868 this educational venture 
was housed in buildings erected for purposes other than education. In 1868 Semi- 
nary Hall was erected on property belonging to the Seminary, and this structure 
housed the institution in all departments until 1892, when young women were ad- 
mitted to the College and accepted in the classrooms with men. It continued to serve 
as their dormitory until 1895, when the College erected a large dormitory for girls. 
This building was named Rucker Hall, in honor of Prof. J. J. Rucker, who for years 
was principal of the Seminary and a pioneer in Kentucky in advocating coeducation. 
Up to this period, Kentucky had not made provision for the higher education of 
young women equal to that for young men. The new dormitory was erected on the 
south side of the campus, and was large enough to accomodate 120 girls. 


When the residents of Seminary Hall left to take up their abode in the new build- 
ing, the boys occupied their old home and the "Old Sem" became a boys' dormitory 
until 1922, when it was abandoned by the College and the site sold to the city for 
the erection of a $263,000 high school building. 

New Building Erected 

Following the death of Dr. Dudley, the trustees called Dr. Augustus Cleveland 
Davidson of Covington, Kentucky, a graduate of the College in the class of 1871, 
to the office, and he held this position for six years to August, 1898, when he resigned. 
During his administration (1894) the Chapel Building was erected, containing a chapel, 
library, gymnasium, literary society halls, and several classrooms. Rucker Hall was 
also built in 1895, as has been mentioned. Following his resignation, Professor Arthur 
Yager was chosen as chairman of the faculty, and the institution was without a presi- 
dent until 1901, when the trustees called Dr. B. D. Gray to the presidency. Dr. Gray 
served for two years, and was succeeded in 1903 by Dr. Joseph Judson Taylor. In 
1907 Dr. Taylor resigned and Dr. Arthur Yager became president, which offiice he 
held until 1913, when he resigned, soon after which he was appointed as Governor- 
General of Porto Rico by his former classmate, President Woodrow Wilson. He filled 
this position with high distinction for eight years. 

In September, 1913, Dr. Maldon Browning Adams became the choice of the trustees 
for the presidency, and entered upon his duties. He is still in this position and under 
his administration the College had made commendable progress. 

Growth Under President Adams 

On assuming the presidency, President Adams set himself to the task of placing the 
College on the accredited lists of different standardizing agencies. In 1919 he realized 
the first step in his plans for the greater Georgetown, when the Association of Colleges 
and Secondary Schools of the Southern States placed the institution on its list of ap- 
proved colleges. In this same year the Academy, which had been a part of the institu- 
tion since its inception, was abolished and only regular college work allowed. Special 
courses were discouraged, and the great majority of students entering were regularly 
enrolled for a degree. This same situation has become the settled policy of the in- 

Following its inclusion in the list of standard southern colleges, Georgetown was 
made a member of the American Association of Colleges, and has since become a 
member of the American Council on Education. 

When President Adams assumed the responsibilities of the presidency, there were 
only 112 regular college students and ten members of the faculty. During his ad- 
ministration the enrollment has steadily increased until more than 400 are enrolled 
each year, and the faculty has been increased from ten to thirty-one members. 

There was organized a permanent financial department, known as the 2nd Century 
Fund, the purpose of which is to constantly seek for funds for the use of the institu- 
tion in caring for its expansion needs in current expenses, endowment and buildings. 

Expansion Program Started 

In 1923 the trustees of the College purchased a tract of land immediately to the 
east of the campus for use as an athletic field at such time as the present athletic field 
will be needed for buildings. They also purchased a strip of land 130 feet wide 
running from College Street to Main Street in order that the College might have a 
direct outlet to the residence and business center of the city. 


A movement was started by the student body in May, 1924, for a new gymnasium. 
As a result of this movement and after the students had subscribed about $25,000 
toward the erection of the proposed building, the citizens of the town put on a cam- 
paign for funds to complete the contemplated cost of $100,000, and in September of 
this year, work was started, and the building was completed in 1925. 

Anticipating its needs for the future, the institution started in 1925 a campaign 
for one million dollars for endowment and buildings. Due to the fact that it con- 
flicted with the unified budget of the Baptist denomination in Kentucky, the campaign 
was discontinued after some four hundred thousand dollars had been pledged to the 
institution. After this effort the 2nd Century Fund, the permanent financial depart- 
ment of the College, was introduced by President Adams and adopted by the trustees. 

A Brief Summary of Recent History 

Dr. M. B. Adams was succeeded by Dr. Henry Eugene Watters as president in 
1931. Dr. Watters received his degrees from Union University. Before coming to 
Georgetown College he served seven years as Principal in Public Schools. He was 
President of Hall-Moody Institute; President of College of Marshall, Texas; Presi- 
dent of University. The college during this administration faced the same difficulties 
that all similar institutions had during the depression period. Enrollment and finan- 
cial troubles combined to make Dr. Watter's administration difficult. 

Dr. Henry Noble Sherwood succeeded Dr. Watters as President. Dr. Sherwood 
received his A.B. and Ph.D. from Indiana University, A.M. degree from Harvard 
University and LL.D from Beaver College. He came to Georgetown College from 
the University of Louisville, where he was professor of Political Science. Dr. Sher- 
wood's administration was marked by denominational differences. A period of discord 
led to the resignation of Dr. Sherwood in June, 1942. 

In November, 1942, Dr. S. S. Hill came to Georgetown College as President. He 
graduated from the University of Richmond and the Southern Baptist Theological 
Seminary. The University of Richmond conferred the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
upon Dr. Hill, June, 1943. He is a native of Virginia. He was serving as pastor of 
the Deer Park Baptist Church when elected to the presidency of the college. 

During the past year much has been done to improve the physical appearance of the 
college. Rucker Hall, Pawling Hall, Giddings Hall have received attention that has 
not only made them more beautiful inside but more useful as well. The other buildings 
are on the schedule for repairs when time and materials permit such work. New con- 
crete walks add to the beauty of the campus. Plans are being made for future building. 

Georgetown College is the Senior Baptist College of Kentucky and, as such, realizes 
and assumes the responsibility of forwarding Christian Education of the highest type 
in our state and throughout the country. The college feels that the Baptists of Ken- 
tucky want and deserve a college that gives to its students the loftiest ideals of Christian 
living and the best of Christian training. Our graduates serve the state and the nation, 
even the world. 

Georgetown College is a member of and is fully accredited by the Association of 
Colleges and Secondary Schools of the Southern States, and the Association of Ken- 
tucky Colleges and Universities. It also is a member of the Association of American 
Colleges, the American Council on Education, and of the Southern Intercollegiate 
Athletic Association. Her work and credits are received with full value by graduate 
schools and the state departments of education throughout the entire country. 


By Victor P. Henry 

Lindsey Wilson College was an answer to a deep need. Wise and safe was the 
choice made by those most responsible for the locating of the institution at Columbia, 
Kentucky, to meet that need. Lindsey Wilson College memorializes Lindsey Wilson, 
a beloved member of the family of Mrs. Catherine Wilson, who was a direct de- 
scendant of the Reverend Marcus Lindsey, an early itinerant minister in Kentucky. 
Mrs. Wilson's gift made the beginning of the college possible. 

The main buildings are beautifully and conveniently grouped on the ten acre 
hill-top campus. The Administration Building, erected in 1903, houses the adminis- 
trative offices, classrooms, and an auditorium-chapel on the first floor. The second 
floor is practically given over to library purposes. The library contains 6,000 well- 
selected volumes. Newspapers and carefully chosen magazines are also provided for 
student use. The lower floor, well-lighted and ventilated, is utilized by the science 

Philips Hall for girls, built in 1903, was named for Mrs. James Philips, of Lebanon, 
Kentucky, whose initial gift encouraged its construction. It is an attractive two-story 
brick building. It accommodates seventy girls. Faculty members occupy one wing of 
this hall. A large living-room provides a home-like atmosphere for the enjoyment of 
the students. 

The boys' dormitory is a three-story brick building. Forty double rooms are for 
the living and study room conveniences of the students. The Lounge is inviting for 
leisure hours, and committee meetings. 

A modern, sizeable gymnasium serves the recreational needs on the campus. The 
college dining room and a well-equipped kitchen are located on the lower floor of 
this building. 

On the campus is a model training school building. Two main class-rooms with ad- 
joining demonstration rooms are well equipped and furnish splendid facilities for ob- 
servation and practice teaching of the first six grades of grammar school, under the 
supervision of excellent critic teachers. 

On the acreage allotted for farm purposes a dairy barn has been built. Garden 
products and grain are grown. The products of the farm and dairy are used by the 
college and contribute greatly toward reduced living costs. 

True, the building of a college is a cooperative task. Throughout the years, the 
citizens of Columbia and vicinity, the Conferences, and many other friends have been 
loyal supporters of the institution, thus carrying on the service to young men and 
women, so early envisioned by those who had faith and daring sufficient to undertake 
the locating of an educational institution in that part of the state. 

The service which Lindsey Wilson Junior College has already rendered should 
challenge Kentucky Methodism and all others interested in Christian education to a 
greater endeavor in its behalf. For a number of years, this splendid institution carried 
on a high type of normal work. With the raising of educational standards, the Junior 
College was begun in 1923. 

The faith of the founders of Lindsey Wilson has been fully justified by the type 
and character of the great number of preachers, teachers, lawyers, doctors, and persons 
in numerous other professions which it has trained. Of the approximately 700 graduates 
of the old Training School, and 792 graduates of the Junior College, more than 1,300 
have become teachers, and over fifty have entered the ministry. 

Ninety per cent of the teachers of Adair County are former students, and the sur- 


rounding counties depend upon Lindsey Wilson for many of their teachers. Great is 
the responsibility of those who go forth to teach the boys and girls of our schools today! 
Fundamental to the life of the church, the nation, the world, is the type of Christian 
leadership now being trained in the schoolrooms for the tomorrows of life. 

Realizing the importance of this, the faculty of Lindsey Wilson take their task 
seriously. They are fully aware that those who come to its campus need guidance and 
counsel in the strengthening of those principles that are basic to an intelligent and re- 
sponsible type of living for themselves, and as they give expression to those principles 
in human relationships, wherever they choose to live and serve. 

The educational requirements at Lindsey Wilson have been well met. The graduates 
are readily admitted to the Junior Class of standard four-year colleges and universities. 
Lindsey Wilson is on the "A" grade accredited list with the University of Kentucky, 
and the Kentucky State Board of Education. It is a member of the Kentucky Asso- 
ciation of Colleges and Secondary Schools. 

Lindsey Wilson Junior College has a field which is particularly its own. The stu- 
dents from about a dozen counties in Southern Kentucky look to it for their educational 
opportunity. The territory runs about one hundred miles along the Kentucky-Ten- 
nessee line, and is approximately fifty miles deep. Numerous other students from 
other parts of Kentucky and bordering states make their way to Lindsey Wilson. 

The territory which it serves most largely is a recruiting ground for teachers and 
preachers, hundreds of whom have gone from her halls into these professions. Thus 
the influence of Lindsey Wilson Junior College has been felt in the educational and 
religious life of the State and nation. 

No better field of service can be found within the State. Doctor M. E. Ligon, the 
immediate past president of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary 
Schools said recently, "The Methodists have a real field for service in Southern Ken- 
tucky, and Lindsey Wilson should be developed." Christians dare not let their in- 
stitutions fail to meet the needs of this hour. 

During the past decade only limited attention has been given to equipment needs, 
and almost nothing has been done to build up Lindsey Wilson's endowment. These 
items cannot longer be neglected. To meet the demand that will soon be made on this 
institution, our physical plant must be improved by building a library, enlarging our 
administration building, creating a worshipful chapel, improving the laboratory equip- 
ment, and refurnishing the dormitories. We are planning to extend the curriculum by 
expanding some departments, and adding others. 

(From College Bulletin) 

Union College was founded in 1879 by a group of progressive citizens of Barbour- 
ville, who formed a stock company and by donation secured the main part of the 
present campus. In 1880 the first building was formally opened on the site of the 
present Administration Building. Mr. A. H. Harritt, who was instrumental in the 
organization of the school, was its first Principal. The local group soon discovered that 
the debt, for the new building was too great for them to carry, and accordingly, in 
1886, the buildings and property were ordered sold by the court. The Rev. Daniel 
Stevenson, the President of Augusta Collegiate Institute at Augusta, Kentucky took 
interest in Union College, and in 1886 purchased the property for the Board of 
Education, Kentucky Conference, Methodist Episcopal Church. He became the first 
President under the new management, and during his term was instrumental in en- 

6— Vol. II 


listing the- friendship of Mrs. Fanny Speed, who later left the College a legacy that 
guaranteed its permanence. 

Dr. Stevenson ranks as one of Kentucky's foremost educators. He was graduated 
from Transylvania University when Dr. Henry Bascom was its President. As a 
member of the Kentucky Conference, Methodist Episcopal Church, South, he was 
one of the leaders who helped in founding Kentucky Wesleyan College, now located 
at Winchester, Kentucky. In 1863 he was elected the first full-time superintendent 
of public instruction in Kentucky and exercised a wide influence in popularizing public 
education throughout the state. He brought this mature experience to Union College 
and placed its objectives in clear view. 

Upon the death of President Stevenson in 1897, the Rev James P. Faulkner, a 
member of the first graduating class of Union College, was elected to succeed him. 
During the administration of President Faulkner the college came into possession of 
the bequest of Mrs. Fanny Speed, and from that time its expansion was marked. 
During the same administration Fanny Speed Hall and the Central Heating Plant 
were planned and the work on the buildings was begun. These buildings were not 
available for use, however, until the beginning of the next administration, that of 
Rev. James W. Easley, B.D., A.M., whose term of office began in 1905. During the 
summer of 1906 the Administration Building was struck by lightning and burned. 
One year later it was replaced, and Stevenson Hall, home for men, was erected. The 
coming of the elective system and the broadening of the curriculum made a college 
program seem like an impossible task to those in charge. The college department was 
therefore discontinued in 1908, and for eight years the institution was maintained 
only as an academy and an elementary school. 

Upon the resignation of President Easley in 1910, the Hon. James D. Black, LL.D., 
of Barbourville, later Governor of Kentucky, became the fourth President of Union 
College. The two years of President Black's connection with the school are remembered 
as years of substantial growth. 

For the next three years the school was under the leadership of President Percy L. 
Ports, who for several years had been Professor of Natural Science. He was followed 
in 1914 by the Rev. E. R. Overley, who served as Acting President. This was the 
critical period in which the nature of the work that Union College should do in the 
future was being determined. 

In 1914 the Board of Education of the Methodist Episcopal Church, through its 
corresponding secretary, Dr. Thomas Nicholson, became interested in Union College 
and assisted the Board of Education of the Kentucky Conference in planning for its 
future. The Rev. Ezra T. Franklin, elected President in the same year, worked in 
close cooperation with the Board of Education of the Methodist Episcopal Church and 
soon formulated a far-reaching and practical program. In 1919 the Memorial Gym- 
nasium was built; in 1925 a home for the President was completed. A development 
program, inaugurated in 1921, helped to provide these improvements and materially 
aided in increasing the invested funds of the college. 

In 1927 a bequest of $50,000 was received from the estate of Mrs. Obed H. Wilson 
for the establishing of a professorship known as the "Francis Landrum Professor of 
Ethics and Moral Conduct." 

President Franklin severed his relationship with Union College November 15, 1928, 
to become President of Southwestern College, Winfield, Kansas. He was succeeded 
on February 1, 1929, by the Rev. John Owen Gross. 

President Gross, from the beginning of his administration, emphasized the improve- 
ment of instruction and the building of a strong faculty. His ambition was to see 


Union College accredited by all the regional agencies. That his ambitions were reached 
is well shown by the accreditation the college has now. President Gross succeeded 
in improving the quality of work of Union College and in broadening the service to 
the area which the institution renders. During his administration, land adjacent to 
the campus was purchased, thus making possible further expansion of the college. A 
modern maintenance building housing the central heating plant, workshops, and several 
classrooms was erected during his administration. 

President Gross resigned on August 20, 1938, to accept the position of President 
of Simpson College, Indianola, Iowa. He was succeeded on November 4, 1938, by 
Dr. Conway Boatman. 


The college department was closed in 1908 and no other work at this level was given 
until 1916. The need for a standard college in southeastern Kentucky became evident. 
Therefore, a program was adopted to discontinue the elementary and secondary de- 
partments and develop a college of liberal arts. In 1927 Union College was accredited 
by the University of Kentucky as a four-year college of "A" grade; in 1928 it was 
admitted to membership in the Association of Colleges and Universities of Kentucky; 
in 1931 it was accredited by the University Senate of the Methodist Episcopal Church; 
and in 1932 it was elected to membership in the Association of American Colleges. 
On December 1, 1932, its program for full accreditation was realized when it was made 
a member of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. The Board 
of Regents of the University of the State of New York placed Union College on its 
accredited list in 1937. 


Union College is located in Barbourville, the county seat of Knox County, Kentucky, 
near the southeastern corner of the state. It is within thirty-five miles of the corner- 
stone of three states — Kentucky, Virginia, Tennessee. Barbourville is a town of about 
3,000 population, located in a broad valley at the confluence of Richland Creek and the 
Cumberland River. It is surrounded by low hills of the Cumberland Mountain range. 
The town has such modern conveniences as natural gas, water works, electric lights, 
and paved streets. There are Baptist, Disciple, and Methodist Churches, and two ac- 
credited high schools, county and city. Barbourville is located on U. S. Highway 25E. 
Buses that make connections with points north and south pass through the town 
regularly. It is also on the Cumberland Valley Division of the Louisville and Nashville 

Aim and Purpose 

The constitution of Union College provides that it shall "devote its effort to the 
interest of Christian education and to qualifying and equipping men and women to 
engage creditably in the various employments, callings, and avocations of peaceful and 
progressive society and to discharge honorably and usefully the various duties of life." 
It is not a sectarian school, but is endeavoring to render impartial service to all who 
may come, especially to the young people of the mountain territory in which it is 
located. Union College endeavors to maintain a Christian atmosphere by securing for 
its faculty those persons who can accept, heartily and without reserve, the ideals for 
which the school stands. In its chapel exercises and special religious meetings it em- 
phasizes the importance of accepting Christ as a Personal Redeemer, Constant Guide, 
and inspiring Ideal. 



Administration Building — This building was erected in 1907 on the site of the 
one that was burned in 1906. It is a three-story structure of brick trimmed with 
Tennessee marble; it contains the various classrooms and laboratories, the chapel, and 
administrative offices. The ground floor also houses the kitchen and dining room. 

Speed Arts Building — This building, which was formerly the Speed Hall Dormitory 
for women, houses the Fine Arts and the Practical Arts divisions. Music and Art have 
their studios and the Home Economics Division has its laboratories and class rooms in 
this building. 

Stevenson Hall — The dormitory for men is a two-story brick building of colonial 
design. The rooms accommodate two students each. Some of the rooms have running 

Memorial Gymnasium — This building was erected in 1919 as a Memorial to the 
Soldiers and Sailors of the World War. It contains a regulation basketball court, 
showers, lockers, and dressing rooms. 

Library Building — Union's new library, which houses approximately 16,000 books, 
and receives regularly 290 periodicals, was opened for use January 13, 1941. A large 
reading room with space for 150 readers houses the reference books, current magazines, 
and bound periodicals. Books reserved for special class use are shelved in a smaller 
reading room on the second floor. In this room are also the books of fiction and the 
books given the International Relations Club by the Carnegie Corporation for Inter- 
national Peace. Well equipped workrooms and tastefully furnished lounge rooms add 
to the efficiency and beauty of the building. The library was adequately furnished 
throughout by Mrs. Abbie E. Stewart, of Des Moines, Iowa, in memory of her hus- 
band, George Stewart. 

Baldwin Place — This part of the campus was made possible by the gifts of Mr. 
and Mrs. F. E. Baldwin, Elmira, New York. The President's home is located on 
this site. 

Maintenance Building — This building was erected in 1937. It is a two-story 
brick building that contains the central heating plant and college shops. The wood- 
working shop was equipped by a gift made from the estate of the late Robert Norton, 
of New Albany, Indiana. 

Campus Cottage — This, the oldest building on the campus, a frame cottage of six 
rooms, was erected and occupied by Dr. Stevenson during his Presidency. 


(From Bulletin of Kentucky Wesleyan College, 1943-1944) 

Act of Incorporation 

By the approval of the Legislature of Kentucky on January 12, 1860, the Board of 
Education of the Kentucky Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
became a corporate body. A part of this act is given below: 

Section 1. That the Rev. W. C. Sanby, Rev. Daniel Stevenson, Rev. John H. Linn, 
Rev. John W. Cunningham, Rev. John C. Harrison, Rev. Robert Nimer, David 
Thornton, Moreau Brown, Hiram Shaw, B. P. Tevis, William Nunn and A. G. Stitt 
and their successors in office to be, and they are hereby, constituted a body politic and 
corporate, by the name and style of the Board of Education of the Kentucky Con- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, with the right and power of ex- 
ercising all and singular privileges, incidents and capacities of corporation aggregate, 
to sue and be sued, implead and be impleaded, grant or receive contract or be con- 


tracted with, and do and perform all other proper and necessary acts and things as 
natural persons; to purchase and hold land or other real estate and personal property 
as the Educational Fund of said Conference; to have and to use a common seal, and 
change the same at pleasure; to appoint as Executive Committee of its own body, or 
other persons members of said Church; to take charge of the college building and 
grounds, with such other powers as may be granted by the Board of Education, and 
within the provisions of this Act of Incorporation; to make by-laws and ordinances for 
the proper conduct and government of said College; provided said by-laws and ordi- 
nances shall not be inconsistent with the Constitution and Statutes of the State; to 
elect or appoint a President and such Professors, who shall compose the Faculty of 
said College, as they may think proper, and any teachers or assistants that they may 
think fit; to establish, change or abolish professorships, as the exigencies or interests of 
the College may require; to fix the salaries of professors and teachers and to do and 
perform all other acts necessary or expedient in sustaining said fund, and for the 
proper conduct of said College so as to render them successful in accomplishing the 
great object of their establishment, subject to the confirmation of the Conference. 

Section 2. That the members of this Board, to be hereafter appointed, shall be 
elected by the Kentucky Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, at its 
annual sessions. The said Conference may, at their pleasure, change the number of 
the Board but there shall never be less than twelve or more than eighteen. A majority 
of the Board shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business; provided, such 
official notice of time and place has been given as the Board may direct. 

Section 7. That the Faculty of said College shall have authority to confer degrees 
as they think just and proper, and to make all such needful rules and regulations in 
regard to the conduct of the pupils, and to the course of exercise and instruction that 
they deem best; subject, however, at all times to the control of the Board of Education, 
who may reject, revoke, modify or change the same as they may think proper. 

Section 8. That the property and estate, real and personal held and owned by the 
Board of Education under this Act, shall be free and exempt from taxation, whether 
the same be for State, county or corporation purposes. 

Section 12. That this Act shall take effect from its passage, but the Legislature 
reserves the right to amend or repeal the same. 

Under the above Charter, the Board of Education established Kentucky Wesleyan 

The following extracts are from the Article of Agreement for consideration of the 
Board of Education of the Kentucky Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, and the Board of Education of the Louisville Annual Conference of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, under the name of Joint Board of Education 
of the Kentucky and Louisville Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 
This agreement was made and entered into on the 25th day of February, 1926: 

The Board of Education of the Kentucky Annual Conference of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, and the Board of Education of the Louisville Annual Con- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, shall be, and are hereby, consoli- 
dated into a single corporation, to be known as the "Joint Board of Education of the 
Kentucky and Louisville Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South," and 
the said corporation, under the name and style aforesaid, shall have its principal office 
and place of business at Winchester, Clark County, Kentucky. 

The object and purpose of said consolidated Corporation, shall be the maintenance 
of Kentucky Wesleyan College, at Winchester, Kentucky, as a co-educational college, 
the maintenance of the Logan College at Russellville, Kentucky, as a preparatory 


school and as a Junior College for Women; the maintenance of Lindsey Wilson Junior 
College at Columbia, Kentucky, as a preparatory school and Junior College; the 
maintenance of such other educational institutions as it deems necessary or proper, 
and the general promotion of education along literary, scientific, moral and religious 
lines, within the territory embraced by the two aforesaid Conferences of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South. 

It may acquire by gift, devise, bequest, purchase or otherwise, and hold its general 
purposes or for specific purposes real and personal property; and (subject to specific 
limitations) may sell, convey, lease, pledge, or mortgage its real and personal estate; 
and, in general, it may exercise all the powers conferred by the general law upon cor- 
porate bodies. 

All funds and properties which have been donated, contributed or conveyed, to either 
of said constituent corporations for the support or maintenance of special chairs or 
schools or for any specific purpose, shall be held by said consolidated corporation and 
dedicated to and used for such specific purpose or purposes, strictly in accordance with 
and pursuant to the terms and conditions of such donation, gift or conveyance under 
which same has been received. 

The management and control of said corporation shall be vested in a board com- 
posed of sixteen members, eight of whom shall be elected by the Louisville Annual 
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and eight of whom shall be 
elected by the Kentucky Annual Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
said members to be nominated to their respective conferences by such method as each 
conferences may determine. One-half of each of said groups of eight shall be com- 
posed of clergy and one-half of laymen. 

Changes in Charter Authorized 

The Kentucky and Louisville Conferences in their 1939 annual sessions authorized 
revision of the charter of the Joint Board as follows: 

Resolved: That the Joint Board of Education of the Kentucky and Louisville Con- 
ferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, be and that it is hereby authorized 
and empowered to amend the articles of Incorporation of the said Joint Board of 
Education so as to make it read "The Methodist Church" where ever now occurs 
'The Methodist Episcopal Church, South," and also to change the time of the Annual 
Meeting of the said "Joint Board of Education" from Tuesday after the third Sunday 
in August to a time upon which they shall agree, and also to so amend the said 
Articles of Incorporation as to increase the membership of the said Joint Board of 
Education from sixteen members to twenty- four members; the sixteen members to be 
elected as at present and the eight additional members, to be known as members at 
large, to be nominated by the Joint Board of Education and one-half of them to be con- 
firmed by the Kentucky Conference and the other half by the Louisville Conference of 
the Methodist Church. The terms of the office of said members at large to be for 
four years each. 

The said Joint Board of Education is authorized so to amend the Articles of In- 
corporation as to enable them to fix the quorum necessary for the transaction of 

Historical Statement 

The first Methodist Institution of Learning west of the Allegheny Mountains was 
located in Jessamine County overlooking the Kentucky River and was called Bethel 
Academy. Later Bethel Academy was reorganized into Augusta College in the northern 


section of the state. Then for a period of years prior to the Civil War the Methodists 
in Kentucky had the supervision of Transylvania University. On January 12, 1860, 
the Board of Education of the Kentucky Annual Conference of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, South, was chartered. During the period of the Civil War progress 
was retarded and it was not until 1866 that Kentucky Wesleyan College began to 
function as an educational institution. Since that time it has had a leading part in the 
educational work of the state. 

First at Millersburg and then at Winchester it has developed steadily. Perhaps no 
other institution of like size has made a greater contribution in the way of leadership. 
Its graduates are in all walks of life. "Kentucky Wesleyan College has been the 
mother of Schools, Colleges and College Presidents." Four or five schools or colleges 
have been founded by her Alumni and nine of her graduates have become College 
Presidents. Many of the college trained ministers in Kentucky Methodism have been 
Kentucky Wesleyan men. A large number have gone to other Conferences. It is 
represented on many Mission Fields where our Church operates. Leading bankers, 
lawyers, merchants, and men in industrial enterprises look to Wesleyan as their Alma 

By the agreement entered into on the 25 th day of February, 1926, Kentucky Wes- 
leyan College became the joint property of the Kentucky and Louisville Conferences. 
It is now a co-educational institution. As such it is helping to build a ministry and a 
laity for all of Kentucky Methodism. 


Kentucky Wesleyan College is a full member of the Association of American Col- 
leges. It is approved for the training of ministers by the University Senate of the 
Methodist Church. 

Kentucky Wesleyan College is a member of the Kentucky Association of Colleges 
and Secondary Schools. Standard requirements for Admission, for Graduation, etc., 
are fixed by the University of Kentucky and are strictly complied with by this institu- 
tion. In this way our work is standardized on the basis of four years of college work 
and is accredited by the University of Kentucky. 

The college is practicaly free from debt and is now in the midst of a campaign to 
raise $500,000 for permanent endowment and equipment. 

Kentucky Wesleyan College is on the non-member list of the Southern Association 
of Colleges and Secondary Schools. In this relationship it pays full dues and is ex- 
amined annually. It expects to apply for full membership as soon as its endowment 
limitations have been removed. 

The scholastic credits of Kentucky Wesleyan students are easily transferred at full 
value to other institutions, both in Kentucky and in other states. 

Our graduates have no difficulty in meeting entrance requirements to the great 
universities for graduate study and professional training. Year after year, Wesleyan 
takes pride in the records made by our ambitious scholars who continue to achieve 
distinction in the fields of post-graduate study. 

Action Taken by Kentucky Conferences 

In the Fall of 1940, the Kentucky and Louisville Conference of the Methodist 
Church appointed a Joint Commission of Education Survey. This Commission re- 
ported to the two conferences at their Fall sessions in 1941 as follows: 

"That Kentucky Wesleyan College is so located as to be in a position to serve the 
needs of the entire state; and that, while it is true that it is located in the vicinity of 


other colleges, this feature may have its advantages as well as its disadvantages. 

t? That the best thing that Kentucky Methodism can do, therefore, is to concentrate 
its efforts in the development and maintenance of a full accredited college at Win- 

Aim and Purpose 

The Christian College 

The goal of the Christian College is Christian character, but the attainment of this 
goal will include many of the aims which are common to all colleges. Among these 
are scholarship, moral culture, physical training, cultivation of respect for law, training 
for citizenship, equipment for service, aesthetic development and preparation for 
wholesome social enjoyment. 

But the Christian College while having in common with private and state institutions 
these aims and ideals, must have consciously a goal which is definitely and consistently 
Christian. It must give Christian interpretation to the facts of knowledge, provide a 
Christian incentive to good citizenship, arouse a Christian motive for service, and nur- 
ture a Christian spirit and ideal in the social relationships of every day life. Finally, 
it must, through the attitude and example and instruction of its teachers, through all 
courses of study as well as in Bible and religious education, and through its religious 
activities and the atmosphere of its campus, bring its students into intimate fellowship 
with Jesus Christ as Savior and Friend, as inspiration and guide, in all endeavors to 
attain the goal of Christian character. 

In the pursuit of these aims the Christian College must set up such standards of 
thoroughness and efficiency as will command the recognition of the educational world, 
to the end that its certificates and diplomas will be accepted at face value wherever 
presented. It must offer an adequate course of study, must provide first class facilities 
and equipment for instruction, and must employ a faculty equal to the best in ability 
and teaching power. It must have financial support commensurate with these aims; 
and being without legislative backing, must rely upon endowment and the contributions 
of the Church. 

Kentucky Wesleyan College consciously accepts these aims. It writes the Christian 
purpose at the center of its program, strives definitely to attain it, and desires to include 
in its faculty those, and those only, whc will join heartily in the effort to attain them. 


Kentucky Wesleyan College is fortunate in its location. Winchester is a thriving 
city of varied industries, the county seat of Clark County, and beautifully situated in 
the rich blue grass region of Kentucky. Winchester's railroad connections are ideal, 
the town being located at a point of intersection of two important railroads — The 
Louisville and Nashville and the Chesapeake and Ohio. Convenient bus schedules are 
in operation. Federal highways 60 and 227 intersect at Winchester and state highways 
15 and 89 offer important outlets to the rapidly developing mountain sections. 


(From College Bulletin) 

Fifty-four years ago Ebenezer Presbytery in the Synod of Kentucky, Presbyterian 
Church, U. S. A., appointed a committee consisting of Rev. W. C. Condit, D.D., 
Ashland, Kentucky, and Rev. Samuel B. Alderson, D.D., Maysville, Kentucky, to make 
a trip up the Big Sandy River to select a location for a school for the higher education 


of the youth of this section. After visiting each county seat in the valley, their judg- 
ment was that Pikesville should be selected as the location for such an institution and, 
as the result of their report to Presbytery, the Pikeville Collegiate Institute was estab- 
lished. The subsequent development of Pikeville and Pike County has demonstrated 
the wisdom of these men in making their choice for the location of the Presbyterial 

The success with which the institution has been crowned has been due in no small 
measure to the untiring efforts of Dr. Condit and his church. He was a member of 
the Board of Trustees from the date of its organization to the time of his death, and 
was ever alive to the interests of the school. 

In the summer of 1889 the first building was erected and Rev. David Blyth, who 
had just graduated from Lane Seminary, was placed in charge as principal and also 
as pastor of the church. Mr. Blyth was a man of great energy, and during the three 
years of his incumbency the school made rapid progress and took first rank among 
the best schools of its grade in Eastern Kentucky. Hendricks Hall was erected during 
his incumbency. A severe attack of typhoid fever left Mr. Blyth unable to continue 
the work. His three years of effort were not in vain; the people speak in the highest 
terms of the work he did while here. His death occurred on December 5, 1940. 

Until 1896 the institution was affected by general unfavorable conditions through- 
out the nation. During the principalship of Reverend Harvey Hammett, and two 
years later during the term of the Reverend T. M. Cornelison, progress was made. 
However, the future of the institution began to be entirely assured as the devotion and 
personality of Reverend James F. Record began to express themselves. Assuming the 
headship of the institution in 1899 he continued without interruption for twelve years 
and attendance practically quadrupled. Reverend J. P. Whitehead was president of 
the college from 1911 to 1915, at which time Dr. Record returned. 

Of the first trustees of the institution, none are now living. The members of the 
first Board of Trustees were Rev. W. G Condit, D.D.; Rev. W. S. Fulton, D.D,; 
Mr. W. M. Connolly, Mr. John Simpson, Mr. James H. Hatcher, Mr. Charles M. 
Parsons and Mr. F. B. Trusell. The records of the college reveal constantly the de- 
votion and wisdom of this unusual body of trustees. The possibilities of Pikeville 
College touched their imaginations, and most of them gave generously of their time 
and means to its support. 

When Dr. Record resumed the presidency of the institution, which was now invariably 
spoken of as "the college," he was beginning a term of uninterupted service lasting 
seventeen years. Made president emeritus by the action of the Board of Trustees in 
September, 1932, his counsel was not withdrawn from the college until his death on 
May 25, 1935. The expansion of the institution during Dr. Record's term was out- 
standing. In 1918 one student pursued college courses; fourteen years later the college 
enrollment was 366. Not only was the preparatory department admitted to member- 
ship in the Southern Association of College and Secondary Schools in 1925, but the 
college work of the institution was recognized and the junior college became a member 
in 1931. 

Wickham Chapel, in the administration building, and Wickham Hall were the 
magnificent gifts of Mrs. Delos O. Wickham of New York. It is difficult to over- 
estimate the influence of the gifts of this devoted friend of the college throughout 
Dr. Record's administration. In addition to these buildings erected, the institution 
was bequeathed a considerable portion of her estate in 1933. Wickham Chapel stands 
perpetually as a living memorial to Delos O. Wickham, her husband. 

Another magnificent gift to Pikeville College came from John A. Simpson, of 


Covington, in memory of his sister, Lucinda Derriana Simpson, in the form of a com- 
modious dormitory for women. Mr. Simpson had in mind a Christian home for 
women and provided that the dormitory be called "The Derriana." 

The late Mrs. William Thaw, of Pittsburgh, was another constant friend of the in- 
stitution during Dr. Record's presidency, being a very generous donor to the administra- 
tion building. 

Hendricks Hall, the first building erected on the old campus beside the Big Sandy 
River, commemorates the name and important work of the Reverend Dr. James P. 
Hendricks, Synodical Superintendent of Home Missions. The second building to be 
erected on the "old campus" was the brick building now occupied by the academy and 
the training school. 

Dr. D. McDonald, successor to Dr. Hendricks as Synodical superintendent, was 
another loyal supporter and constant adviser of the institution. The Woman's Mis- 
sionary Societies of Ebenezer Presbytery made much of Pikeville College in their 
programs of prayer and work; their contributions and interest provided a constant 
source of encouragement to trustees and faculty. 

Dean Frank D. McClelland was made acting President of the college in September, 
1932, and became president in October, 1933. 

During the year following Dr. McClelland's resignation in October, 1937, the 
institution functioned without a president. Mr. Norman A. Chrisman, treasurer of 
the college, devoted much of his time to the institution's activities, serving in many 
capacities as acting president without the actual title. During this year Mrs. N. A. 
Chrisman, Mrs. W. H. Kirk, and Mr. H. C. Bowles effected notable expansion of the 
library facilities, providing new furniture and new quarters for the library in memory 
of their mother, Mrs. Nona Connolly Bowles, a member of the first graduating class of 
the Academy. A grant of $3,000 from the Carnegie corporation for library books, 
coupled with the new equipment, combined to make the library one of the notable 
features of the college. 

In September, 1938, President H. M. Crooks, LL.D., assumed the presidency of the 
institution and served until his resignation in October, 1940. 

Dean A. A. Page assumed ex officio the duties of the President of the College in 
October, 1940, following Dr. Crooks' resignation. In October, 1941, Dean Page 
was elected President of the college. 


(Nov., 1941) 
By James H. Hewlett 

Dean, Centre College, Danville, Kentucky 

For amost forty years before Centre College was chartered the Presbyterians of 
Kentucky had been interested in education, and it is therefore necessary to review 
briefly their earlier attempts to establish an institution of higher learning. 

Transylvania Seminary was granted a charter by the Virginia Legislature in 1780 
and with it several thousand acres of land. This institution was to be established in 
what was then the province of Kentucky. Apparently, however, nothing further was 
done until May 5, 1783, when the Virginia Assembly made another large grant of 
land, set up a self-perpetuating board of trustees, and gave the Seminary authority to 
confer the degree of Bachelor of Arts. The school did not actually open, though, 
until 1785. Its location, says Calvin Morgan Fackler in his recent book, Early Days 
in Danville (1941), "is still a controversial matter," but it was in or very near Dan- 


E&^- g:: '" 


Courtesy, Danville Chamber of Commerce 


The original building of Centre College, located in Danville, and founded in 



ville, and, according to Fackler, was unquestionably first in the home of Dr. David 
Rice, one of the founders of Hampden-Sidney College, who had come to Kentucky 
in 1783 and was chairman of the Transylvania Seminary Board. In fact, the majority 
of those responsible for the establishment of this institution were Presbyterians, though 
it had been endowed by the Virginia Assembly and was looked on as a State institu- 
tion. The Reverend James Mitchell became the teacher at a salary of thirty pounds 
a year. The tuition was "four pistoles" a year. 

After a few years of struggling existence this school, in 1788, was moved to Lexington. 
Soon, however, a division took place, which Dr. William C. Young in his inaugural 
address as president of Centre College explained as follows: 

In furtherance of the wild and universal propaganda inaugurated by the French revolutionists, 
its emissaries of the blood-born atheistic young republic had penetrated even to this distant 
wilderness land. Sympathy with their political views had prepared a large number of the 
prominent citizens of Lexington to accept their religious, or rather irreligious, sentiments and 
theories. A determined attempt was made by them to secure control of public instruction. 
Their efforts, despite the most earnest resistance on the part of the Presbyterians were crowned 
with success, and in 1794 the teacher of Transylvania Seminary, Rev. James Moore, a Presby- 
terian minister, was ejected by the Board of Trustees. The Presbytery of Transylvania at once 
inaugurated measures to found an independent college under their own control, in which their 
sons might enjoy the advantages of an education without the contamination of their religious 
principles, and which' might furnish the churches with an able and faithful ministry. 

At their spring meeting in 1794 it was resolved to establish at Pisgah, the seat of a strong 
Presbyterian Church, about nine miles from Lexington, a grammar school and a seminary. 

Thus was set up what is known as the Kentucky Academy. It seems to have opened 
in October, 1795. Among the donors to the new school were John Adams and George 
Washington, each contributing a hundred dollars. But both sides to the controversy 
seem to have desired a reunion of the Kentucky Academy and Transylvania Seminary, 
and so in December, 1798, their union was consummated under conditions highly favor- 
able to the Presbyterians. Dr. Young (loc. cit.) said: 

Everything which the Presbyterians could reasonably demand, including a majority of the 
Board of Trustees, and thus substantial control of the new college, being offered, the overtures 
were accepted, the right of ecclesiastical oversight was surrendered, and the two institutions, 
under the imposing title of Transylvania University, were in 1798 merged into one. 

The Presbyterians must have had a dominant influence over the new University and 
conditions apparently continued to be reasonably satisfactory for about twenty years. 
Then, just why it is not clear, the Legislature of the State removed the old Board and 
appointed a new Board, which was unsatisfactory to the Presbyterians. Dr. Honore 
Holley, of New England, whom Dr. Young described as a "gifted, brilliant man, but 
whose religious opinions were most repugnant to Presbyterians," was elected president. 
Especially alarmed, they withdrew their patronage from the Lexington university, 
applied to the Legislature for a charter, and founded a college of their own. 1 

This new college was chartered by the Kentucky Legislature January 21, 1819, and 
was called Centre College, since it was located in Danville, in the central part of the 
State. It was not under the control of the church, though Presbyterian influence pre- 
dominated, and the board, of which Governor Isaac Shelby was chairman, was self- 
perpetuating. Section 4 of the charter provided that "No religious doctrines peculiar 
to any one sect of Christians shall be inculcated by any professor in said college." An 
amendment to the charter, "approved December 27, 1824, recited that the Divines and 
Elders of the Presbyterian Church of Kentucky had offered to give to the trustees of 
Centre College of Kentucky $20,000, provided that an agreement reducing the number 
of trustees (from nineteen) to eleven and calling for their election by the Synod of 
the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America would be ratified by the 


Legislature. The agreement was in terms approved by this amendment, and the college 
thus passed under the control of the Presbyterian Church U. S. A. By act approved 
February 1, 1830, the number of trustees was increased to nineteen, the original num- 

A crisis faced the college because of the slavery question. According to the courts, 
its control was vested in the Presbyterian Church U. S. A. (the Northern Presbyterians) , 
and so the Southern Presbyterians withdrew and by a charter approved March 3, 1873, 
established Central University at Richmond, Kentucky. In a brief historical sketch it 
is impossible to give a detailed account of Central University. During its existence of 
approximately forty years it did a distinguished piece of educational work and sent out 
a remarkable number of graduates. The two institutions remained separated until 1901 
when an agreement was drawn up and accepted for their consolidation. By its terms 
the consolidated institution was to be known as Central University of Kentucky and 
composed of several schools or colleges, including a medical college, located at Louis- 
ville. The college at Danville was to give instruction in the arts and sciences and was 
to be known as the Centre College of Kentucky. The board of trustees was to consist 
of twenty-four members, half to be elected by the Synod of Kentucky of the Presby- 
terian Church U. S. A. and half by the Synod of Kentucky of the Presbyterian Church 
U. S. Thus were happily and permanently united these two sister institutions of 
Presbyterianism in Kentucky. 

After 1907 Centre College was for a time an independent institution with a self- 
perpetuating board of twenty-four members. In 1918, the name of the corporation 
was changed from Central University to its original name, Centre College of Kentucky, 
which the college of liberal arts had always held. By that time the other schools that 
composed the "University" had been discontinued or given independent control. In 
1921, however, again Centre passed under the control of the two branches of the 
Presbyterian Church in Kentucky, but the control was somewhat limited in that the 
board nominated its members and the synods confirmed them. Also, the article for- 
bidding denominationalism was adopted in the following amended form: "No de- 
nominational or sectarian test shall be applied to the admission of students and no 
religious doctrine peculiar to any sect of Christians shall be inculcated by any professor 
in the said college."' 

Until 1926 Centre College had always been a college for men. But in that year it 
united with Kentucky College for Women, which had been established in Danville in 
1854 under the name of Henderson Institute and was widely known for many years 
as Caldwell College. The result of the merger, says the catalogue of 1941, 

is that Centre College now operates two divisions, a college for men and a college for women, 
under the plan of coordinate education which has been tested and proved in the experience 
of such coordinate institutions as Harvard and Radcliffe, Columbia and Barnard, Brown and 
Pembroke Hall, Tulane and Sophie Newcomb, and Duke University. Both divisions of Centre 
give the standard four year course in the arts and sciences. The subjects are substantially 
the same in both colleges, although' a few courses are open only to men and a few are open 
only to women. Such courses are clearly indicated in this catalogue. Neither division is co- 
educational, but each profits from its relationship with the other. Coordinate education avoids 
the distractions of co-education and also the restrictions of unrelated institutions for men and 
women. Centre College is the only college in Kentucky that maintains separate divisions for 
men and women. 4 

In the consolidation agreement of Centre College and Kentucky College for Women 
an important change was made in the election of trustees, which is still in force. Out 
of each annual class of six, three trustees are confirmed by the Synod of Kentucky of 
the Presbyterian Church U. S. A. and two by the Synod of the Presbyterian Church 
U. S. and the sixth is presented by the Alumni Association of Centre College. It 


should be noted too that the Board of Trustees elects and that the synods merely con- 
firm or ratify. A clause practically the same as that in the charter of 1819 was also 
included which prohibits the application of denominational or sectarian tests in the 
admission of students or the teaching of religious doctrines peculiar to any one sect 
of Christians. 

The Presbyterians who established Centre College realized from the beginning that 
to be strong academically the college must be strong financially. Some of its most 
outstanding presidents have sought especially, therefore, to make its financial founda- 
tions sure. Dr. John C. Young, who was president from 1830 to 1857, was an example 
of such a spirit. "He found the College," says his son, W. C. Young, "without repu- 
tation, without endowment, without students, but he was young, hopeful, and earnest. 
. . . An organized and successful effort was made to endow it. Before his death, Dr. 
Young saw a permanent fund of more than $100,000 provided for the support of the 
school." 5 When Dr. W. C. Young himself became president (1888), he felt that 
"The immediate pressing need of the College was a large increase of its endowment, 
and to this work, by direction of the Board of Trustees and with the hearty endorse- 
ment of the Synod, I addressed myself."' In his first year he added $75,000 to the 
permanent endowment. At the beginning of his second year he declared that an 
additional $75,000 was a "pressing, immediate necessity. That during the present 
collegiate year it will be secured I am most hopeful." 

Dr. W. A. Ganfield (president from 1915 to 1921), with the full cooperation of 
the Board of Trustees, set up a plan by which the General Education Board offered 
to give Centre College $200,000 for endowment provided the College would raise an 
additional sum amounting to at least $400,000. This campaign for $600,000 addi- 
tional endowment was completed in 1922 during the administration of Dr. R. Ames 
Montgomery. Since that time other gifts have come to the college, including that of 
the late Guy E. Wiseman, a devoted alumnus and faithful trustee, exceeding $400,000, 
so that at present the endowment is more than a million and a half, and it is hoped 
that it will go beyond two million by 1944, when Centre celebrates its one hundred 
and twenty-fifth anniversary. 

Centre College has supported or led in every movement in Kentucky to advance the 
standards for admission to college and to improve higher education both in this State 
and the South. The late Frank L. Rainey, a former dean of Centre, was for many 
years secretary of the Kentucky College Association and served on each of the four 
committees of that association which revised upwards the standards for admission to 
college. When Dr. F. W. Hinitt was made president of Centre in 1904, the same year 
in which the institution became the first Kentucky member of the Southern Association, 
he began at once to raise its standards. The College had made it a rule to admit 
students only on examination, excusing those, however, that came from academies or 
high schools that Centre had placed on its accredited list. In 1905 thirty- two schools 
were on this list, fifteen of them being private. In the catalogue for 1907-08 appears 
the first statement regarding high school units. On Dr. Hinitt's recommendation to 
the Board, January 5, 1907, fourteen were required for entrance, thirteen of which 
were prescribed as follows: Latin, 4 units; English, 3; Mathematics and Greek, 2 
each; history and science, 1 each. That the schools in Kentucky were not meeting 
such high standards is proved by the following statement in the Catalogue of that 
year (p. 40) : 

In view of the fact that many High Schools and Academies, naturally tributary to the College, 
do not fully prepare their graduates to meet the requirements for admission to a College with 
so high a grade, special arrangements are made by which this preparation may be supplemented. 


Students are admitted to College provided they have at least eleven units credit, and by taking 
extra studies these deficiencies can be made up in the first two years. 

The Catalogue of 1909-10 states (p. 40) that a committee of the Association oi 
Kentucky Colleges was then examining the academies and high schools of Kentucky 
and would submit an accredited list to each college. In that year Centre had only 
93 students, excluding specials, but this was a good number, since at that time in the 
whole State there were only 54 public high schools and 29 private academies, and in 
1939-40 there were 529 and 73 respectively. During Dr. Hinitt's administration, Centre 
advanced its standards of admission to the present level, in spite of the few preparatory 
schools then able to meet them. 

If an institution of learning is to be judged by its product, Centre College may well 
be proud of its record. In its life of almost a century and a quarter, it has sent out 
a remarkable number of graduates who have attained distinction in public service, in 
the ministry, in education, in business, and in many other fields. Space is not available 
to name even some of the most notable of them. 

For forty years the Presbyterians in Kentucky were trying to establish a permanent 
church college in that State. Through persistent effort, sacrifice, and prayer, Centre 
College, at Danville, came into being, though for a time they also supported Central 
University at Richmond. The same spirit that has fostered the institution so many 
years is even now perfecting and implementing plans to make yet stronger the financial, 
academic, and Christian foundations of Old Centre, and hoping for the consummation 
of many of these plans in 1944, the one hundred and twenty-fifth year of its founding. 

In giving this background for the founding of Centre College, I have not mentioned 
the Danville Academy, since Mr. Calvin Fackler in his book, cited above, has, it 
seems to me, raised serious doubt that there ever was such an institution in actual 
existence in Danville. See pages 50, 100-101 of Early Days in Danville. 

C. J. Turck, "The Legal History of Centre College," an unpublished article on 
file at Centre. 

Minutes of the Board, October 5, 1921. 

'Bulletin, p. 24. 

"'"Inaugural Address," Catalogue (1890) , p. 16. 

Ibid., p. 19. 


Two Decades of Its History 

The Beginning 

To George Colvin, formerly State Superintendent of Public Instruction, should be 
given the credit for starting the movement which led to the establishment of Murray 
State Teachers College. On his recommendation a law was enacted authorizing a 
comprehensive survey of the schools of Kentucky. One of the recommendations of the 
survey commission which was enacted into law provided for the establishment of two 
additional state normal schools — one to be located in Western Kentucky, the other 
in Eastern Kentucky. The State Board of Education was to be the governing body 
of each school when it was established. 

On September 7, 1922, Murray was chosen as the site of the western school which 
at a later date was named the Murray State Normal School. 

On July 28, 1923, the State Board of Education chose Dr. John W. Carr President 
of the Murray State Normal School. He asumed his official duties at once. 

On September 24, 1923, the school began operation in the Murray High School 


building with a faculty of five members. Before the close of the first year there were 
sixteen members of the faculty. The new institution was of junior college rank. 
During the first semester there were 87 college students and 120 high school students. 
The training school was not organized until the summer of 1924. 

Student activities began soon after the school was opened — literary societies, college 
clubs, musical organizations. The first football team was in the fall of 1923. 

The first building was erected but not occupied during the first year — cost of build- 
ing and campus, approximately $116,000.00. Funds for building and campus were 
donated by the citizens of Murray and Calloway County. 

During the first year 787 different students were enrolled — 365 college students, 
311 high school students, and 111 elementary students in the training school. The 
first graduating class from the Junior College (1924) consisted of fifteen members. 
The first catalogue was published in the summer of 1924. 

Such was the beginning of the Murray State Normal School. 


The school when first established was governed by the State Board of Education. 
In 1924 an Act was passed, providing for a Board of Regents as the governing body. 
The Board consists of five members — four appointed by the Governor, and the State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, ex officio member and chairman of the Board. 
The members serve for a period of four years and receive no compensation for their 
services. The first meeting of the Board of Regents was held April 14, 1924. 

Since its establishment, twenty-one different persons have served on the Board — two 
women and nineteen men. During all these years there has never been a faction in 
the Board — seldom a dissenting vote. At all times the members have worked for the 
best interest of the institution. They have cooperated in the selection and retention 
of the best persons available as members of the faculty. They have given special 
attention to the business affairs, including the planning and construction of the 
different buildings. There have been no favorites. Everybody has had a fair deal. 

The splendid progress of the institution during the two decades of its history has 
been due largely to the interest, efficiency and devotion of the members of the Board 
of Regents. 

The names of the honorable members of the Board of Regents and the term or terms 
which each served are as follows: 

Dr. McHenry Rhoads, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Frankfort, 1924- 

Mrs. Laurine Wells Lovett, Benton, 1924-1928. 

Mr. James F. Wilson, Mayfield, 1924-1930. 

Mr. G. Prentice Thomas, Cadiz, 1924-1930. 

Mr. Thomas H. Stokes, Murray, 1924-1928 also 1932-1936. 

Mr. W. C. Bell, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Frankfort, 1928-1932. 

Mrs. William H. Mason, Murray, 1928-1934. 

Mr. G. P. Ordway, Kuttawa, 1928-1932. 

Mr. S. J. Snook, Paducah, 1930-1934. 

Mr. Claude T. Winslow, Mayfield, 1930-1932 also 1940- 

Dr. James H. Richmond, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Frankfort, 

Mr. Bunk Gardner, Mayfield, 1932-1936. 

Mr. Warren S. Swann, Murray, 1934-1935. 

Mr. B. L. Trevathan, Benton, 1934-1936. 


Mr. Harry W. Peters, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Frankfort, 1936- 

Dr. C. E. Crume, Clinton, 1936- 

Mr. T. O. Turner, Murray, 1936-1940. 

Mr. Joe Rogers, Barlow, 1936-1940. 

Mr. Charles Ferguson, Smithland, 1936- 

Mr. John W. Brooker, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Frankfort, 1940- 

Mr. George Hart, Murray, 1940- 


Three different persons have had the honor of serving as president of the Murray 
State Teachers College: Dr. John W. Carr from July 28, 1923, to May 1, 1926; 
also from January 1, 1933, to January 6, 1936; Dr. Rainey T. Wells from May 1, 
1926, to December 31, 1932; Dr. James H. Richmond since January 6, 1936. 


During President Carr's first administration, the college was opened; the training 
school begun; the course of study for the junior college was organized; the transition 
was made from the junior college to the senior college; laws were enacted providing 
a millage tax for maintenance, also providing for a Board of Regents for the control 
of the college. A specific appropriation of $400,000.00 was made for buildings, equip- 
ment and grounds. The law was also enacted authorizing the Board of Regents to 
confer degrees. Three buildings were erected — Administration Building, Liberal Arts 
Building, Rainey T. Wells Hall. The faculty was increased from eight members irt 
the fall semester, 1923, to thirty-two during the spring semester, 1926. The enrollment 
of college students increased also from 87 college students in the fall of 1923 to 568 
in the spring of 1926. 

In April, 1926, President Carr resigned and Dr. Rainey T. Wells was elected his 
successor. At the time Dr. Wells became president, Dr. Carr became dean of faculty 
and continued to serve in that capacity throughout President Wells' term of office. 


During President Wells' administration (May 1, 1926, to December 31, 1932) 
occurred the great development of the college. The attendance grew rapidly from 
568 in the spring of 1926 to 1,189 in the spring of 1932. The faculty increased from 
thirty- two in the spring of 1926 to eighty-nine in the summer of 1931. Every depart- 
ment was more thoroughly organized, the laboratories were better equipped and the 
training school was more thoroughly developed. The number of books in the library 
was more than quadrupled. When Dr. Wells became president, not a student had 
received a degree; by the summer of 1932, 467 had graduated. In February, 1928, the 
college was admitted to the American Association of Teachers Colleges; in December 
of the same year, it was admitted to the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary 
Schools. Each association ranked Murray as a "Class A" college. 

During President Wells' administration, the material interests of the college made 
rapid development. Five buildings were erected — Training School, Auditorium, Cen- 
tral Heating Plant, Men's Dormitory and the Library Building. There were special 
appropriations amounting to $750,000.00 for new buildings. The receipts from millage 
and inheritance taxes increased from $150,866.12 in 1925-26 to $251,350.79 in 1930-31. 

The great depression came during the last years of his administration. The receipts 
from millage and inheritance taxes dropped from $251,350.79 in 1930-31 to $166,059.99 

7— Vol. II 


in 1932-33, a decrease of $85,290.80 or nearly thirty-four per cent in two years. 
Drastic retrenchments were necessary. Building operations ceased; the number of 
members of faculty decreased from eighty-six in the fall of 1931-32 to sixty-one in 
the fall of 1932-33; the number of other employees was also reduced; salaries were 
cut on an average of approximately thirty-three per cent; practically every other item of 
the budget was greatly reduced. In spite of these retrenchments, a deficit of $130,000.00 
was reported to the General Assembly of 1932, and a special appropriation for that 
amount was made. 

The proceeds from this special appropriation together with current income of the 
college made it possible to close the fiscal year 1932-33 with all debts paid or provided 
for, and the college virtually on a cash basis. 

In December, 1932, President Wells resigned to become the General Attorney for 
the Woodmen of the World. Dr. James H. Richmond, Superintendent of Public 
Instruction, of Frankfort, Kentucky, was elected to succeed him. On account of the 
school survey which was not completed at the time of his election, Dr. Richmond did 
not deem it advisable to accept the presidency until after the completion of the educa- 
tional survey and after other important educational matters then pending had been 
disposed of. 

On December 31, 1932, Dean John W. Carr was elected president of the Murray 
State Teachers College for the second time. He assumed the duties of the office 
January 1, 1933. It was understood that his term of office as president was at the 
"pleasure of the Board of Regents" and that he would serve only until Dr. Richmond 
was able to assume the duties of president. He continued to perform the duties -of 
dean of the faculty also. At his request, he was given no additional remuneration while 
serving as president. 


The chief work of Dr. Carr during his second administration was to maintain the 
morale of the faculty and students and to see that the standards of the college were not 
lowered. He was especially concerned that there should be no deficit when Dr. Rich- 
mond assumed his duties as president. 

For professional reasons Dr. Richmond did not assume his duties as president until 
after his term as Superintendent of Public Instruction had expired — January 6, 1936. 

In the meantime, the junior high school of the training school had again become 
a senior high school; the Department of Commerce had been established and was in 
successful operation; twenty acres had been added to the campus; a concrete road had 
been constructed about the north half of the campus; the main section of the stadium 
had been built; plans and provisions had been made for the construction of the Health 
and Home Economics buildings; fifteen members had been added to the faculty, and 
the salaries of all members of the faculty had been slightly increased. 


Dr. James H. Richmond assumed his official duties as President of Murray State 
Teachers College, January 6, 1936. At that time the world was in the midst of the 
great Economic Depression. He continues as President at the close of the second 
decade that the college has been in operation — Mid-Summer of 1943. At this time 
the world is in the midst of World War II. Both the economic depression and World 
War II greatly affected this institution. Yet in spite of all difficulties his administra- 
tion continues to be eminently successful. In fact, difficulties in practically every 
instance have been changed into assets. 


During the seven and a half years that he has been in office the state has provided 
only $125,000.00 for permanent improvements. Yet during that time the following 
improvements have been made: 

The Health and Home Economics buildings have been constructed and equipped; 
the President's Home has been purchased and remodeled; the college farm of 225 
acres has been purchased and improved; the Warren Swann Men's Dormitory has been 
constructed and equipped; the college campus has been enlarged; the Central Heating 
Plant has been overhauled and enlarged; the Fine Arts Building has almost been com- 
pleted; the Carlisle Cutchin Stadium has been improved. 

More than half a million dollars worth of property has been acquired at a cost to 
the state of only $125,000.00. This feat has been accomplished in accordance with 
law by the college authorities cooperating with the P.W.A., the N.Y.A., the W.P.A., 
the College Holding Company and by the gifts of a few friends of the college. In 
due course of time (from eight to twenty years) , the income from the farm and from 
the new buildings will pay for all of these improvements without the state appropriating 
another dollar. 

In the meantime the students will have been greatly benefitted by having had the 
use of these properties. Not only have these improvements been made, but hundreds of 
students have had part time employment which has enabled them to acquire a college 
education, who otherwise would have been deprived of that privilege. 

Not only has the physical plant been greatly improved during Dr. Richmond's ad- 
ministration but numerous other developments of great importance have been made. 

Every department of the college has continued to grow, but five have had exceptional 
growth — Agriculture, Commerce, Music, Physical Education, and Home Economics. 

The faculty has not only increased in number but continues to grow in efficiency 
not only in teaching subject matter but in guiding and inspiring youth. 

In 1940 an outstanding study of the curriculum was made by the faculty in con- 
junction with representatives of students, parents, school board members, representatives 
of state and federal agencies, and teachers and administrators of local and adjacent 
school systems. 

In 1940 the Library Science Department was accredited as a library school by the 
Southern Association of Colleges. 

Beginning with the fall semester of 1940, a curriculum leading to the degree of 
Bachelor of Science in Agriculture was offered. 

Through the cooperation of the college with the Tennessee Valley Authority and 
the Kentucky Library Extension Division, a Regional Library Project has been initiated 
with the College Library as the regional center. This is a unique service which for some 
years has been in successful operation. 

In the summer of 1941 the graduate school was opened and has since been in suc- 
cessful operation. The degree of Master of Arts was conferred for the first time in 

At the request of the Civil Aeronautic Administration, the college in 1940 began a 
Civilian Pilot Training Program which was continued for two years. During this period 
132 college students received ground school and flight training. 

For the last three years the National Youth Administration has maintained on the 
college campus an out-of-school shop-training program and many young men and 
women were trained there who are now doing work in various industries. 

On December 16, 1942, the Board of Regents being in session, an important message 
was received from the United States Navy, to wit: rr A Naval Flight Preparatory 
School would be established at Murray State Teachers College." Only twenty such 


schools were to be established in the United States. Murray was again fortunate. 

On January 6, 1943, two hundred fifty naval cadets arrived. Two months later 
600 cadets were on the campus and the school in full operation. 

The establishment of the Naval Preparatory School at Murray at that time was an 
event of importance to the College. Not only was the College able to do its bit to 
win the war but, notwithstanding the decrease in attendance, the funds received from 
the government helped materially in paying operating expenses for the year. 


During the first semester the college was in operation there were eight members of 
the faculty — five men and three women. One held the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, 
seven the Bachelors degree. At the close of the second decade there were eighty-four 
members of the faculty — forty-seven men and thirty-seven women. Of the eighty-four 
members of faculty, sixteen have the Doctors degree, sixty-five the Masters degree and 
four the Bachelors degree. The faculty has not only increased in number but also in 
scholarship, teaching ability, and especially in the ability to guide and inspire youth. 

From the beginning the members of the faculty have been chosen and retained on 
merit — scholarship, experience, training, and character. They have come not only 
from Kentucky but from various other states. They have been trained in more than 
twenty different colleges and universities. They are men and women of splendid 
personal character who have not only taught by precept but by example. The splendid 
achievements of this college would not have been possible without the loyal and hearty 
cooperation of the faculty. 


C. O. Peratt 

Department of History and Political Science 
(September, 1943) 

The Morehead State Teachers College is one of the results of a shortage of public 
school teachers in Kentucky after the close of World War I. The first step to remedy 
the shortage was taken by the Legislative Committee of the Kentucky Education Asso- 
ciation. This Committee recommended that a law be enacted providing for an educa- 
tional survey of the State by a commission of five members, to be appointed by the 
Governor. The Commission, which was to report its findings to the Governor, was 
composed of Dr. W. A. Ganfield, President of Centre College, Danville, Chairman; 
Alex G. Barret, lawyer and member of the Louisville Board of Education, Louisville; 
J. L. Harman, President of the Bowling Green Business University, Bowling Green; 
C. J. Hayden, President of the Springfield Board of Education, Springfield; and Miss 
Katie McDaniel, formerly Superintendent of Christian County Schools, Hopkinsville. 
The Commission secured from the General Education Board of New York City, the 
services of a staff of experts under the direction of Dr. Frank P. Bachman, and after 
a survey extending over a period of fifteen months, made its reports to the Governor 
in 1921. Among its recommendations was one for the establishment of two normal 
schools for the training of white elementary teachers, one to be located in Eastern 
Kentucky, and one in Western Kentucky. 

Acting under this recommendation, the General Assembly, 1922, passed an act pro- 
viding for the establishment of two Normal Schools for the training of white elementary 
teachers and appropriating money for the operation and maintenance thereof. This 
act further provided that a commission of eight persons should select locations for the 


schools. Five of these were to be appointed by the Speaker of the House of Representa- 
tives, who was Honorable J. H. Thompson, of Bourbon County, and three by the 
Lieutenant Governor, who was Honorable S. Thruston Ballard, of Louisville. 

The Lieutenant Governor designated as members of the Commission, Professor J. L. 
Harman, President of the Bowling Green Business University; Honorable Alex G. 
Barret, lawyer and distinguished citizen of Louisville; and Judge Arthur Peter, lawyer 
and former judge of Jefferson County. The Speaker of the House designated as 
members of the Commission Judge Ed C. O'Rear, former Chief Justice of the Court 
of Appeals; Honorable Thomas A. Combs, former State Senator and prominent business 
man, of Lexington; Honorable W. S. Wallen, lawyer and legislator, Prestonsburg; and 
Honorable Earl W. Senff, lawyer and County Judge of Montgomery County. Judge 
O'Rear was elected chairman, and Judge Senff secretary, of the Commission. 

The plan of this Commission was to select for the locations of the two schools the 
two towns offering the greatest advantage in accessibility to students of the territory 
they were to serve and in equipment already in existence or the equivalent in money 
The citizens of Morehead offered to buy and turn over to the State a mission school 
plant known as the Morehead Normal School, which had been in operation in that 
town since 1887. This plant, containing sixty-five acres of land with three frame and 
one brick building, was valued at $140,000.00. After considering all offers of locations 
and after many futile efforts to reach a decision, the Commission met in Lexington 
on November 25, 1922, and named Morehead as the home of the new school for the 
Eastern section of the State and Murray for the Western section. 

In the meantime, suit was instituted in the Franklin Circuit Court in order to 
determine the constitutionality of the act and the extent of the Commission's duties. 
Final decision in this case was not reached until May 15, 1923, when the Court of 
Appeals affirmed the constitutionality of the act and defined the duties of the Com- 
mission. Early in August, 1923, the Commission completed its work in connection 
with the establishment of the schools. The management of the schools was then placed 
in the hands of the State Board of Education, composed of the State Superintendent 
of Public Instruction, George Colvin, the Attorney General, Thomas B. McGregor, 
and the Secretary of State, Frederick Vaughan. 

The State Board of Education elected as President of the Morehead school Pro- 
fessor Frank C. Button, who had served for twenty-four years as head of the More- 
head Normal School, and who at the time of his election had for twelve years served 
the State of Kentucky as rural school supervisor in the employ of the General Educa- 
tion Board of New York. 

The General Assembly of 1924 enacted a law transferring the control of the two 
new normal schools from the State Board of Education to two Boards of Regents — 
one Board for Murray and one for Morehead. The members of these Boards were 
to be appointed by the Governor, except the Chairman, who was to be the Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction. 

The members of the first Board of Regents for Morehead were the Honorable 
McHenry Rhoads, Superintendent of Public Instruction, Frankfort, Chairman; Hon- 
orable Allie W. Young, Morehead, Secretary; Honorable Edward W. Pendleton, 
Prestonsburg, Member; and Honorable J. B. Clark, Inez, Member. Various men and 
women of prominence in Eastern Kentucky have served on the Board at different 
times. At the present time it is composed of Honorable John W. Brooker, Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction, Frankfort; Mrs. Allie W. Young, Morehead; Honorable 
Donald H. Putnam, Ashland; Honorable Ernest E. Shannon, Frankfort; and Honorable 
Harry LaViers, Paintsville. 


On September 24, 1923, the school opened with a faculty of nine and a student body 
of less than one hundred. Before the close of the year the faculty had increased to 
thirteen and the student body to two hundred fifty. The second year opened with a 
faculty of twenty-four teachers, five administrative officers, and approximately two 
hundred fifty students. Before the close of the second year the student body numbered 
nearly five hundred. The peak of attendance was reached in 1935 when the student 
body numbered one thousand and two hundred. During the third year there were 
eleven administrative officers, and a faculty of twenty-six members. By 1943, the 
regular faculty had grown to fifty-seven, and the administrative force to twenty-one. 
At the close of the summer quarter in August, 1943, the College had conferred degrees 
on 893 graduates. 

When the school opened in 1923, there were on the grounds four buildings, a 
dormitory for women, one for men, a building for classrooms and a building used for 
chapel, library and administrative offices, all formerly the property of the old Morehead 
Normal School. All of these original buildings have been supplanted by more sub- 
stantial and modern ones. 

Following is a list of the buildings with the dates of completion: 

Administration Building February, 1926 

Allie Young Hall, Dormitory for Girls June, 1926 

First Power Plant late in fall, 1925 

Fields Hall, Dormitory for Girls late in fall, 1927 

Thompson Hall, Dormitory for Men late in fall, 1927 

Auditorium-Gymnasium May, 1929 

President's Residence June, 1929 

Johnson Camden Library 1930 

Jayne Memorial Stadium 1930 

Senff Natatorium 1930 

Breckinridge Training School . Spring, 1931 

Second Power Plant (supplanting the first) 1937 

Men's Hall, Dormitory for Men 1937 

Science Hall 1937 

The buildings erected between 1926 and 1931 were largely due to the untiring efforts 
of Honorable Allie W. Young, who, during his service in the State Senate secured for 
the school appropriations of $400,000.00 in 1924, $320,000.00 in 1926, $250,000.00 in 
1928, and $250,000.00 in 1930. 

All of these buildings are constructed of brick, stone, concrete and steel, with wood 
furnishings. The style of architecture is Tudor Gothic. All buildings are equipped 
with modern furniture and apparatus for conducting a college. The Library is especially 
beautiful in its architectural design and in the material of which it is constructed. 

To date the College has had four presidents. President Button, after a service of 
six years, retired as the head of the college in August, 1929, and was succeeded by 
Dr. John Howard Payne, who served as president until September, 1935. Mr. Harvey 
A. Babb was president from 1935 to 1940. Since July, 1940, Dr. William H. Vaughan 
has been president. 

In the twenty years of its existence the Morehead State Teachers College has under- 
gone considerable change in its organization and in name. It was first established to 
train elementary school teachers and offered courses of the high school level leading to 
certificates for teaching in the elementary branches. At the same time it offered two 
years of college work, which led to a higher class elementary certificate. It was 


originally named the Morehead State Normal School. In 1926 this name was changed 
by the General Assembly to the Morehead State Normal School and Teachers College. 
Provision was at the same time made to grant certificates for teaching in high schools. 
In 1930 the name was again changed by the General Assembly to the Morehead State 
Teachers College. 

In January, 1928, the College became a member of the Kentucky Association of 
Colleges and Secondary Schools. In 1930 it was admitted to membership in the Asso- 
ciation of Colleges and Universities of the Southern States. In February, 1931, it 
became a member of the American Association of Teachers Colleges. 

Early in 1942 the college, along with many other colleges in the country, offered a 
part of its facilities to the Navy for the training of Naval personnel for the war effort. 
The administration of the college believed that training of civilians and the training of 
military men could be carried on simultaneously and without conflict. In June, 1942, 
the first contingent of Navy men arrived on the campus. These men are being taught 
to be electricians on board fighting ships. Several members of the college faculty were 
shifted from their regular teaching duties to be instructors of Mathematics and Elec- 
tricity for the Navy men. More than twenty additional instructors were employed 
to carry en the Navy program. The sailors enter and withdraw in relays of approxi- 
mately 150 a month, each group remaining for sixteen weeks. 

During the first year the Navy was on the campus, 1,800 Bluejackets spent four 
months in Morehead. In this way the college is serving the nation in war as well 
as in peace. During all this time the regular academic program of the college is 
being carried on with full vigor and enthusiasm. 

Since the United States of America declared war on the Axis nations, many of 
the graduates, students and younger members of the faculty have joined the colors to 
defend democracy and decency. They are to be found in all branches of the service 
and in many parts of the globe. Already a few have paid the supreme sacrifice; all 
have done honor to their college and their country. 


Back of the actual beginning of a school is the inspiration in some person's mind 
and heart, and it is often hard to determine just where the idea started. Authentic 
records are not always available, and those that are obtainable are often all too brief 
to give a realistic picture of the total history. 

The first item we find about Sue Bennett College seems to date back to the latter 
part of the nineteenth century. At that time we have found that a minister of the 
gospel, Reverend J. J. Dickey, was devoting his time and talents to maintaining a 
school in the mountains of Kentucky fifty miles from any railroad. In spite of all 
his effort the school needed other support or it would have to close. 

This happened to be in the days of the Woman's Parsonage and Home Mission 
Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, consequently Mr. Dickey appealed 
to the Kentucky Conference Society for support of his enterprise. The secretary of 
this society was Miss Sue Bennett of Richmond, Kentucky, and this lady became ex- 
ceedingly interested in the mountain people whom Mr. Dickey described to her. She 
was able to see very clearly their crying need, and she determined to come to the 
aid of the school. 

Before her activities were hardly begun, her untimely death brought an end to the 
project for the time being, and Mr. Dickey's school was sold to the Presbyterians. 

It is quite true, however, that a person so filled with inspiration is bound to touch 


other lives; and Miss Sue Bennett's sister, Miss Belle H. Bennett, determined to carry 
on the work and establish another school in the mountain section of Kentucky. To 
help her in this movement she secured the services of Reverend J. J. Dickey, Dr. Walter 
Lambuth, Mrs. Jennie Morgan, Mrs. Sawyer, and Mrs. W. T. Poynter, President of 
the Kentucky Conference Society. 

This committee was untiring in its efforts to raise money to start the school. They 
wrote letters soliciting gifts and went from place to place seeking to arouse people's 

Manchester offered a site for the school, but at that time the people were unable to 
raise their part of the money so the offer was withdrawn. 

In the meantime, Mr. Dickey became interested in Laurel County as a prospective 
site and he persuaded Miss Bennett to visit London to investigate the situation. 
London was very accessible for a number of counties, the environment was good, so 
that was the place where the location of the school was definitely fixed in 1894. The 
citizens of London were so interested that they contributed $20,000 towards the cost. 

The first name of the institution was Sue Bennett Memorial School and the work 
actually started in a rented building in town, January 2, 1897. There were only three 
teachers and seventy-five students. By the opening of the fall term in 1897 the first 
building on the campus was ready for occupancy. It provided facilities for three 
hundred students, and there were approximately two hundred and ten who enrolled 
that term. 

Eight cottages were built each of which provided accommodations for eight, ten or 
twelve persons who brought furnishings and provisions from home. Sometimes a mother 
or older sister acted as housekeeper. It was not until later that dormitories were erected. 

The first president was Professor J. C. Lewis, a graduate of Bristol University, Eng- 
land. He served in this capacity for twenty years. 

In the beginning work was offered in elementary grades, high school and normal 
school. One of Miss Bennett's greatest interests centered around the preparation of 
teachers for the small rural schools, and teacher training has been stressed at Sue 
Bennett from the very first. Special work was offered in music, elocution, art, Bible, 
industries, and physical culture. The commercial department was added in 1901. 

In 1917 President Lewis was succeeded by Professor A. J. Mohn of Ohio Wesleyan 
College. He remained until 1922. 

In 1922 Mr. Kenneth C. East, from the University of Texas, became president of 
the college and held this position until 1942. Also in 1922 the junior college depart- 
was recognized as a Grade B junior college, which enabled the students to receive state 
teachers' certificates without having to take state examinations. Then in 1927 the Ken- 
tucky Department of Education recognized the college as Grade A. 

Three years later in 1930 the name of the school was changed from Sue Bennett 
Memorial School to Sue Bennett College. In 1932 it was admitted to membership in 
the Kentucky Association of Colleges and the Southern Association of Colleges and 
Secondary Schools. In 1933 the high school work was dropped; and at present Sue 
Bennett offers two years of college work, including all courses required for the elemen- 
tary teacher's certificate, and courses in business administration and music. Students 
may specialize in business administration or teacher training, or may take the general 
courses offered as a basis for further college work. 

After the resignation of Mr. East in 1942, Miss Jeannetta P. Harrison, of Winter 
Haven, Florida, became the acting president. Under her leadership Sue Bennett 
College is taking further steps toward its primary goal — to develop those fundamental 


ideals of life which make true Christian character and which will direct the students 
into lives of greater service. 

The growth since 1896 has been continuous, and along with the developing curricula 
have come other changes. The campus has lost the unsightliness of its early days for 
now many varieties of trees grow all over the place, shrubbery outlines all the build- 
ings, and there is a beautiful flower garden. The physical plant is now worth approx- 
imately $356,000 and includes two dormitories, two buildings for class use, a swim- 
ming pool, and a gymnasium. The teacher training department is also well equipped 
with two small demonstration schools, practical laboratories for those who are pre- 
paring themselves for teaching in elementary schools. The college owns fifty-two acres 
of land, including the campus, and a large part of the acreage has been developed 
into a farm which supplies much of the food for the college. 

Although Sue Bennett College is under the supervision of the Woman's Society of 
Christian Service of the Methodist Church it is non-denominational in purpose and 
practice and includes many persons from other churches. 

Miss Bennett believed that the true function of any school is to develop personality 
so that the individual may become a useful member of society; and certainly her 
ideals and plans have been perpetuated by the labors and the sacrifices of those leaders 
who have followed in her footsteps. 


Western Kentucky State Teachers College which is located in Bowling Green, 
Warren County, Kentucky was created by a legislative act signed on March 21, 1906, 
by Governor J. C. W. Beckham. Bowling Green, which had offered to donate property 
valued at over $100,000 as a site for the school, was selected by the Locating Com- 
mittee, and H. H. Cherry, then head of the Southern Normal School in Bowling Green, 
was chosen as Western's first president. 

The buildings, faculty, and student body of the old Southern Normal were ab- 
sorbed by the new state institution which was operated at the Southern Normal site 
until February 4, 1911. 

It soon became apparent to the president and the Board of Regents that the old 
Southern Normal grounds were entirely too small to take care of the future develop- 
ment of the school. Consequently several tracts of land on the outskirts of Bowling 
Green were considered as future sites of Western. Early in 1909 negotiations were 
completed for the purchase of a tract of land beginning at the crest of a hill on the 
southern edge of Bowling Green and extending southward between the Nashville and 
Russellville roads. Included in the purchase were the buildings of Potter College, which 
had recently suspended operations because of financial difficulties, and the home of 
B. F. Cabell, the president of Potter College. The hill which was to be the future 
home of Western rises 232 feet above the level of Barren River, which flows along the 
north side of Bowling Green. The summit of the hill commands an excellent view of 
the surrounding country. In 1909 the hill was almost entirely covered by a dense cedar 
thicket, except for a small space cleared around the Potter College buildings, and 
numerous outcroppings of limestone gave to it a very rugged appearance. 

Although in 1909 the hill which was to be the home of Western was wild and rough, 
it offered a splendid site for the development of a large school plant. Realizing this 
fact and also the necessity of having the whole plant carefully planned from the first, 
the Board of Regents early in 1909 employed a landscape architect and a building 
architect to draw plans for the development of the school during the next twenty or 
thirty years. In 1909 plans were drawn showing the location and arrangement of the 


future Western buildings. Both of the original architects lived to see the Western 
campus and buildings developed as they had planned them in 1909. Although changing 
conditions through the years have altered the original plans somewhat, the general 
landscaping of the campus and the arrangement and placement of buildings are es- 
sentially the same as they were planned in 1909. 

In the spring of 1917 the period of comparatively quiet but rapid growth and ad- 
vancement, which Western had enjoyed since its removal to the hill in 1911, was rudely 
interrupted by the entrance of the United States into the World War, but by 1920 the 
expansion was going forward again. It was during this year that three new buildings 
made their appearance, J. Whit Potter Hall (completed January 1921), the Cedar 
House, and a temporary gymnasium. It was also during this year that an Industrial 
Arts Department was organized, and the Department of Extension and Correspondence 
was started. 

In 1922 the Western Kentucky State Normal School was officially made a teachers 
college by the Kentucky Legislature, and the history of the college following that event 
is a story of rapid expansion and growth in buildings and equipment, faculty and 

In 1922 the principal buildings on the hill were the Administration Building, J. Whit 
Potter Hall, Cedar House, Cabell Hall and Recitation Hall, and a temporary gym- 
nasium. Only the first three of these now remain as a part of the physical plant. 

Other buildings on the campus at the present time and the order of their completion 

are the Training School (1925), Home Economics Building (1926), Library (1927)., 

Heating Plant (1927), Stadium (1927), West Hall (1928), Industrial Arts Building 

(1928), Physical Education Building (1930), President's Home (1931), Henry Hardin 

Cherry Hall (1937), Music Building (1939), and the Kentucky Building (1939). 

In addition to these buildings Western in 1928 leased the property of Ogden College 
for twenty years. The Ogden property includes two buildings, Perry Snell Hall and the 
Ogden Science Building. 

Western's academic advancement kept stride with the physical expansion, as is in- 
dicated by her admission to the American Association of Teachers Colleges in 1924, to 
the Kentucky Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools in 1925, and to the 
Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools in 1926. 

When Western was elevated to the rank of teachers college, the general four-year 
curriculum leading to the Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor of Science degrees and the 
College Certificate was the basic curriculum. 

In 1930 an arts and science curriculum leading to the Bachelor of Arts and Bachelor 
of Science degrees was organized for the benefit of those students not planning to 
enter the teaching profession. In 1931 a year of graduate work leading to the Masters 
degree was added to the curricula. Graduate work was discontinued from the fall of 
1936 to the summer of 1941. 

After the certification laws passed by the legislature of 1934 became effective in 
1935, there were in existence at Western fourteen curricula, only one of which was less 
than four years. 

The academic expansion of Western after 1922 is indicated not only by the increase 
in the number and length of the curricula during that time, but also by the great in- 
crease in the number of courses offered. During the last year of the Normal period 
there were less than two hundred courses being offered at Western, whereas at the 
present time there are more than five hundred. 

In 1922 the number of books in the Western Library was slightly more than 11,000. 
Today there are approximately 67,000 volumes reported by the Western Library. Of 


this number approximately 12,000 volumes are in the Kentucky Library, which is 
housed in the Kentucky Building, and approximately 5,000 are in a library used by 
the Training School. The number of periodicals received at the library has trebled 
since 1922, more than 300 being reported at the present time. 

Since 1918, Western has had an infantry unit of the Reserve Officers Training 
Corps. On June 19, 1924, the State Board of Vocational Education approved Western's 
application for training teachers under the Smith-Hughes Act for the federally-aided 
high schools of the state, and on June 19, 1924, the Federal Board for Vocational 
Education concurred in the decision of the State Board. The work in the Agriculture 
Department and Home Economics Department was expanded in order to meet the 
requirements of the federal government for institution training teachers under the 
Smith-Hughes Act. In connection with the Department of Agriculture the college 
maintains a 120-acre farm which was included in the property leased from Ogden 
College, a 556-acre farm which was purchased in 1934, and a 60-acre farm which is 
used as a field laboratory for soils and agronomic plots. In addition to these facilities 
50 acres adjoining the college campus is known as the agricultural campus. On it is 
located an agricultural pavilion used for instructional purposes in livestock judging 
and husbandry. 

The first four-year degree class was graduated from Western in 1924. From 1924 
through the school year 1942-1943 the institution granted a total of 4,517 degrees. 
Of this number 4,394 were Bachelors degrees, and 123 were Masters degrees. 

In athletics the college has established a national reputation and at the present time 
is a member of the Southern Intercollegiate Athletic Association, Kentucky Inter- 
collegiate Athletic Conference, and the National Collegiate Athletic Association. 

In 1922, when the Western Kentucky State Normal School was made a teachers 
college, fifteen years had passed since the institution on January 22, 1907 first opened 
its doors as a school. During all of that time H. H. Cherry had served as its president. 
Fifteen more years elapsed between the time Western became a teachers college in 1922 
and the death of H. H. Cherry on August 1, 1937. 

During his thirty-year span as Western's president, the Western founder saw the 
college grow from an humble beginning to a place of national prominence in the 
teachers college field. 

In September, 1937, Western's first president was succeeded by Dr. Paul L. Garrett, 
who since 1915 has been engaged in school administration except from June, 1918, to 
March, 1919, when he was in service in the United States Army. 

Soon after Pearl Harbor, President Garrett offered the facilities of the college to 
the United States Government to be used in connection with the war program, and 
in April, 1943, the United States Army Air Force made Western one of its training 
centers for air crew students. 


The charter of the University of Louisville, granted by the legislature of Kentucky 
on February 7, 1846, contemplated the founding of all the departments of a university 
for the promotion of every branch of science, literature, and the liberal arts. Its basis 
was to be the Louisville Medical Institute, then a flourishing institution; a law depart- 
ment was to be at once established, and power was given to convert Louisville College, 
the successor of old Jefferson Seminary, founded in 1816, into the collegiate department. 
The proposed institution was, according to the plan of management adopted for the 
Louisville Medical Institute in 1837, to be governed by a board of eleven trustees, who 
were to be appointed by the mayor and city council of Louisville and were given the 


right to confer all degrees usually conferred in colleges or universities. This board has 
since exercised supervision over the original medical department and over the law de- 
partment, which was soon added, but the contemplated conversion of Louisville College 
into its academic department was never regularly completed, and so the University of 
Louisville, as at present constituted, embraces only medical and law schools, located in 
the city of Louisville. Jeiferson Seminary, or Louisville College as it came to be called 
after 1830, is, however, worthy of some notice in this connection on account of the im- 
portant educational position it held for some time in the early history of the city. 


This was one of the State academies created by the act of February 10, 1798, which 
gave to it an endowment of 6,000 acres of public land. An additional act of December 
17, 1798, gave to it the privilege of raising $5,000 by lottery for building purposes. 
The control of the proposed institution was vested originally in a board of eight trustees, 
whose number was for some reason increased to sixteen in 1800. The land granted was 
later surveyed and located in Union County, but no use seems ever to have been made 
of the lottery privilege. 

Nothing was done toward opening the school for several years, owing largely, it 
seems, to the little interest taken in it on the part of its unwieldy board of trustees, 
whose rights had several times to be confirmed by subsequent legislative action, but 
owing partly, perhaps, to the lack of funds for inaugurating the enterprise. At last, 
on July 2, 1813, the trustees, now reduced in number to ten, purchased for $800 a lot 
of 2% acres on Eighth Street, between what is now Walnut and Green Streets, upon 
which, soon after, a brick house, one and a half stories high, with two large ground 
rooms opening toward Grayson Street, was erected. 

In this building the school was opened in 1816, with the historian, Mann Butler, as 
its first principal. Mr. Butler was assisted by Reuben Murray and William Thomp- 
kins, the principal's salary being $600 a year and that of the other teachers $500 each. 
The school term was six months in length, and the rate of tuition was $20 per term. 
Between 40 and 50 students were in attendance upon the seminary during its first term. 
It was from the beginning of comparatively high grade, and was the finishing school 
for the more elementary oldfield schools then located throughout the city. In 1817 an 
unsuccessful attempt was made to improve the institution's financial condition by start- 
ing a town on its Union County lands, and in 1820 authority was obtained from the 
legislature to dispose of these lands at auction. It does not appear how much was 
realized from this transaction. In 1829 the plan of governing the school was much im- 
proved by having the number of its trustees reduced to seven, who were appointed by 
the county board of Jefferson County. 

On September 30, 1830, inspired by the success of the new city school which had 
taken away its principal, Mann Butler, its trustees secured legislative authority for 
transferring one-half of its property to the city of Louisville for a high school. The 
city accordingly took possession soon afterwards of the city property of the seminary, 
which it converted into what was known as Louisville College, the city agreeing to 
augment, as far as necessary, its tuition fees by an annual appropriation. Its first 
regular college faculty, organized in 1830, was composed as follows: Rev. B. F. Farns- 
worth, president and professor of intellectual and moral philosophy and political 
economy; John H. Harney, professor of mathematics, natural science, and civil engi- 
neering; James Brown, professor of the Latin and Greek languages and literatures; 
Leonard Bliss, professor of belles-lettres and history; H. F. Farnsworth, tutor in the 
preparatory department. Rather a modern tone is given to the school by the fact that 


chairs of modern languages, of commercial science, and of agricultural and mechanical 
arts were contemplated as future departments. These were, however, probably never 

Although popularly having the name of college and really doing considerable work 
of collegiate grade, the legal title of the institution was still Jefferson Seminary until 
January 17, 1840, when it was, by legislative action, regularly incorporated as Louisville 
College, and became the official head of the city public-school system, then consisting 
of primary and grammar schools and a college. The city was then to pay $2,000 a 
year into the funds of the college and to receive in return 30 free scholarships for its 
most deserving grammar school students. The college, however, seems later to have 
received regular tuition fees for these pupils in addition to the regular appropriation, 
Its faculty at this period in its history was an able one, including among its members 
for some time Prof. Noble Butler, noted throughout the state as an eminent educator 
and the author of popular text-books. 

Under the legislative act of February 7, 1846, it was proposed to make the institu- 
tion the academical department of the contemplated University of Louisville provided 
for by the act, but this union was never regularly consummated, and by the terms of 
the second charter of Louisville, adopted March 4, 1851, all tuition fees in Louisville 
College were abolished, and it lost its identity in the city public-school system, of which 
it has since remained a part, as the male high school. Some mention will again be made 
of it in describing the public-school system of Louisville. 

The old seminary property was sold in different parcels in 1845 and soon after, 
and the proceeds subsequently used to erect on the university grounds, on Chestnut 
street near Ninth street, the building of the law department of the university, which 
has, however, since its construction been used almost exclusively as the home of the 
Male high school, that school thus remaining, in location at least, if not otherwise, a 
department of the university. As old Jefferson Seminary and Louisville College it had, 
from the beginning, taken a high standing, partly on account of Mann Butler, its nrst 
principal, and was for a long time the only seat of higher learning in the city. In this 
capacity it furnished to many of the early citizens of Louisville the elements of a liberal 
education, of the benefits of which they would otherwise have been deprived. 

Medical Department 

The Medical Department of the University of Louisville is the second oldest medical 
school now in existence west of the Alleghenies. 

In 1908 the following named Medical Schools, by mutual agreement of the respec- 
tive Faculties, and in perfect accord, united and became the Medical Department of 
the University of Louisville, transferring their properties, good will and prestige, and 
their alumni are made alumni of the Medical Department of the University of 

The Medical Department of the University of Louisville, Organized in 1837; The 
Kentucky School of Medicine, Organized in 1850; The Louisville Medical College, 
Organized in 1869; The Hospital College of Medicine, Organized in 1873; Medical 
Department of Kentucky University, Organized in 1898. 

These five schools have graduated 20,000 physicians, and now have in active prac- 
tice nearly 10,000 alumni. 

(Quoted from Hamlett, History of Education in Kentucky) 



In September of the year 1886 there gathered at a little weather-beaten country 
church in the mountains of Eastern Kentucky a few men representing eighteen Baptist 
churches. It was the annual meeting of the Mt. Zion Association in a region contain- 
ing about one hundred thousand children, and having only one small school that offered 
as much as an academic education, and the charter of that school permitted the co- 
education of whites and colored people. Though these few men had only a meager 
common school education themselves, and some of them scarcely that, they felt the 
responsibility of providing some means for the higher education of the children of the 
Kentucky Mountains. Accordingly though their minutes show that they were very 
poor — $366.00 was the total amount contributed by their eighteen churches during the 
year 1887-88 to pastors' salaries — they solemnly passed a resolution under the leader- 
ship of Rev. R. C. Meadris, looking toward the founding of a college. 

Pursuant to that resolution the first building of the Williamsburg Institute was 
erected in the fall of 1888. It was built of brick, and contained six or eight rooms, 
only four of which were finished. School was opened on the first of January, 1889, 
under the direction of Professor C. D. Garlough. Among the chief supporters of this 
school at the beginning were Dr. A. Gatliff, J. M. Mahan, and J. W. Siler. Mr. 
Mahan and Mr. Siler were both staunch friends and liberal contributors to the insti- 
tute as long as they lived; and each provided in his will that in the course of time the 
bulk of his estate (they had grown wealthy) , should come to the school Dr. Gatliff 
was and is still the largest contributor. 

Rev. W. J. Johnson, Principal of the school during the second year of its existence, 
afterward raised, by a campaign among the Baptist churches of the State, the first 
endowment fund. This campaign was too much for Mr. Johnson's strength and he 
died soon after it was finished. 

In the summer of 1890, E. E. Wood was called to the principalship of the institute, 
which he held for three years. Dr. J. N. Prestridge was then elected President and 
served in that capacity for three years, during which E. E. Wood was Vice-President. 
At the end of that time, upon the resignation of Dr. Prestridge, E. E. Wood was elected 
President, and has held the position ever since. 

Prof. Gorman Jones has been instructor in Greek and History since the winter of 
1891. He has served two years as acting President. 

To the first building containing six rooms and two large halls, six rooms were added 
in 1892. In 1893 a brick dormitory for boys, afterwards used for girls, and called 
Johnson Hall for Rev. Johnson, was completed. It accommodated forty boys. The 
boys' dormitory, a fine brick structure with room for ninety persons was built in 1906. 
It is called Felix Hall, in honor of Dr. W. H. Felix. Highland College was purchased 
in the summer of 1907. Two years ago Dr. Gatliff built and presented to the school 
a brick gymnasium. He is now, at his own expense, having Johnson Hall enlarged to 
hold about one hundred girls. This hall is nearly completed. Today the entire prop- 
erty of the school is valued at $125,000. Through the efforts of the trustees, assisted 
by Rev. Johnson and Dr. H. H. Hibbs, and through the generosity of friends over 
the State and elsewhere, of Mr. John T. Burgess of Lexington, of Mr. Carnegie, and 
especially of the General Education Board of New York City, the school is out of 
debt, and has paid endowment of over $227,000 with $60,000 more in sight. 
(Quoted from Hamlett, History of Education in Kentucky) 



The chief founder of Berea College was Rev. John G. Fee, for it was largely through 
his influence and efforts that the school was established, being, as it is, the direct out- 
growth of the Anti-Slavery agitation in which he was engaged in Eastern Kentucky. 

Berea College was first opened in the early part of 1855. Its first teachers were 
William E. Lincoln and Otis B. Waters, who came from Oberlin College, Ohio. Mr. 
Waters remained at Berea for two years and Mr. Lincoln somewhat longer, and in 1858, 
the third teacher, also from Oberlin, Rev. J. A. R. Rogers, arrived. 

Prof. Rogers may be called the first Principal of the school, and was destined to have 
more to do with shaping its future than any other one man, except Mr. Fee. He opened 
a school in a small rude building prepared for it soon after his arrival, with his wife 
as assistant teacher. There were at first only fifteen pupils, but before the end of the 
term the enrollment had been brought up to ninety-six. During the next term, Prof. 
Rogers was assisted by Mr. and Mrs. John G. Hanson, of Bracken County, Kentucky. 

In July, 1859, a Constitution was prepared for the incorporation of the College. The 
general character of this instrument and the nature of the institution it proposed to 
call into existence, may be seen from the following clause: "This College shall be under 
an influence strictly Christian and as such, opposed to sectarianism, slave-holding, caste 
and every other wrong institution or practice: The object of this College shall be to 
furnish the facilities for a thorough education to all persons of good moral character, 
at the least possible expense to the same, and all the inducements and facilities for 
manual labor which can reasonably be supplied by the Board of Trustees shall be offered 
to the students." 

At the time of the adoption of the Constitution, a Board of Trustees was organized 
and steps taken to procure a charter for the proposed College. The John Brown Raid 
occurred just at this time, and caused the enterprise to be abandoned for a time. 

The school had aroused considerable opposition in the State, on account of the Anti- 
Slavery sentiments of its managers, and a large county convention held in Richmond, 
Kentucky, appointed a committee of sixty-five men to see that it was removed from the 
State, which "was accomplished with as much dignity and decorum as was consistent 
with such an enterprise." On December 23, 1859, this committee notified Mr. Rogers 
and ten others, including Mr. Fee, that they must leave the State in ten days, and ac- 
cordingly, they departed with their families, numbering about forty persons. So the 
school was closed for the time being. 

Principal Rogers was back in 1862 engaged in repairing the buildings, when the 
Confederate invasion and the battle of Richmond again forced an exodus of the Berea 

In 1865, the friends of the College returned, the Board of Trustees was reorganized, 
a charter for a College obtained under the general law of the State, and it was reopened 
as Berea College, the teachers at that time being Prof. Rogers and wife together with 
W. W. Wheeler and wife. The present campus was then occupied, and Howard Hall, 
still in use erected. 

In 1868, E. H. Fairchild, an alumnus of Oberlin, was called to the presidency of 
Berea. He assumed the duties of the position in 1869, in which year a regular college 
class of five members was first organized, and the school may be said to have started 
on its career as a real college. President Fairchild remained at its head for twenty 
years, and the growth of the institution continued steadily during his administration, 
which terminated with his death in 1889. President Fairchild left the institution with 
four good buildings: Howard Hall, Ladies Hall, Lincoln Hall and Chapel, and had 


gathered for it an endowment of $100,000.00, not all of which, however, was yet 

In 1890, Rev. William B. Stewart became Mr. Fairchild's successor in the presidency 
of the institution, resigning in 1892. The presidency of the College, which had been 
tendered to Rev. William G. Frost just prior to President Fairchild's death, but had 
been declined for personal reasons, was again offered to him and was accepted at this 
time, the new President entering upon his duties in the summer of that year. 

Under his administration, the work of the institution has made steady progress. The 
College has not for many years been aided by the American Missionary Association nor 
by any State or benevolent society, but has depended upon the income of its endow- 
ment, the small amount received from students' fees and the contributions of those 
interested in this work. 

The anti-slavery principles of Berea's early supporters led to the undertaking after 
the war of the training of colored teachers for the public schools. This was prohibited 
by the Legislature of 1904, and the work transferred to an independent institution, 
Lincoln Institute of Kentucky, located in Shelby County. 

From its earliest years, Berea has been devoted to the interest of the people in- 
habiting the mountains of Eastern Kentucky and adjoining states. Its efforts in their 
behalf were hindered by the burdens of "reconstruction times," but with the coming 
of President Frost the institution began a series of adaptions to the peculiar conditions 
of this region, and it has been a pioneer in all efforts for the improvement of rural 

(Quoted from Hamlett, History of Education in Kentucky) 


In 1873 Kentucky provided a common school system for her recently enfranchised 
colored citizens. The problem of staffing the schools with professionally trained 
teachers immediately arose, and following a thirteen year period of agitation on the 
part of Negro teachers and enlightened white leaders the legislature passed an act 
creating a State Normal School for Colored Persons. 

The next year, 1887, the doors of the new school located on land donated by the 
city of Frankfort were opened to the first class of 55 students. President John H. 
Jackson, holder of a masters degree from Berea College, Kentucky, and three other 
teachers welcomed the prospective common school teachers to their four room normal 

The first major expansion of the institution came in 1890-91 when in order to obtain 
financial support from the federal government under the Morrill Act of 1890 depart- 
ments of agriculture, mechanical arts, and home economics were added to the two year 
normal curriculum. 

In the years that have followed six presidents have guided Kentucky State College 
toward the goal of providing an adequate measure of higher educational opportunities 
for the Negroes of Kentucky. The first, President John H. Jackson, served two non- 
consecutive periods totaling fourteen years, 1887-1898 and 1907-1910; the second, 
President James E. Givens, a Harvard graduate, served from 1898 to 1900; the third, 
President James S. Hathaway, a graduate of Berea and Simmons University, was the 
chief executive from 1900 to 1907 and from 1910 to 1912. In the latter year President 
G. P. Russell, holder of degrees from Berea and Wilberforce University, began an 
administration which lasted with one interruption to 1929. For one year, 1923-24, 
Dr. F. M. Wood, a Kentucky State College graduate who went on to one of the most 
important positions in Negro education in the country, superintendent of Negro schools 


in Baltimore, Maryland, was president. The present head of Kentucky State College, 
Dr. R. B. Atwood, a graduate of Fisk, Iowa State, and the University of Chicago, was 
appointed in 1929. 

For fifty-eight years Kentucky State College though changed in name several times 
has clung to its primary function, the purpose for which it was created: the preparation 
of teachers for the public schools of the state. 

The name Kentucky Normal and Industrial Institute for Colored Persons was ap- 
plied by the legislature in 1902 as a result of the inauguration of federal land grant 
courses in agriculture and the mechanical arts. During this period a 265 acre farm 
was purchased and a high school department was added to the institution. 

In recognition of the steadily advancing quality of work done at the institution the 
state legislature changed the name in 1926 to the Kentucky State Industrial College 
for Colored Persons. One final change was made in 1938 when the legislature named 
it the Kentucky State College for Negroes. 

With a normal peace-time enrollment of between five and six hundred students 
from all sections of the state, Kentucky State College is a symbol of Kentucky's faith 
in her Negro citizens and of the confidence of the colored people in their own leaders. 

On the campus proper, excluding the farm property, farm house and barns, there 
are two dormitories for women, two for men, a beautiful dining hall and kitchen, an 
administration building containing the school auditorium, library, and the president's 
office, the gymnasium, and three class room buildings. In addition there are several 
teachers' homes and the president's residence. 

In the past fifteen years the physical plant has doubled in value. In that period 
two dormitories, one for men and one for women, a dining hall, and the heating plant 
were constructed, and the older buildings completely renovated and their usefulness in 
the educational program of the college increased. 

At present Kentucky State College is a standard four year college accredited by its 
regional accrediting association and offers under-graduate courses leading to the bache- 
lor of arts or the bachelor of science degree in the fields of English, History and 
Government, Sociology and Economics, Elementary Education, Business Administration, 
Commercial Teacher Education, General Science, Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics, 
Agriculture, and Home Economics. 

Today, confidently anchored on its green clad bluff overlooking the valley in which 
our state capitol is located, Kentucky State College is a bright beacon of learning 
for the Negro citizens of the state. Its leaders, alumni, and friends of both races look 
forward expectantly to its continued expansion in the service of Kentucky. 


(From 1944 Catalogue) 

When the Southern Baptist Convention was constituted in 1845 there was no theo- 
logical seminary within its territory. Education for the ministry was at that time pro- 
vided by the Baptist colleges, most of which had theological departments or professor- 
ships; and by private study in the homes and under the direction of individual ministers, 
whose interest in younger ministers led them to provide for such private instruction 
and training. A few ambitious men studied in institutions in the North. There was a 
growing sentiment for a general theological seminary for the Convention. James P. 
Boyce, of South Carolina, had graduated at Brown University, and upon yielding to a 
conviction of a call to the ministry had studied theology in Princeton Theological 
Seminary. As Professor in the Theological Department of Furman University he 
manifested unusual ability and insight. Taking up the advocacy of a general theologi- 

8— Vol. II 


cal institution, he delivered a notable inaugural address before the University in 1856. 
This led to conferences and discussions culminating in a special Educational Convention 
in Louisville, Kentucky, in May, 1857, at which definite decision was reached to estab- 
lish such a school. The Seminary opened its session in Greenville, S. C, in 1859, with 
a faculty made up of James P. Boyce, John A. Broadus, Basil Manly, Jr., William 
Williams. The Theological Department of Furman University was merged with the 
new Seminary, which was an entirely independent school. Beginning auspiciously and 
developing with fine promise, the young institution was soon embarrassed by the Civil 
War. By the end of the session in 1862 it was found necessary to suspend operations, 
while the Professors turned to pastoral and other religious work. At the close of the 
War, although it seemed almost impossible to resume operations because of the loss of 
resources and of the widespread destitution, the indomitable courage and the heroic 
sacrifice of the members of the Faculty caused them to re-open the Seminary, October 
1, 1865, and to carry it on in the face of discouragement which continued for many 

To raise any adequate endowment seemed hopeless while the Seminary was located in 
the most impoverished section of the Convention territory, and it was decided that the 
institution might be moved into some other region where more prosperous conditions 
might afford better hope of support. Certain Baptists of Kentucky lent encourage- 
ment to that end, and the Seminary was moved to Louisville in 1877. Its support re- 
mained uncertain and its future precarious until 1880, when, in an hour of desperate 
need, the Hon. Joseph E. Brown, of Georgia, made a gift of $50,000, which preserved 
the life of the school and set it upon the way of permanent material progress. 

It was many years before sufficient funds were procured to establish the Seminary 
in its own grounds and buildings. It pursued its work in rented buildings in different 
locations until it was able to occupy its own property at Fifth Street and Broadway in 
1888. Here four buildings were erected which housed the institution until the spring 
of 1926. Early in the present century it became increasingly evident that it would be 
wise for the Seminary to seek a more quiet site with larger campus facilities. Move- 
ments in this direction were halted by the World War. In 1921 a tract of fifty-one 
acres was purchased on Lexington Road, to which some three acres were subsequently 
added. The building of the new home was projected on a vigorous plan. The corner- 
stone of the first building was laid in November, 1924. The removal to the new site, 
known as "The Beeches," was effected March 26 and 27, 1926, and the Commencement 
for that session was held in the assembly room of the Administration Building. 

The institution has been owned and controlled from the beginning by the Southern 
Baptist Convention through a Board of Trustees. Members of the Faculty have been 
chosen with care to secure men of scholarship, consecration, teaching gifts and per- 
sonality. It is provided in the Fundamental Articles that every professor must be a 
member in good standing of a regular Baptist church, and all are required to enter 
upon a contract to teach and conduct their work "in accordance with and not contrary 
to" the convictions of Southern Baptists as expressed in a series of twenty articles 
drafted by Basil Manly, Jr., adopted by the Board of Trustees and made a provision 
of the charter of the institution. These articles deal with the basal principles of our 
religion and the essentials of Baptist polity. 

Reckoning from beginning of full service, whether as Instructor or Professor, those 
who have served on the Faculty of the Seminary are the following: 

James P. Boyce, 1859-88*, (Chairman, 1859-88, President 1888) ; John A. Broadus, 
1859-95*, (President, 1888-95); Basil Manly, Jr., 1859-71** and 1879-92*; William 
Williams, 1859-77*; Crawford H. Toy, 1869-79|*; William H. Whitsitt, 1872-99f*, 


(President, 1895-99); George W. Riggan, 1881-85"; John R. Sampey, 1885-1943, 
(President, 1929-42), (President Emeritus, 1942-) ; F. H. Kerfoot, 1887-99J*; A. T. 
Robertson, 1888-1934*; Edwin C. Dargan, 1892-1907f*; William J. McGlothlin, 1894- 
1919f*; H. H. Harris, 1895-97*; W. Owen Carver, 1896-1943, (President Emeritus, 
1943-); Edgar Y. Mullins, 1899-1928*, (President, 1899-1928); George B. Eager, 
1900-20*, (Professor Emeritus, 1920-29); B. H. DeMent, 1906-14f*; Charles S. 
Gardner, 1907-29, (Professor Emeritus, 1929-) ; H. C. Wayman, 1915-23f; L. P. Lea- 
vell, 1916-20f*; F. M. Powell, 1918-41f; W. Hersey Davis, 1919-; G. S. Dobbins, 
1920-; J. McKee Adams, 1921-; R. I. Johnson, 1921-; Kyle M. Yates, 1922-42f ; H. W. 
Tribble, 1924-; J. B. Weatherspoon, 1929-; E. A. McDowell, Jr., 1935-; H. C. Goerner, 
1935-; J. Leo Green, 1939-; Ellis A. Fuller, 1942-, (President, 1942-) ; S. L. Stealey, 
1942-; H. R. Peterson, 1943-; Charles A. McGlon, 1943-; O. T. Binkley, 1944-. 

This Seminary has active membership in The American Association of Theological 
Schools, and is on the list of "Accredited Schools" prepared by the Commission on 
Accreditation created by the Association. 


The purpose of a theological seminary is the training of an intelligent spiritual leader- 
ship for the interpretation and extension of the Gospel of the Kingdom of God. Pri- 
marily such a leadership expresses itself in the pastoral ministration and direction of 
local churches. This was the dominant idea of the founders of this Seminary and must 
remain the chief function of the institution. A great denomination functioning as a 
factor in a world-wide Christianity, must have a general denominational leadership and 
must produce its share of the leadership for the whole Christian movement in the life 
of the world. This responsibility has been in the program of this institution steadily. 

The Baptist polity and theory of the calling of its ministry provide that any church 
may authorize any one of its members to study for the ministry and to exercise the 
ministerial functions. This places upon the educational institutions of the denomina- 
tion the obligation to provide scholastic training for all those who may be recognized 
by the churches as called into the ministry. At the same time, an institution must 
organize its courses, project its work and formulate its regulations in the light of the 
total objective which it must serve. From the first this Seminary has admitted to its 
classes all who were properly accredited by their churches; but has always reserved its 
scholastic recognitions for such students as could meet high standards of scholarship 
and give promise of efficient work. With the extension of general knowledge and the 
elevation of scholastic standards, the Seminary, while adhering to the principle of free 
admission, has advanced its standards and tests for those who are to be accredited by 
its diplomas; and has also extended its provisions for the training of scholarly leader- 
ship. As far as its resources allow, it seeks to provide for the varied demands of a 
large and great denomination finding its tasks in the complex conditions of the modern 

Its facilities are not at all limited to Baptists but are open on the same terms to men 
of all denominations. Its rosters carry many names of students of various Christian 
communions and a few Jews. Throughout its history few sessions have lacked non- 
Baptist students. 



**Resigned — re-elected after a period as President of Georgetown College. 



By Frank H. Caldwell, D.D. 

The story of Louisville Seminary is a story of unique ecclesiastical cooperation, far- 
sighted administration, able teaching, and generous giving. An excellent history of 
the institution* has been written by the Rev. I. S. McElroy, D.D., whose name will 
always be inseparably linked with the first strong financial undergirding of the semi- 
nary. A story of the buildings was published some years ago by Dr. Charles R. 
Hemphill in brochure form. More recently a "Story of the Buildings" was written 
by the Rev. Peyton H. Hoge, D.D., and published in the April, May, June, 1934, 
issue of The Register. 

The list of the able professors and instructors, the wise ecclesiastical statesmen, the 
generous donors, and the loyal and outstanding alumni who have been used of God in 
the building of this "school of the prophets" is too long to be included in a brief sketch 
like this. Rather, it is the purpose of this booklet to present a bird's-eye view of the 
development of the seminary during five significant periods. 

I. The Two Parent Institutions 

The seminary had its beginning some years before the division of the Presbyterian 
Church into the two branches — U. S. A. and U. S. 

The older of the parent institutions was the Danville (Kentucky) Theological Semi- 
nary, founded by the General Assembly of 1853 in response to an offer of the Synod 
of Kentucky to provide a site of at least ten acres and $60,000 toward the endowment 
of three chairs. The high standard set for the faculty of this new "seminary of the 
west" is indicated by the names of the first four professors elected by that Assembly 
of 1853— Rev. R. J. Breckinridge, D.D., LL.D., Rev. Edward P. Humphrey, D.D., 
Rev. B. M. Palmer, D.D., and Rev. Phineas B. Gurley, D.D. 

The seminary opened its doors October 13, 1853, with three professors** and twenty- 
three students. Its hopeful beginning, however, was soon seriously blighted by the 
turmoil of the War between the States and the Period of Reconstruction, so that by 
1883 only one professor, Dr. Stephen Yerkes, remained in the faculty, and there were 
very few students. At this time an earnest effort was made to secure joint use of the 
seminary by the U.S. and U.S.A. churches, but the effort failed because of certain 
"practical difficulties." Shortly afterward, the board elected some new professors, and 
Danville Seminary was revived somewhat, but it was unable to regain its pre-war 
strength. During its separate life of forty-eight years, sixteen professors and nine 
instructors served in the faculty of Danville Seminary, and more than three hundred 
ministers received all or part of their training in its halls. 

In the meantime, following the failure mentioned above to make Danville Seminary 
an institution which would serve the Presbyterian Church in the U.S., as well as the 
Presbyterian Church, U.S.A., the feeling grew that there should be a seminary to serve 
the former church in the region of the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys. After three 
years of diligent and fruitful campaigning under the leadership of the Rev. I. S. Mc- 

*The Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary, published by the Presbyterian 
Standard Publishing Co., Charlotte, N. C, 1929. 

:!c *Breckinridge, Humphrey, and Joseph G. Reason. Dr. Palmer and Gurley declined 
their elections to the faculty by the General Assembly. Shortly afterwards two other 
"giants" were elected — Dr. Stuart Robinson and Dr. Stephen Yerkes. 


Elroy, D.D., the Louisville Presbyterian Thelogical Seminary was founded in 1893 
under the joint control of the Synods of Kentucky and Missouri, U.S. It began its 
life with financial resources of $147,000 which were increased to $247,000 by the end 
of the first year. The first faculty was composed of six able professors — Rev. William 
Hoge Marquess, D.D., LL.D., L.H.D., Rev. Charles R. Hemphill, D.D., LL.D., 
Rev. Francis R. Beattie, Ph.D., DD., LL.D., Rev, Thomas Dwight Witherspoon, D.D., 
LL.D., Rev. Thompson M. Hawes, D.D., and Rev. Edwin Muller, D.D. There were 
thirty-one students the first year, and the number grew steadily to a peak of sixty-seven 
in the fourth year, with an average of forty-seven students during the eight years of its 
life as a separate institution. By 1901 the financial resources of the seminary had been 
increased to "several hundred thousand dollars." 

II. The Consolidation of 1901 

Meanwhile, there had come to be in Kentucky two Presbyterian colleges — Central 
(U.S.), and Centre (U.S.A.), and two Presbyterian seminaries — Louisville (U.S.), 
and Danville (U.S.A.) , and there was an increasing desire for consolidation. Accord- 
ingly, in 1901 the two colleges were consolidated as the Central University of Kentucky 
at Danville, and the two seminaries were consolidated as the Kentucky Presbyterian 
Theological Seminary at Louisville.* It is interesting to note that while the opposition 
in the General Assembly (U.S.) to the approval of this consolidation was not large, 
one ground of the opposition was that "it tends toward organic union with the Presby- 
terian Church in the U.S.A." Louisville Seminary has never agitated for organic union 
of the two Presbyterian churches which own and control it, but for more than thirty- 
five years it has demonstrated the possibility of intimate and fruitful cooperation be- 
tween these two churches, and it has sent out into both churches a constant stream of 
graduates to most of whom the ideal of re-union is not so much the result of propa- 
ganda as the consequence of vital experience. 

III. The Administration of Dr. Charles R. Hemphill, 1910-20 

Prior to the election of Dr. Hemphill as president in 1910, the seminary, like most 
such institutions, functioned without such an official. Each member of the faculty, in 
turn, served as the chairman of that body, and most of the administrative details con- 
cerned with the care and maintenance of the buildings, refectory, etc., were handled by 
the "Intendent." One such "Intendent" during the period following the consolidation 
was Dr. Francis R. Beattie, who shared administrative responsibilities with Dr. Hemp- 
hill, and who in friendship was to Dr. Hemphill as Jonathan to David. His death in 
1906 was a severe blow to the institution and to the whole community. 

It is practically impossible to restrict the administration of Dr. Hemphill to the ac- 
tual period of his presidency of the seminary, for he had been one of the founders of 
Louisville Seminary in 1893, and between that time and the date of his official election 
as president so much had been done by him which is usually regarded as "administra- 

Dr. Hemphill had a large part in securing most of the munificent gifts which made 
possible the erection and furnishing of the seminary buildings as they are today. His 
wise ecclesiastical statesmanship can be seen in the successful effort to consolidate Louis- 
ville and Danville Seminaries. His relation to the Second Presbyterian Church as their 
former pastor made it possible for him to maintain among the members of the great 

'Tn 1926 the name of the Louisville Presbyterian Theological Seminary was resumed 
as the official name of the institution. 


congregation a vital interest in the seminary, without which one wonders whether the 
institution could have survived. 

During most of Dr. Hemphill's administration there was a full and able faculty — 
Dr. William Hoge Marquess in the Chair of English Bible, Dr. Thompson M. Hawes 
teaching Public Speaking, Dr. Henry E. Dosker in Church History, Pastoral Theology, 
and Missions, Dr. R. A. Webb in Apologetics and Theology, Dr. Jesse Lee Cotton, 
who was just beginning his long and fruitful professorship in Hebrew and Old Testa- 
ment, and Dr. J. Gray McAllister, first as Acting Professor, then as full Professor of 
English Bible. But one year after Dr. Hemphill was elected president, Dr. Marquess 
resigned, and in 1919 Drs. Webb and Hawes died, leaving the faculty severely depleted. 
The student body, also, was considerably reduced in size toward the end of Dr. Hemp- 
hill's administration, as was the case with the student bodies of most seminaries during 
the years immediately following the World War. 

IV. Dr. John M. Vander Meulen's Adminstration, 1920-30 

In 1920 Dr. Hemphill resigned the presidency to become Dean for the next ten 
years until his retirement from active duty. The Board then called to the presidency 
the Rev. John M. Vander Meulen, D.D., LL.D., who was pastor of the First Presby- 
terian Church at Oak Park, Illinois, and who for five years previously had been pastor 
of the Second Church in Louisville. Dr. Vander Meulen immediately set about to in- 
crease the endowment of the seminary and to enlarge the student body, the curriculum, 
the faculty, and the synodical constitutuency of the institution. All of these objectives 
were accomplished to an amazing degree during the ten years of his administration. 
The financial resources were increased to more than a million dollars. Two new campus 
sites were procured — one on the Upper River Road, and the Pratt-Reynolds Campus on 
Cannon's Lane — with a view to the possible removal of the seminary to one of them. 
The student body rose in numbers to 119. In 1921 Dr. Thornton Whaling was called 
from the presidency of Columbia Seminary to the Chair of Systematic Theology, which 
had become vacant with the death of Dr. Webb. Dr. Charles H. Pratt was called 
in 1924 to the newly-established Reynolds Chair of Missions and Evangelism. To the 
new Mary Hamilton Duncan Chair of Religious Education, Dr. Lewis J. Sherrill was 
called later in the same year. When Dr. J. Gray McAllister resigned to go to Union 
Seminary in 1925, Dr. Andrew W. Blackwood was immediately secured for the Chair 
of English Bible. Following the death of Dr. Henry E. Dosker in 1926, Dr. Andrew 
K. Rule was called to the Chair of Church History. In 1928, Dr. W. D. Chamberlain 
was called as associate professor of New Testament Exegesis, becoming full professor 
in that chair on the death of Dr. Hemphill in 1932. 

During this administration the curriculum was enlarged by the addition of chairs, 
undergraduate electives, and of courses leading to a Th.M. degree. Postgraduate study 
was also stimulated by the establishment of six fellowships. Also, two lectureships were 
established, and an excellent archeological museum was procured. 

Though he was conspicuously successful in his administrative duties which he carried 
along with the responsibility for the Chair of Homiletics, Dr. Vander Meulen informed 
the Board in 1928 of his earnest desire to retire from the presidency to the Chair of 
Homiletics as soon as a new president could be secured. But when Dr. Thornton 
Whaling retired from the Chair of Theology in 1929, and Dr. Vander Meulen supplied 
that chair for a while, the students urged that he accept that professorship permanently, 
which he did, holding it until his death June 7, 1936. To the vacant Chair of Homi- 
letics, the Rev. Frank H. Caldwell was called, at the same time that a new president was 
secured to succeed Dr. Vander Meulen. 


V. The Administration of Dr. John R. Cunningham, 1930-36 

The Rev. John R. Cunningham, D.D., LL.D., came to the presidency after con- 
spicuously successful pastorates at Grenada, Mississippi; Gainesville, Florida; and Bris- 
tol, Tennessee-Virginia. As he began his administration in mid-summer of 1930, the 
people of America were being assured over the radio and in the newspapers that al- 
though the stock market had tumbled in an unprecedented crash late in 1929, "pros- 
perity was just around the corner"! A few weeks later, America began to discover that 
instead of prosperity it was bank failures that were just around most corners. We were 
caught in the grip of perhaps the worse economic depression in history. And the semi- 
nary found itself with the largest faculty (ten active professors and one retired on 
pension) , and the largest administrative staff in its history. Plainly, the first administra- 
tive task of the new president in a period of economic depression was one of financial 
retrenchment and conservation. How well this task was performed, and with what 
difficulties, only the presentation and interpretation of data, which have no place in a 
brief article like this, could show. In addition to this work of conservation, however, 
the permanent endowment of the seminary was increased during these depression years 
by more than $240,000.00. 

In the personnel of the faculty three changes occurred during Dr. Cunningham's 
administration. In 1931 the Rev. Julian Price Love, Ph.D., D.D., was called to the 
Chair of English Bible to succeed Dr. Andrew W. Blackwood who had resigned in 
1929 to accept the Chair of Homiletics at Princeton. In 1932 Dr. Hemphill died, 
after having been in the faculty constantly for thirty-nine years. He was succeeded 
as Dean by the Rev. Lewis J. Sherrill, Ph.D., and as Professor of New Testament 
Exegesis by the Rev. William D. Chamberlain, Ph.D. In 1935 the Rev. Jesse Lee 
Cotton, D.D., LL.D., retired from the Chair of Old Testament, having served ably in 
that capacity for more than twenty-five years. 

The academic standards of the institution were notably raised during this adminis- 
tration. At its very beginning the faculty was pursuing a study of theological curricula 
with a view to making changes which would render the training of the seminary more 
effective. This new curriculum was adopted and put into effect in 1932. At the same 
time the library was enlarged and made more usable, greater care was exercised in the 
admission of students to the seminary, academic records were more systematically 
handled, and students judged by the faculty to be not able to profit by seminary 
training or to adapt themselves effectively to the work of the ministry were guided into 
other vocations or other types of institutions early in their careers. As a partial result 
of this raising of standards, the size of the student body was somewhat reduced, but in 
1936 for the first time in the history of the institution every man graduating from 
Louisville Seminary had already received his college degree and was receiving from the 
seminary a degree in divinity. 

Various churches made overtures to Dr. Cunningham during his administration to 
return to the pastorate, and in March, 1936, he accepted the call of the First Presby- 
terian Church of Winston-Salem, North Carolina, severing his connection with the 
seminary immediately. 

The Executive Committee named Dean Lewis J. Sherrill to serve as Acting President 
until the end of that academic year, at which time the Board elected Rev. Frank H. 
Caldwell, Ph.D., D.D., as President. 

The Seminary needs additional resources amounting to $500,000 in order that its 
work may be adequately endowed, and until those resources are made available through 
gifts and legacies, we shall have to depend upon liberal annual gifts toward current 


expenses from friends who appreciate the significance to our church of a thoroughly 
trained ministry. 





The Eastern Kentucky State Normal School was created by a legislative act March 
21, 1906, and as provided for under the act, the Governor of the Commonwealth was 
authorized to appoint four regents with the State Superintendent of Public Instruction 
serving as ex officio Chairman. On May 9, 1906, Governor J. C. W. Beckham ap- 
pointed on the first Board of Regents Hon. Jere A. Sullivan, Richmond, Kentucky; 
Hon. P. W. Grinstead, Cold Springs, Kentucky; Hon. Fred Vaughn, Paintsville, Ken- 
tucky; and Hon. J. W. Cammack, Owenton, Kentucky. James H. Fuqua, Sr., State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, was ex officio chairman by virtue of his office. 
Judge J. W. Cammack served the Board continuously from 1906 until his death in 
February 5, 1939. 


Richmond was recognized at the outset as a probable site for one of the normal 
schools, since it offered a "ready-made" normal school plant, a main college building 
seating 800 and worth $60,000, a dormitory of 35 rooms worth $30,000, a gymnasium 
worth $5,000 and fully equipped, an athletic field and grandstand, a city with a college 
and school spirit, and a railroad center — the most accessible point to the majority of 
Kentucky teachers. 

On May 7, 1906, the Normal School Commission met in Louisville and accepted 
Richmond's offer of property worth approximately $125,000. This property was the site 
of Central University which had been united with Centre College in Danville in 1901. 

College Plant and Buildings 

The present campus and adjoining dairy and truck farm consist of 223 acres. The 
campus of 40 acres and the college farm, devoted to dairying and vegetable gardening, 
contains 183 acres. 

Sullivan Hall is the home of approximately 150 women students and is named in 
honor of Eastern's first local regent, Honorable Jere A. Sullivan. It was built in 1908. 

Burnam Hall, a dormitory for women, was completed in 1940. The first section was 
built in 1920, and an addition was constructed in 1926. The entire structure provides 
living quarters for 370 women. 

The John Grant Crabbe Library houses over fifty thousand volumes. It is named 
in honor of Eastern's second president. The original structure was erected in 1923 
and the addition in 1936. 

The University Building is the oldest building on the campus. It was erected in 1874 
and was the home of Central University from 1874 to 1901. It is now used for the 
high school division of the training school. 

The Cammack Building was erected in 1918. It is named for the Honorable James 
W. Cammack, regent from 1906 to 1939. 

The Weaver Health Building, constructed in 1931, houses the swimming pool, two 
basketball floors, R. O. T. C. headquarters, offices of the college physician and several 
class rooms. It was named for Charles W. Weaver, regent from 1920 to 1932. 

The Administration Building was constructed in 1928. It is named in honor of 
Eastern's third president Thomas Jackson Coates. The Hiram Brock Auditorium 


adjoins the Coates Administration Building and might be considered a part of it. 
The auditorium is named for Senator Hiram Brock, Regent from Harlan, Kentucky. 

Hanger Stadium was built in 1936. The college received this valuable addition to 
the plant as a gift from students, faculty, and friends of the college, supplemented 
by a PWA grant. This concrete, steel, and tile structure has dormitory accommodations 
for thirty men students, offices for coaches, dressing and equipment rooms, and showers. 
The seating capacity is 5,000. 

Beckham, McCreary and Miller Halls, the new dormitory for men, are three separate 
buildings. Each section provides the finest dormitory accommodations for 48 men which 
makes the total capacity of the dormitory 144. This building was completed in 1939, 
and Beckham Hall was named for the late J. C. W. Beckham, who was Governor of 
Kentucky when Eastern was founded. McCreary Hall is named for James B. McCreary, 
a Richmond citizen, who twice served the state as chief executive. Miller Hall is named 
for Robert W. Miller, a Madison Countain, who introduced in the lower house of the 
General Assembly a bill establishing Eastern. 

Memorial Hall, dormitory for men, which was on the campus when Eastern was 
established, was torn down when the new dormitory for men was built. 

Memorial Hall Annex was built in 1920. It has recently been remodeled and now 
provides convenient dormitory accommodations for 60 men. 

The Fitzpatrick Arts Building was constructed in 1939 and houses three depart- 
ments of the college: industrial arts, home economics, and art. It is named for the 
Honorable H. D. Fitzpatrick who was a member of the Board of Regents of the 
college from 1930 to 1944. 

Eastern's newest and finest building is its Student Union Building. The idea of a 
student building was conceived by Dr. H. L. Donovan, President of Eastern for 13 
years. The college administration felt that students needed something more than class- 
room and library opportunities in order to develop initiative, personality, and social 
amenities of life. 

The Student Union Building contains club rooms for students, recreation halls, a 
Little Theater, student post office, bookstore, soda fountain and grill, dining halls, the 
faculty club rooms, and a spacious reception room. It was named in honor of Ken- 
tucky's former governor, the Honorable Keen Johnson, who has served on the Board of 
Regents since 1936. 

The other buildings on the campus not described are: 

11) The Amphitheater, a replica of an ancient Greek Amphitheater. It was built 
in 1936 and has a seating capacity of 2,500. (2) The Roark Building, erected in 1908 
and named in honor of Eastern's first president, Dr. Ruric Nevel Roark. It is now 
used as a science building. (3) The President's home which is next to the Administra- 
tion Building. (4) The Rural Demonstration School, located on Stateland Farm. 
(5) A residence formerly occupied by the college physician, by the dean, but since fall 
of 1945 has been used as the home management house. (6) A residence on the campus 
occupied by the Superintendent of Buildings and Grounds. (7) A residence on South 
Second Street formerly used as a practice house for home economics majors. (8) Tel- 
ford Music Building, acquired from the Presbyterian Church in — 

Income and Maintenance 

The income for maintenance increased gradually from the initial appropriation of 
$20,000.00 per year in 1906 to $353,615.03 in 1930-31. Beginning with the school 
year 1931-32, there was a great decline in the income of the college for maintenance 
purposes. The amount of income for this purpose continued to decrease until 1933-34, 


when the total amount received was $188,283.28. Appropriations for capital outlay 
have been made from time to time. 

Value of College Plant 

Book value of college property, campus, grounds, buildings and equipment was 
$3,058,184.22 on January 1, 1945. All of the buildings are in a good state of repair. 


During the period of thirty-nine years since the institution was established it has had 
five presidents and two acting presidents; namely, Ruric Nevel Roark, President, June 2, 
1906, to April 14, 1909; Mrs. Mary C. Roark, Acting President, April 16, 1909, to 
April 9, 1910; John Grant Crabbe, President, April 9, 1910, to September 1, 1916; 
Thomas Jackson Coates, President, September 7, 1916, to March 17, 1928; Homer E. 
Cooper, Acting President, March 19, 1928, to June 1, 1928; Herman Lee Donovan, 
June 1, 1928, to July 1, 1941; and W. F. O'Donnell, who has been president of the 
institution since July 1, 1941. 

From time to time the Board of Regents has created administrative offices to assist 
the president in the administration of the college. These offices are: 

1. Dean of Women, 1906. 2. Business Agent, 1907. 3. Registrar, 1908. 4. Di- 
rector of the Training School, 1907. 5. Dean of the Faculty, 1915. 6. Superintendent 
of Buildings and Grounds, 1918. 7. Dean of Men, 1921. 8. Director of Extension, 
1920. 9. Director of Research, 1931. 10. Director of Personnel. 

The appointed members of the Board of Regents, their home addresses, and their 
terms of service are as follows: 

J. W. Cammack, Owenton, June 2, 1906, to February 5, 1939; P. W. Grinstead, 
Cold Springs, June 2, 1906, to May 8, 1914; J. A. Sullivan, Richmond, June 2, 1906, 
to April 26, 1930; Fred A. Vaughn, Paintsville, June 2, 1906, to June 16, 1916; H. 
M. Brock, Harlan, May 8, 1914, to April 26, 1930, April 27, 1932, to January 10, 
1936; W. A. Price, Corbin, June 16, 1916, to May 15, 1920; Chas. F. Weaver, Ashland, 
May 15, 1920, to October 21, 1932; H. D. Fitzpatrick, Prestonburg, April 26, 1930, to 
April 27, 1932, January 21, 1933, to April 1, 1944; N. U. Bond, Berea, June 21, 1930, 
to April 27, 1932; John Noland, Richmond, August 12, 1932, to April 1, 1938; Glenn 
O. Swing, Covington, April 17, 1939, to April 1, 1944; Jesse Alverson, Paris, September 
14, 1936, to — ; Keen Johnson, Richmond, September 14, 1936, to — ; O. F. Hume, 
Richmond, April 1, 1944, to — ; E. J. Evans, Paintsville, April 1, 1944, to — . 

In addition to the appointed members, the superintendents of public instruction who 
have served as ex officio members of the Board of Regents are as follows: 

Jas. H. Fuqua, January 2, 1906, to January 6, 1908; John Grant Crabbe, January 6, 
1908, to April 9, 1910; Ellsworth Regenstein, April 9, 1910 to January 1, 1912; Barks- 
dale Hamlett, January 1, 1912, to January 3, 1916; V. O. Gilbert, January 3, 1916, 
to January 5, 1920; George Colvin, January 5, 1920, to January 7, 1924; McHenry 
Rhoads, January 7, 1924, to January 2, 1928; W. C. Bell, January 2, 1928, to January 
4, 1932; Jas. H. Richmond, January 4, 1932, to January 6, 1936; Harry W. Peters, 
January 6, 1936, to January 4, 1940; John W. Brooker, January 2, 1940, to January 
2, 1944; John Fred Williams, January 2, 1944, to — . 

The elected officers of the Board of Regents are a vice-chairman, secretary, and a 

Training School 

The campus training school at Eastern is the oldest in Kentucky. The Normal school, 
established in 1906, occupied the buildings formerly belonging to Central University. 


On the campus at that time there was a private academy which was taken over by the 
"Normal" and converted into a "Model School," and elementary grades were added. 
In normal times the campus training school has about 330 pupils and fourteen full- 
time teachers. It includes an elementary school of six grades, a high school of six 
grades with a principal, and a one-teacher rural school located near by on the college 
farm. The Richmond City School, affiliated with the college for the extension of student 
teaching, offers the services of from ten to twelve teachers. This makes available for 
the student teaching on the campus or very near the campus a total of about twenty- 
five training teachers and approximately 750 pupils. 


In 1907, enrollment at Eastern Kentucky State Normal School was made up largely 
of people taking teacher training on the secondary level. The change was gradually 
made from students taking work of the secondary level to those taking teacher training 
on the college level. In 1930, teacher training of the secondary level was discontinued. 
The enrollment rose from a small number to a maximum of 1810 college students during 
the regular year. Another significent change in the enrollment was from the attendance 
of short periods to that of more students entering for the four year course. A large 
percent of the students enrolled in the curricula for the training of teachers. Others en- 
rolled in non-professional courses in preparation for positions or professions other than 

This information was assembled from Three Decades of Progress, the minutes of the 
Board of Regents, catalogs of the institution and from unpublished report on "Plans 
and Programs" prepared for the Commission on Teacher Education in 1942. 


The heritage of St. Catharine of Siena foundation of the Sisters of St. Dominic, 
established in 1822 in Washington County near Springfield, Kentucky dates back to 
the early thirteenth century, when in 1206, St. Dominic founded the first convent of 
Sisters at Prouille in France. The education of youth and the personal sanctification 
of its members was the twofold object of this early foundation, which for more than 
seven hundred years has transmitted its spirit and multiplied its following until prac- 
tically every country in the world has known the influence of Dominican teaching. The 
society was known as the Second Order of St. Dominic. 

Of the same spirit and origin as the foundation at Prouille was that of the First 
Order, the Friar Preachers, learned and zealous monks, whom St. Dominic sent two 
and two through the length and breadth of heresy-stricken Europe to restore the 
Catholic faith to its original truth and vigor. Apostolic, yet contemplative, these sons 
of St. Dominic united action and asceticism in such a way that their charitable ac- 
tivities were vivified by contemplation and their cloistered life was quickened through 
their apostolic labors. 

A further development of these two religious endeavors was the Third Order of 
St. Dominic, originally a lay organization for the dissemination of virtue and truth 
by the practice of self-sacrifice and prayer. Under the leadership of Blessed Emily 
Bicchieri, in 1256 a group of saintly women established a foundation, conventual in 
character, where the subjects lived in community, took the vows of poverty, chastity, 
and obedience, and observed the Rule of St. Augustine and the Constitutions of the 
Sisters of Penance instituted by St. Dominic. More rapidly than the Prouille founda- 
tion this organization multiplied and spread, oroviding in 1822 an ideal for the infant 


community pioneering in that heart of the wilderness of Kentucky. It was from this 
community that St. Catharine derived its spirit, its resourcefulness, and its power of 
adaptability to time and place, qualities indispensable in pioneer life. 

The history of St. Catharine community has been one of a century and quarter's 
record of patient, courageous struggles, and glorious achievements in the cause of re- 
lition and the betterment of society. From the first humble foundation of seven Sisters 
on Cartwright Creek the congregation has grown into an institution that now counts 
its members by the hundreds and its pupils by the thousands, its influence extending 
from the east coast to the middle west and from the far north to the deep south. 

It has fulfilled and is still realizing the ideal of its thirteenth century origin, adapting 
itself to the conditions and needs of nineteenth and twentieth century America, taking 
its birth in the humble beginnings of this great democracy and coming to maturity with 
the growth and expansion of the nation. 

The history of the Dominican Fathers in America has always been closely interwoven 
with that of St. Catharine. It was Edward Fenwick, O.P., an American by birth but 
educated in Europe, who first cherished the hope of seeing the Order established in his 
native land. After many disappointments and long periods of waiting he finally ar- 
rived in November, 1804, at Norfolk, Virginia, from England. Under the direction of 
Bishop Carroll he proceeded to Kentucky, where in 1806 with Reverend Samuel Thomas 
Wilson and Reverend William Raymond Tuite, he established the first Dominician 
priory under the patronage of St. Rose of Lima. Later, in 1806, the cornerstone of St. 
Rose church was laid and with the growth and expansion of missionary endeavors of the 
Fathers, the need of teaching sisters to aid them in the work of Christian education in 
the territory under their jurisdiction became imperative. The fulfillment of this demand 
was realized through the foundation of the first order of teaching Dominican Sisters in 
the United States. Like St. Dominic, their founder, these American friars would have 
a sisterhood to unite the work of contemplation with that of education of youth. 

One has only to return in spirit to that pioneer period to realize the hopes and fears 
that must have harassed the minds of Father Wilson, then Superior of St. Rose, and 
his counsellors as they considered the establishment of a new community of women in 
Kentucky. Could they, in this remote unsettled region, repeat what St. Dominic had 
accomplished in the heart of civilized Europe? If they could find souls to make the 
great surrender, were the people prepared for the undertaking? Had the people the 
vision of the future of the state and nation, and the realization of the opportunities 
ahead for those undertaking such an apostolate? 

In the period of fifteen years since the Dominicans had come to Kentucky, their 
ministry had been extended in the state, with a large part of Ohio under their care. 
It had been a fruitful ministry, devout congregations filled their churches; a college 
established for boys was well attended, and to their novitiate came the sons of some of 
the leading families of the south. By those not of the Catholic faith, the Dominicans 
had been well received, and many came to embrace the teachings of the Church that 
they so zealously cherished and upheld. Such conditions tended to allay any mis- 
givings they might have as to the feasibility of founding a community of Sisters. 

Too, these sons of St. Dominic were prayful men. They were men of vision, with 
confidence in America and in a future that would yield a harvest of souls in the fields 
of the Church in the new continent. They realized that learning was one of the great 
weapons in fighting error and that santity was the true stimulant for zeal and the chief 
requisite for the holy formation of youth. They wished for holy and learned women 
to train the minds and to mould the character of the youth of their day. 

Father Wilson accordingly laid plans for the establishment of a community of con- 


ventual Third Order of women before Bishop Flaget of Bardstown, who highly ap- 
proved the undertaking. Likewise Very Reverend Pius Maurice Viviani, Pro-Vicar 
General of the Order, not only approved of the foundation but accorded to its new 
members all the privileges belonging to the Second Order. Thus from the very be- 
ginning the future St. Catharine was affiliated with Second Order. 

Memorable was the Sunday, on which the announcement was made before the con- 
gregation assembled in St. Rose church of the inauguration of this great undertaking. 
Not alone for Kentucky but for the entire country was this an important event since 
in the century that has followed the establishment of the first Dominican Sisterhood, 
the community had expanded to practically every section of the United States. Nine 
young women presented themselves before Father Wilson on February 28, 1822, as 
the first candidates and founders of the new community which was to be known as 
Saint Mary Magdalen. 

Only the barest records remain of the proceedings of that occasion which organized 
the first foundation in America. The simple ceremony over, their first efforts were 
bent upon establishing a home. Their life was not an easy one. All the hardships of 
pioneering in an unchartered course was theirs. 

On a farm belonging to St. Rose was a one-room log cabin, with a loft above, which 
provided the first humble home of the Sisters. Roughly built of trees from the sur- 
rounding forest, with the chimney made of mud and wattles, with small holes fot 
windows, with earthen floors and homemade furnishings, the original home of the 
first Dominican Sisters in the United States possessed nothing of beauty and little of 
comfort. But in it they immediately entered upon their regular conventual life, and 
the same exercises and rules observed by their unknown Sisters in the stately convents 
in Europe were followed in the rude cabin on the frontier. Here at midnight they 
arose for Matins and Lauds, and dawn found them beginning their day of toil and 
prayer. Their lives had the variety of religious instruction, study, sacrifice, toil, and 
often the pangs of hunger. But their prayer, their study, their labors, their privations 
and their hunger won the divine blessings which have given their community perman- 
ency, numbers, strength, and unity. 

As teaching was to be their chief duty, they immediately arranged for classes in 
English, history, and mathematics. Father Wilson and Rev. Richard Miles, their first 
chaplain, proved able teachers, attending to the spiritual as well as the intellectual 
needs of the Sisters. 

But the material necessities the Sisters had to provide for themselves. With faith in 
God they took up the work nearest at hand and labored in the fields as well as in the 
house and in the classroom, to sustain their bodily needs and to provide wherewith to 
make their clothes. 

On Easter Sunday, April 7, 1822, the first reception of Dominican nuns in the United 
States was held at St. Rose Church. Father Wilson officiated and gave the habit to 
Marie Sansbury, to be known as Sister Angela and later to be elected the first superior 
of the community. In St. Mary Magdalen chapel her companions were to share in the 
privilege of receiving the habit and of choosing from their number the one who was 
to be their superior. 

The father of Sister Angela, who had seen two of his daughters enter the community, 
presented them with a farm on which was a large house, situated near Cartwright Creek 
in the heart of a rich and beautiful valley. It was here that the foundation was laid 
for the future community. An old still house nearby was converted into a school, the 
Academy of St. Mary Magdalen, later renamed Saint Catharine of Siena. A small 


chapel was built and gradual improvements were made. By 1825 sufficient funds were 
available to erect a new school. 

The century that followed this humble beginning was one of gradual expansion and 
growth. Through the trials and vicissitudes of frontier life the community emerged, 
adapting itself to the changing conditions and needs of growing America and extend- 
ing its frontiers, as calls from far and near came for Sisters to establish new founda- 

The phenomenal growth of the parochial schools system at the close of the nineteenth 
century provided the community with many opportunities for augmenting its field of 

In 1830 came the first opportunity for extending its field of labor, when Bishop Fen- 
wick of Cincinnati solicited a foundation of Sisters for his diocese. This community, 
Saint Mary of the Springs, established first at Somerset, Ohio, but later moved to 
Columbus, became the nucleus of a great educational congregation that today numbers 
hundreds and has foundations in many states. 

Other large and independent communities which owe their origin to St. Catharine 
have their original foundations at: St. Cecelia's, Nashville, Tennessee, organized in 
1860; Sacred Heart Convent, Springfield, Illinois, founded in 1873; Sacred Heart Con- 
vent, Galveston, Texas, established in 1882; and Saint Catharine of Siena Convent, 
Fall River, Massachusetts, founded in 1892. 

In 1851 a foundation in the diocese of Nashville, in the parish of St. Peter Church, 
Memphis, gave the Sisters their first house in Tennessee, under the patronage of St. 
Agnes. Today St. Agnes Academy and Conservatory of Music, and Siena College, 
established in 1926, stand as a tribute to the sacrifices and labors of nearly a century. 

In 1866 a foundation was made in Louisville in St. Louis Bertrand parish and a year 
later Holy Rosary Academy was established. From 1877 to 1882 were established sev- 
eral local missions, including the colored school at Briartown and the parochial school 
in Springfield. 

Expansion in 1882 extended to Mattoon, Illinois, and in 1888 to Water town, Massa- 
chusetts. In 1901 Spalding, Nebraska was the first of several midwest foundations, 
including one in Iowa. Later, in West Virginia and in Indiana, missions were founded. 
Since 1921 large parochial schools have been accepted in Chicago, Illinois; Brooklyn, 
New York; and Boston, Massachusetts. St. Catharine Hospital in McCook, Nebraska 
has been in operation since 1921. 

The community now teaches 16,000 children in the Archdiocese of Baltimore and 
Washington, Boston, Chicago, and Louisville, and in the Diocese of Brooklyn, Des 
Moines, Grand Island, Indianapolis, Lincoln, Little Rock, Nashville, Omaha, and 
Owensboro. It conducts one senior college, one junior college, one hospital, thirty-two 
parochial schools and seven academies. The membership is 600. 

In 1839 the State of Kentucky granted a charter for establishing an academy at 
St. Catharine, with all necessary privileges and rights. On July 24, 1845, the first 
graduation at St. Catharine took place. By a grant of the state legislature in 1851, 
the Sisters were permitted to change the name of the foundation from St. Mary 
Magdalen to that of Saint Catharine of Siena. 

Though the work of the Sisters is primarily education, the annals of St. Catharine 
record many instances where in grave emergencies they have served in other capacities, 
often at the risk of their lives. The cholera epidemics in 1832 and 1854 found the 
Sisters laboring in the plague-stricken areas, one of their number, Sister Teresa Lynch, 
sacrificing her life as a victim of the plague. 

In the crisis of the Civil War, the Sisters, true to the spirit of neutrality which 


Kentucky proclaimed, sought to help the soldiers in both camps. In the Battle of 
Perryville they went to the battlefield to minister to the wounded and dying. They 
converted their convent into a temporary hospital to house the wagonloads of wounded 
soldiers brought in from the field of battle. At the request of Rt. Rev. Bishop Whe- 
lan, O.P., the Sisters of St. Agnes Academy, Memphis, took charge of the city hospital 
which had been requistioned for wounded soldiers. 

During the yellow fever epidemics of 1867, 1873, and 1878 in Memphis, many 
Sisters in their effort to give aid were victims themselves of the plague. To this day 
the citizens of Memphis honor the Sisters for their fidelity and loyalty during that 
time of agonizing grief. A little graveyard at Saint Agnes Academy mutely testifies 
to the heroism of those Sisters who gave their lives that others might live. 

The World War period found the Sisters again summoned to the exercise of charity 
when the influenza epidemic swept across the country, taking its toll of victims alike 
in army camps and in civilian life. To Camp Zachary Taylor near Louisville and into 
the mountain and mining districts of Kentucky went the Messengers of Mercy to 
alleviate the sick and console the dying. 

The greatest tragedy in the history of the community occurred in the winter of 
1904 when a fire razed to the ground the academy, chapel, and convent, valued at 
$350,000.00. In one night the results of eighty-two years of sacrifice and labor were 
reduced to ashes. 

Not daunted, however, the Sisters immediately erected a modern, well-equipped 
building on a new and more reliable site. It stands high on a hill facing Bardstown 
pike, about two and one-half miles from Springfield. Later the grounds were landscaped 
and two additions have been made; a chapel and novitiate building in 1930, and a fifty- 
five room fireproof residence hall in 1936. 

A milestone in the history of St. Catharine came at the first centenary celebration 
in 1922, when distant friends and alumnae assembled at the motherhouse to unite with 
the Sisters in celebrating the hundredth anniversary of their foundation. Felicitations 
from the Holy Father, Pius XI, and from Fr. Ludovicus Theissling, the Master Gen- 
eral of the Dominican Order, were supplemented by greetings from many old and 
distant friends. Among the speakers during the days of celebration were Rt. Rev. 
John T. McNicholas, O.P., Bishop of Duluth, now Archbishop of Cincinnati, and 
the late Right Reverend Thomas Shahan, at that time Rector of the Catholic Uni- 
versity, Washington, D. C. 

Since the education of youth is the chief work of the community, the Sisters devote 
their lives to preparation and study. Summer sessions at St. Catharine Junior College, 
now in its twelfth year, and courses offered at Siena College, Memphis, where the Catho- 
lic University conducts an extension summer session, provide the Sisters with oppor- 
tunities of study within their own community. Other students take courses at the lead- 
ing colleges and universities in the vicinity of their convents where they prepare for 
their master and doctorate degrees. A house of studies erected in 1938, near the 
Catholic University of America in Washington, D. C. provides the Sisters with every 
convenience of study. 

The government of the congregation, originally under the direction of the Provincial 
of St. Joseph Province and later transferred to the ordinary of the Diocese is now under 
a Cardinal Protector, resident at Rome. It was Rt. Rev. Bishop Esser, O.P. and Rt. 
Rev. John T. McNicholas, O.P. who generously assisted in securing papal approbation, 
placing the community in the rank of approved congregations. The revision of the 
rule in 1918 provided that a Mother General and four Counsellors be created as a 
ruling body to replace that of Prioress. This revision of the rule in its approved form 


has been a model for other Dominican communities interested in revising the govern- 
ment of their congregations. Candidates for admission to the Order are received upon 
application. Certificates of health and recommendations from approved religious auth- 
orities are among the requirements for admission. After two years of intensive re- 
ligious and educational training the subject is allowed to make profession, after which 
she may begin the work entrusted to her by the community. 

The history of the development of the Dominican Order in the United States has 
been fruitful and inspiring. This fact is especially true of Dominican communities of 
women, whose foundation was laid by Mother Angela Sansbury and her companions, 
on the banks of Cartwright Creek a century and a quarter ago. Scarcely can one 
grasp the magnitude of the work of those pioneers in the wilderness of America. Be- 
sides the outdoor labor there was the struggle to adapt the interior life of the congre- 
gation to the conditions of time and place. In both they succeeded eminently, with 
little notice or encouragement or approbation of the world. Today, contemplating 
the result of their work, the expansion of the congregation, the multiplication of their 
schools, the excellence of their educational training, the holiness of their members, one 
realizes how truly was that little band of women the instrument of God for the dis- 
semination of knowledge and the sanctification of souls. 


By Sister Mary Ramona Mattingly, S.C.N. 

When Bishop Benedict Joseph Flaget, the first Bishop of Bardstown, took possession ' 
of his diocese in June 1811, he was welcomed to Kentucky by the members of more 
than a thousand Catholic families many of whom had emigrated from Maryland before 
Kentucky achieved statehood. Reverend Stephen Theodore Badin, the first priest or- 
dained in the United States, had been sent to Kentucky by Bishop John Carroll in 
1793. Here, he with the assistance of Reverend Charles Nerinckx and other missionary 
priests had ministered to the spiritual needs of the settlers, supervised the erection 
of sixteen log churches, and zealously promoted the spread of the Catholic religion in 
scattered districts. Life, both physical and spiritual, was vigorous on the frontier, and 
Bishop Flaget soon realized that vast possibilities were present for the development of 
a nourishing Catholic center if facilities for Catholic education were available. 

The formation of religious congregations of women who would supply this need was 
suggested, and the communities of both the Sisters of Loretto and the Sisters of Charity 
of Nazareth were established near Bardstown in 1812. 

The Sisters of Charity of Nazareth consider Reverend John Baptist David and 
Mother Catherine Spalding as co-founders. The former, who was later made Bishop 
of Mauricastro, was the devoted friend and assistant of Bishop Flaget, and accom- 
panied him to Kentucky; the latter was the first superior of the congregation. De- 
cember 1, 1812, is the date of the foundation since on that day Miss Teresa Carrico 
and Miss Elizabeth Wells left their respective homes with the purpose of becoming 
Sisters, and took possession of two rooms in a log cabin which had been prepared for 
their accommodation near Saint Thomas Seminary. 

The humble convent was christened "Nazareth" and the Sisters soon became known 
as Sisters of Charity of Nazareth. By Easter in 1813 the community numbered six, 
and at that time Sister Catherine Spalding, although less than twenty years of age, 
was chosen superior. She was singularly fitted for the work intrusted to her, and 
for almost fifty years guided her associates by word and example. 

In the early years most of the members of the congregation came from Catholic 


homes in the vicinity, and were trained for the teaching profession by Father David, 
an experienced educator, who had taught at Anger in France and at Baltimore and 
Georgetown before coming to Kentucky. His educational ideals, outlined more than 
one hundred thirty years ago, are applicable today, and as the basis of the educational 
philosophy of the Nazareth community have been responsible for much of the success 
it has attained. He insisted that the congregation must adopt the best in educational 
policies; that the Sisters be trained in the most approved methods, and thoroughly 
prepared for their work, which was to be always solid rather than brilliant. 

Father David was relieved of some of his responsibilities by the arrival of Miss Ellen 
O'Connell of Baltimore who joined the little community early in 1814. She was a 
gifted woman, an experienced teacher with an excellent education, and as Sister Ellen 
she gave invaluable aid to Mother Catherine in the selection and preparation of 
teachers. Sister Ellen was directress of the first school which was opened on August 
23, 1814, and in it she gave practical application to the ideals which were inculcated 
by Father David and Mother Catherine. In 1822 the mother house of the congrega- 
tion and the school were moved to the present site two miles south of Bardstown, and 
two years later Nazareth Academy had one hundred boarders. Henry Clay presented 
diplomas to the members of the first graduating class in 1825, and presided at the 
public examination which preceded this function. 

In 1829 the Sisters sought and obtained from the Kentucky legislature a charter 
which gave the congregation legal existence and its official name, The Nazareth 
Literary and Benevolent Institution, and also empowered it to grant academic degrees. 
At that date Nazareth Academy was already the alma mater of daughters of repre- 
sentative families, both Catholic and non-Catholic, and the Sisters had established 
three schools, which are still existing, in other sections of Kentucky. The first, Bethle- 
hem Academy at Bardstown, was opened in 1819; the second, Saint Vincent Academy, 
was established in Union County near Morganfield in 1821; and two years later Sisters 
went to Scott County to establish the third institution at White Sulphur on the 
Limestone Road. Saint Catherine Academy, as it was called, was transferred to Lex- 
ington in 1833. 

Two years after the charter was granted, Mother Catherine opened the first Catholic 
school in Louisville in a small building adjoining Saint Louis Church. This was the 
beginning of Presentation Academy, and two other outstanding institutions of Louis- 
ville, Saint Vincent Orphanage and Saint Joseph Infirmary, originated from the same 
foundation. Both were the outgrowth of Mother Catherine's charitable interests in 
orphans and sick persons in the vicinity. 

Meanwhile the school at Nazareth was making rapid and steady progress. The 
earliest printed copy of the curriculum is found in the Catholic Almanac for 1833-35. 
In it reading, writing, arithmetic, English grammar, geography (with the use of 
globes) , history, rhetoric, botany, natural philosphy including the principles of as- 
tronomy, optics, chemistry, etc., plain sewing, marking, needlework, drawing, painting, 
music, and the French language, are enumerated, and it also notes that "a course of 
Lectures on Rhetoric and Philosophy will be given annually by the Professors of St. 
Joseph College." In 1841 another advertisement records the addition of Italian and 
Spanish languages, the harp, guitar, and dancing, to the list of subjects taught. A 
clause in the same notice states that: "no solicitude or influence is used to change the 
religious principles or creed of the pupils; should any manifest a desire for such change, 
the parents or guardians are informed of the same." 

The earliest existing catalogue of Nazareth Academy is dated 1857. This and those 
following years indicate a numerous attendance of girls from the southern states. In 

9— Vol. II 


1860 the enrollment from Louisiana alone was one hundred girls; in the following year 
the registrants from both Mississippi and Louisiana outnumbered those from Kentucky. 
The proximity to Nazareth of Saint Joseph College, Bardstown and Saint Mary College 
near Lebanon was advantageous in securing patronage from the deep south and else- 
where. The enrollment continued to increase until the end of the Civil War period, 
and during the conflict more than four hundred resident students were at Nazareth. 
When the war was concluded, however, many girls returned to their homes in the 
affected areas and took up the work of supporting families made destitute through 
the ravages of war and deprived of the care of fathers and brothers who were killed 
in battle. 

With the reconstruction of the southern regions, greater educational facilities became 
available and it was not necessary to journey to Kentucky to secure these advantages. 
Through the years, however, it has become traditional in many southern families to 
send daughters to Nazareth, and a great percentage of the student body has continued 
to be descendants and relatives of students of early days. Another factor in maintain- 
ing traditions at Nazareth has been the comparatively few changes in administrative 
personnel. Sisters Ellen O'Connell, Columba Carroll, Marietta Murphy, Mary Ig- 
natius Fox each served as directress for a long period of years, and the present dean and 
directress, Sister Margaret Gertrude Murphy, has served since 1937. 

Ecclesiastical superiors and chaplains residing at Nazareth have likewise greatly in- 
fluenced the institution. These, too, have served long terms of office and have come to 
know more than one generation of Nazareth students. Bishop David, who is foremost 
in this list, gave unstintedly of his time and talent until 1833. Reverend Joseph Hazel- 
tine proved a worthy successor between 1835 and 1861, and he is largely responsible 
for the excellent records of early students which are on file at Nazareth. Reverend 
Francis Chambige, a recognized authorized authority in the physical sciences, proved a 
valuable addition to Nazareth's faculty, and shared his knowledge with both Sisters and 
students. His mineralogical and geological specimens were given to the school, and they 
form the nucleus of a valuable collection. From 1871 to 1900 students of Nazareth 
were privileged to share the friendship and guidance of Reverend David Russell, a 
former vice-rector of the American College of Louvain. His interest and industry 
are recorded in the museum in a full collection of the various woods found in the 
vicinity of the motherhouse. Reverend Richard Davis, who became chaplain in 1903, 
gave thirty-eight years of his life to Nazareth. He was an experienced teacher, a great 
lover of the classics, and an earnest advocate of a thorough training in physical educa- 
tion. He was the donor of the two medals awarded each year to a college and an 
academy student. 

Nazareth is greatly indebted to these and other benefactors for their aid in attaining 
and maintaining the high moral standards for which the institution is noted. The educa- 
tional influence of Nazareth, the oldest boarding school west of the Allegheny moun- 
tains, can be judged from the fact that since 1814 thousands of students have enrolled 
from many states of the United States and from Latin American countries. During 
the past twenty-five years students from Puerto Rico, Cuba, and South America have 
been on the school roster, but 1943 brought the first group, five college freshmen and 
three academy students, from Costa Rica. 

The Nazareth Alumnae Association was formed in 1896, and Mrs. Anna Bradford 
Miles, a niece of Jefferson Davis, was elected first president. Since its organization 
the society has seconded the work of the Sisters in all that benefits the college and 
academy. Notable achievements have been the presentation of the reading room, rest 
house, gymnasium, and chairs for the auditorium. 


When developments in the educational world called for accreditation and certifica- 
tion, Nazareth welcomed these movements. In 1913 the high school department of 
the academy was accredited by the University of Kentucky, and the following year 
it was affiliated with the Catholic University of America. In 1920 the institution was 
accorded membership in the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools,- 
and in the National Catholic Educational Association. 

Preparations were made for the opening of a community normal school in 1914. 
In that year and thereafter, summer schools have been held in which courses in methods 
and administration are offered to prospective and in-service teachers and administra- 
tors. The junior college department was added in 1921 and this, together with the 
normal school, received recognition from the Kentucky State Department of Education 
in 1922. The junior college became a member of the Southern Association of Col- 
leges and Secondary Schools in 1929, and the program of college studies was raised 
to the senior level in 1937 through incorporation with Nazareth College in Louisville. 

During the more than one hundred thirty years of its existence, the Congregation of 
the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth has established schools in many sections of the 
United States, from Mississippi to Massachusetts, from Maryland to Oregon. The 
community now numbers more than thirteen hundred members, and educational ac- 
tivities are carried on in two colleges, thirty-seven high schools and ninety-seven grade 
schools. Two of the high schools and six of the grammar schools are located in rural 
sections of Kentucky, and one high school and five grammar schools are attended by 
colored children of the state. The total enrollment in schools conducted by the Sisters 
of Charity of Nazareth is more than thirty thousand pupils of which almost one-half 
are sons and daughters of Kentucky citizens. 

By Emma Vorhees Meyer 

Cardome Visitation Academy, Georgetown, Kentucky, occupies the Governor Robin- 
son Estate to which the Sisters moved their school for young ladies which they had 
established at White Sulphur in 1875. 

At Georgetown in the District of Columbia is the oldest house of the Visitation in 
America which had been established by Miss Alice Lalor and two companions under 
the direction of Father Leonard Neale, S.J., a native of Charles County, Maryland. 
When Father Neale was created Bishop of Baltimore, the highest dignitary of the 
Church in the United States, he obtained from Pius VII a grant for the group to be 
considered as belonging to the Order of the Visitation. Mention should be made here 
that the site of the Georgetown house in the District is one of historic interest to 
American educators because it marks the spot where Miss Lalor and her Sisters 
opened, June 24, 1799, what became the first free school in the District of Columbia. 

The Visitation Sisters made their first Kentucky settlement at Maysville, on the 
Ohio, in 1865. From the Maysville group seven Sisters established a school at White 
Sulphur ten years later. 

White Sulphur had much to recommend it to the Sisters. The winding Elkhorn 
was mentioned in descriptions to be found in magazines and newspapers of the State. 
One mentions that visitors to White Sulphur referred to "that beautiful Elkhorn 
tract ... to which no description can do justice." Known as a particularly healthful 
section, it was in the neighborhood chosen by Colonel Richard M. Johnson, Vice 
President of the United States, when he thought it wise to move his Choctaw Academy 
from Blue Spring. He had also erected there a hotel two hundred feet long, with 
double verandas, as well as a similar building called "The Tavern" in order that the 


many who desired to drink the water might be accommodated. The establishment was 
referred to as a watering place of "considerable celebrity." One account stated that 
a visitor "described a fashionable company of between 150 and 200 happy mortals 
quaffing water and luxurating in the shades of the forest trees." He went on to say 
that he spent one night there when there was a ball attended by the "beauty and re- 
finement of Kentucky." 

White Sulphur was also inseparately associated with the history of the Church in 
Kentucky, for it was there that one of the first churches in the State had been erected. 
The first humble structure of logs had been so much frequented that the ever increasing 
congregation had, in 1820, constructed a handsome and substantial church which was 
placed under the patronage of St. Pius. About thirty-eight years later the Covington 
Diocese had been created with the Rt. Rev. C. A. Carrell, S.J., D.D. as first bishop. 
The scholarly prelate found the retirement of White Sulphur so pleasing that he spent 
much time there. Of interest to educators as the region where Indian students of the 
now extinct Choctaw Academy had returned to their people as "stars in the dark night," 
it is interesting also as the place where Bishop Carrell established a college for young 
men. This college flourished until the breaking of the War for Southern Independence 
when the students laid down their books to take up arms for the South and her cause. 
An Orphan Asylum for Boys succeeded the college but it was not a success. 

It was also at White Sulphur that Father Stephen Theodore Badin, the first priest 
ordained within the limits of the thirteen original states, had settled following the trip 
he made in company with Father Barriere from Washington, D. C. to Lexington, 
Kentucky, walking all the way except that part of the trip on flatboat from Pittsburg 
down the Ohio river to Maysville. 

A beautiful healthful region where a historic church had a bishop actively interested 
in education and which was a center of the States's social life and "meeting place of 
the brilliant seekers of health or pleasure" was a challenge to the Sisters who held a 
long and enviable record for successful teaching and who had established a school at 
Maysville in 1865. That such a place would be favorable to the establishment of a 
school for young ladies was proven by the success of the venture which was headed by 
Mother Mary Angela Sweeney. 

To Mount Admirabilis, for that is the name by which the Academy was first known, 
Kentuckians of culture and refinement sent their daughters who soon had as their 
fellow students young ladies from other states. The course of instruction, equal to 
those in the best academies of the East, set a high standard for the education of young 
women. Students continued to come in such growing numbers that not only the faculty 
but the equipment and accommodations of the Academy were constantly being enlarged. 
In September, 1875, there were seventeen rooms for fifteen boarders and a number of 
day pupils. Three years later a new building was erected containing a study hall, music 
hall and a dormitory for girls. In 1888 the Academy's sixty boarders and numerous day 
pupils were housed and taught in a number of buildings, which gave the appearance of 
a little village, and the Academy was referred to as one of the leading educational insti- 
tutions of the South. 

Finally, the Sisters were faced both with the desirability of locating where better 
travel facilities would accommodate the growing number of young ladies who came 
from a distance, and the necessity of holding a clear title to a more extensive acreage 
upon which more commodious buildings could be erected. Being members of an Order 
in which each group is independent of every other group the responsibility of deciding 
upon a new location and the expense incurred was now upon those who had invested 


practically all their funds in improvements. With characteristic fortitude they made 
their own decisions and financial arrangements. 

After a time the Sisters found available in the same delightful region, Scott County, 
an Estate on the crest of a gentle eminence dominating an extensive panorama of the 
country with the beloved Elkhorn forming a cresent about its fertile meadows. Here 
was not only the same dry bracing air free from violent disturbances but, less than a 
mile away near the historic Big Spring known to the Indians and the early settlers of 
the West, could be seen the growing county seat, Georgetown, with its railroad stations 
and other conveniences. The Lexington-Cincinnati road passed the entrance to the Es- 
tate and the Frankfort-Cincinnati trains stopped there. The location seemed ideally 
suited to their purpose and so Mother Mary Agatha Cahill, representing the group, 
made the first cash payment upon their new home to which they moved in 1896. 

A hospitable mansion famous in the early days as a frequent rendezvous of great 
leaders and which had welcomed LaFayette, Webster, Clay and other illustrous visitors, 
had been built in 1821 by Major Benjamin Stuart Chambers, an officer in the War of 
1812, who called it "Acacia Grove." The beautifully proportioned and well preserved 
mansion had passed through the hands of different owners until it came into the pos- 
session of Governor James F. Robinson who changed its name to "Cardome" (Caret 
Domus.) The superb banquet hall and delicately turned spiral stairway, both added 
by Governor Robinson, are prized architectural features of the old mansion which also 
has some examples of beautifully panelled woodwork. 

To the original mansion the new owners added spacious class rooms, study halls, and 
dormitories. A few years later plans for the construction of a new Main Building were 
submitted by a firm of eminent architects and a structure of imposing proportions was 
then erected, the gem of which is the beautiful Romanesque chapel on the second floor. 
This building, connected with the old mansion, is heated by a modern plant located at 
a safe distance and is connected by modern walks to a recreation building called "White 
Hall" erected in 1941 on the site of a small building which had been moved to the 
Estate from White Sulphur. A wide veranda leading from the study hall and audi- 
torium overlooks the immense recreation grounds reserved for the exclusive use of the 

Encouraged to spend all the time not required for study and class work in the open 
air the young ladies are offered every possible diversion for their recreation periods. 
On the north side of the playgrounds are concrete tennis courts and basketball grounds; 
on the west, the outside gymnasium; while the archery and croquet sets adorn the east 
portion of the extensive campus. Canoeing upon the beautiful Elkhorn creek which is 
within the Academy grounds and "hikes" under the watchful eyes of two chaperones 
usually end with a weiner roast at the outdoor grill by the tennis courts, in one of the 
summer houses or in "White Hall." During the winter season musical, dramatic and 
literary evenings are frequent. The students have, in addition to their club rooms, the 
large auditorium with its musical instruments and its smooth floor where they may dance. 

Graduates of the Academy are admitted to colleges and universities without examina- 
tion, having spent four years under the training of a faculty whose members are highly 
qualified and professionally trained. The faculty is headed by His Excellency the Most 
Reverend Bishop, Francis W. Howard, D.D. for twenty years President of the National 
Catholic Educational Association. 

Now, the first traces of the old sulphur spring in the narrow dell just beyond the 
old convent grounds and the White Sulphur Church, and the pile of ruins on the hill 
above, are the last vestages of the old order of things and the ante helium days of 
social elegance and distinction. But near the city limits of Georgetown is the stately 


entrance to Georgetown Visitation Academy where busses along the Dixie Highway 
make regularly scheduled stops to accommodate young ladies from all parts of the 
United States who, under the direction of the Sisters, find the constantly serene and 
maternal atmosphere which the Sisters of the Visitation have always emphasized. 

The Order of the Visitation was founded in France in 1610. Its founders, St. Francis 
de Sales, one of the great writers of the 17th Century (now, patron of the Catholic 
press) and St. Jane Frances de Chantal, were both of the nobility. A culture of over 
three hundred years prevails in all academies of the Visitation and each girl who comes 
under the strong, kindly guidance of the Sisters is regarded as a sacred personality. 
The modern dictum of education — "Learning is specific" was not unknown to the 
founders of the Order; and the members, trained in their school of philosophy, are 
conscious of their heritage and their responsibility as teachers. That spirit of refinement 
and gentility which marked the beginnings of the Visitation has been handed down 
through the generations in its academies. 

Cardome is a school of Christian education. To the graces of the mind and body 
it would add the higher beauties of the soul. It would inculcate the virtues which 
ennoble, strengthen and refine; which form the crown of pure womanhood and prepare 
the girl to go forth to the battle of life, in truth, a "valiant woman." 


In the dim dawn of Catholicity in Kentucky (1819 to be exact), St. Joseph's Col- 
lege was founded under the aegis of Bishop Flaget. The Reverend George O. M. 
Elder was first president. The students varied in number from one hundred to two 
hundred and fifty, many of whom were from Louisiana and Mississippi. Classes were 
first held in the seminary basement, but as the south and later north wings were built 
to be finally connected by the present main building, professors and students filled 
all available quarters as they were completed. In January, 1837, disaster struck when 
a fire starting under the roof gutted the main building. This hastened the death of 
Father Elder who died eight months later. Succeeding presidents were the Reverends 
Ignatius Raynolds, Dr. M. J. Spalding, J. M. Lancaster, and Edward McMahon until 
the Jesuits took the school over in 1848. 

Reverend Peter Verhegen was the first Jesuit Superior of St. Joseph's. In June, 
1848, he became Rector of the College and St. Joseph's Cathedral parish. Several 
secular clergy also helped to staff the college. Under Father Emig's presidency the 
present Flaget Hall was erected. Many ground improvements were made plus the 
liquidating of a $23,000.00 debt. Trouble arose, however, between the Jesuits and the 
diocese in that the property of St. Joseph's had been given to them in trust. This 
""Trust" clause was objectionable in the contract. The Jesuit Fathers petitioned the 
diocese to deed the property to them in "fee simple." This was not granted. The 
property was then redeeded to the diocese in 1868 when the Jesuits left the state. In 
the fall of 1869 the preparatory seminary was moved from St. Thomas to St. Joseph's 
College. Reverend P. de Fraine was superior. In 1872 boys were admitted who had 
no thought of studying for the priesthood. In 1872 Father Coughlan became president 
until his death in 1877. Reverend William J. Dunn assumed the presidency for one 
year when Father O'Connell took charge. In 1880 Reverend W. P. Mackin became 
president at which time the college was in a promising and flourishing condition. Father 
O'Connell resucceeded to the presidency in 1887 and remained its head until the college 
closed in 1889. 

The closing of St. Joseph's occurred when the Diocese was faced with the imminent 
abandonment of St. Mary's College at Lebanon. Unable to support two colleges, St. 


Joseph's was closed and the students sent to St. Mary's to bolster a slender enrollment. 
St. Joseph's remained vacant until 1892 when the orphanage at St. Thomas, which 
had burned, was transferred to St. Joseph's. The Sisters of Charity of Nazareth and 
their charges occupied the main building until 1902 when they left for more suitable 
quarters in Louisville. The college again was vacant until 1911. An uncommon coin- 
cidence then took place. 

Back in 1836 a poor travel-worn pilgrim named Theodore Ryken was visiting Bishop 
Chabrat at Bardstown. He was then seeking episcopal support for his projected con- 
gregation of teachers which he was to found in Bruges, Belgium in 1839. No doubt 
he visited the beautiful campus and buildings of St. Joseph's College which was di- 
rectly behind the Bishop's residence. Little did he realize that the congregation that 
was still but a figment in his mind would one day be the faculty of this famous center 
of learning. Such a coincidence after a span of almost a century assures us that we 
live in an ordered world, that there is a design for living. This rhyming of life's epic 
between the visit of an unknown, poverty clothed Ryken and the accession to St. 
Joseph's seventy-two years later of his own religious family makes one tingle. When the 
Xaverian Brothers, which Theodore Ryken founded, took control of St. Joseph's amid 
the panoply and splendor of the apostolic delegation somewhere in titanic space a planet 
must have smiled — smiled and whirled in reverse. 

1. St. Joseph's College was reopened September 9, 1911. It was formally dedicated 
by Most Reverend Diomede Falconio, Apostolic Delegate to the United States. Brother 
Sulpicius, C.F.X., long engaged in Catholic educational work in Kentucky, Virginia, and 
New England was the first President, when control of the school was assumed by the 
Xaverian Brothers. 

(a) 85 pupils — 50 day and 35 boarders were enrolled on opening day. Before the 
end of the year, the registration reached 100. 

(b) Three distinctive courses of study were pursued — Classical, Latin, Scientific, and 
General Business. 

(c) Extra-curricular activities consisted of various sports, debating society, literary 
club, biking and over land hiking clubs. 

(d) In four years, the school gained an enviable reputation for a high scholastic 
standard, excellent discipline, and admirable school spirit. 

(e) Student body was represented by a majority of students from Kentucky, In- 
diana, Ohio, Tennessee, and Illinois. 

2. Brother Fidelis, C.F.X., became headmaster in 1915. His administration was 
marked by an increased enrollment, additions made to the gymnasium, and a new 
power plant was built. 

3. Brother Ignatius, C.F.X., assumed charge of the administration in 1918. Dur- 
ing his directorship, the school celebrated its centenary of establishment (1919). A 
number of Alumni from the East and West, who had been former students, attended 
the centennial banquet which was held at the school in June, 1919. 

4. Brother Victorian, a member of the school faculty since 1913, became head- 
master in August, 1920. He remained in charge during two terms of three years each. 
During his administration, St. Joseph Alumni began to assume leadership. Many had 
become lawyers, doctors, and prominent business men. They manifested an interest in 
the school by their frequent visits and by recruiting the student body. 

5. Brother Vincent, C.F.X., was headmaster from 1926-1928. During his regime 
the old stone wall which faced the entire frontage and the handball alley, which had 
been built on the front lawn were removed. The campus was hedged, thus giving the 
property a more modern appearance. 


6. Owing to illness, Brother Vincent resigned in 1928, and Brother Victorian as- 
sumed charge during 1928-1929. 

7. Brother Aurelius, C.F.X., was appointed headmaster in 1929. He continued in 
office for two years. During his administration, the buildings were renovated and re- 
decorated. The General Commercial course was discontinued and a General English 
course supplanted it. 

8. During the summer of 1929, Brother Benignus, C.F.X., was appointed to the 
office of headmaster and remained as principal for one year. During his principalship 
the school gymnasium burned. 

9. Brother Liguori, C.F.X., became headmaster in August, 1932. During his di- 
rectorship, a new gymnasium was built and the alumni association was formally orga- 
nized and officers were elected. The name of the school changed from St. Joseph 
College to St. Joseph Preparatory School. 

10. Brother Colombiere, C.F.X., succeeded Brother Liguori as headmaster in 1938. 
During his principalship, the school has reached a new record of enrollment. One 
hundred and nfty boys are now enrolled. Among its enrollment are representatives 
from six states. The school has maintained a Class "A" rating since 1936, when it 
was so classified by the Kentucky State Board of Education. 

Today St. Joseph's Prep is preeminent among Catholic boarding schools of this 
area. Advances have been made in courses and equipment to keep pace with the ever 
progressing light of education. At present, St. Joseph's is a shining sword lying in 
the hands of the sovereign state of Kentucky. Sheathed for over one hundred years 
in the scabbard of Catholic spirit and tradition, its power and strength is now being 
wielded in shaping future God-fearing citizens for an even greater America. 


Gethsemani Abbey lies nestled amid the knobs of Nelson County, Kentucky. Its 
foundation is due, in the designs of God, to a crisis which the Abbey of Melleray in 
the Department of Lower Loire, France, was facing in the eventful year 1848. 

On the part of the government eviction and expulsion were threatening, whilst the 
community had grown into an overcrowded hive, and a swarm was inevitable. So for 
a double reason it was deemed advisable to anticipate events and seek a refuge in 
foreign lands. 

Coincidentally Bishop Flaget, the first incumbent of the See of Louisville, had just 
entered a request for a Trappist foundation in his diocese. Everything contributed to 
make his wish realizable, and in the autumn of that same year a band of forty Trap- 
pists, to be reenforced shortly after by a second detachment of fourteen, set out for 
the Wilds of Kentucky where, in Nelson County, a farm had been purchased for them 
from the Sisters of Loretto. 

They set sail on November 2nd, and arrived via New Orleans at the present site of 
the monastery on December 21, 1848. This date marks the official opening of the new 
foundation. Pioneer work was the daily program of the monks, but we may say what 
the Fathers of our Country said when they set on foot the great movement which gave 
us liberty and put us on the roll of the world's great nations: "Annuit Coeptis" — He 
blessed the work now begun. 

In 1850 the monastery was canonically erected into an abbey. The initial holder of 
the abbatial chair was the leader of the expedition to the New World, — Dom Eutro- 
pius Proust, and it was the Most Reverend Martin J. Spalding, then Bishop of Louis- 
ville, who conferred on him the Abbatial Blessing, and so became the first prelate to 
bless and install an abbot in the New World. 


The monks set to work gathering material for a church and adequate buildings. Work 
was commenced in the face of many difficulties whilst the "Civil War" was raging. 
However at the end of the struggle between North and South, in 1866, the church was 
consecrated and the buildings dedicated to divine service. The Ceremony was performed 
by the Most Reverend John B. Purcell, Archbishop of Cincinnati, whilst the Most. 
Reverend Martin J. Spalding, now become Archbishop of Baltimore, delivered the 

The second Abbot, Dom Benedict Berger devoted all his energies to the development 
of the religious spirit, to prayer and penance, — the real purpose of the Order of Trap- 
pists, or Cistercians of the Strict observance. His term lasted 28 years, and he died 
in 1890. 

His successor, Dom Edward Chaix-Bourbon was remarkable for his personal holiness. 
His life, in general, was an inspiration and an incitement to good for all who were 
privileged to come into contact with him. His health failing, he resigned after eight 
years, and became Chaplain for the Trappistine Nuns of Notre Dame des Gardes, 
m France. 

The fourth Abbot, Dom Edmund M. Obrecht, was a man of eminent endowments of 
mind and heart. During his long administration of 36 years he raised the Abbey to a 
position of honor and recognition. Shortly after his entrance into office Gethsemani 
celebrated its Golden Jubilee, June 7, 1899. This event brought the monastery into 
relations with the most eminent Church Dignitaries in the country. Dom Edmund 
was efficient in both material and spiritual activities. His crowning achievement in the 
temporal order was the enclosure wall, — a stretch of masonry, 8 feet high and describ- 
ing a circumference of one and a quarter miles around the monastic buildings. 

The year 1924 was perhaps the most memorable in the annals of the Institute, made 
so by the Triple Jubilee kept on May 21st. Gethsemani held its Diamond Jubilee 
whilst the Abbot celebrated the 50th Anniversary of his Ordination to the Priesthood 
and the Silver Jubilee of his Abbatial Blessing and Installation. 

Gethsemani School and College 

A few words on the School and the College will not be amiss here. Gethsemani 
School and College are the outgrowth of Christian charity in the pioneer days when 
Kentucky was just emerging from the wilderness where Daniel Boone had hunted and 
fought, and where Henderson and Harrot bartered with their tawny host, the Chero- 
kee. It was not at first planned or designed for a school, but providentially served to 
fill a crying need, and providentially withdrew when the need no longer existed. 

Its inception synchronized with the arrival of the Trappists in the State. Already 
in 1851 the founders of the new monastery recognized the distressing situation of the 
surrounding country-folk, owing to lack of schooling and religious instruction. One 
of their first cares after settling down, was to open a school for the gratuitous educa- 
tion of boys. Those were thrilling days full of romantic interest. Mr. John A. Doyle, 
of Louisville who died in his 91st year in 1942, loved to tell of the olden times when 
he attended school here whilst Grant and Lee were battling in Virginia. Pupils of all 
denominations were admitted, and soon there was an enrollment of 60 boys. Subjects 
taught in the early days were the 3 R's and grammar. On Sundays the monks imparted 
religious instruction to a large congregation, doubly attracted by the additional novelty 
of having members of the Trappist Order, the children of Citeaux who rank the great 
St. Bernard as their outstanding ornament and light, in their midst. The chant, es- 
pecially that of the historic and incomparable "Salve Regina" was always a drawing 
card, second only to the Faith which was the light and the life of their existence. 


In the course of time rudimentary training was considered inadequate, and at the 
request of many amongst its benefactors and patrons the school was raised to the rank 
of a Boarding Institution, and still later became a College with powers from the State 
to confer academic degrees. 

It continued its activities for decades whilst towns grew up to stud the map of 
Nelson County. In 1912 on March 1st a fire destroyed both College and School 
buildings, and it was decided not to rebuild, as the needs which had occasioned the in- 
ception of this particular activity no longer existed. 

Gethsemani Today 

Today Gethsemani gives its special attention in the line of educational activities to its 
Ecclesiastical Seminary and to Retreats for both clergy and laymen. Under the guidance 
of its 5th Abbot, Dom Frederic M. Dunne, the first native American to hold the office, 
the community is flourishing. Its members are practically all native born and number 
140. The hidden mission of prayer and sacrifice for the benefit of a suffering mankind 
goes on night and day, according to the Holy Rule of St. Benedict. The Trappist 
Order, on the whole, numbers about 80 houses, in all parts of the world, and its member- 
ship of monks and nuns runs up a total of 5,000. In character it is the member of a 
Contemplative Order, doing no outside ministry, but giving all its best attention to 
the execution of the Divine Office and to Church Service, whilst the members support 
themselves by the labor of their hands. 

It is trusted that the mission of the Order will continue to benefit our dear country, 
and our Kentucky Commonwealth in particular. If Moses on the mountain won the 
battle for his people by prayer and supplication, may we not be confident that the im- 
mutable God of Armies will have kind regard to the men and women who have conse- 
crated all their talents and the powers of soul and body to His service alone? Their 
prayers and sacrifices will avail much to preserve our homeland in prosperity in days 
of peace, bring it the blessings of victory in the crucial day of battle and keep it ever 
true to the high standard set by the Founders of the Kentucky Commonwealth: — 
"United, — in prayer and good will, — we stand; divided, — by discord and enmity, — we 
fall"; true to the standard raised by the Fathers of the Country, so beautifully con- 
ceived and so warmly cherished as the pledge of further thrift and safety and peace, — 


By Mrs. Henry H. Hunt 

Near the midwestern boundary of Graves County, about ten miles west of Mayfield 
on State Highway 98, lies the thriving and neat little town of Fancy Farm. It ranks 
among the oldest settlements in Jackson's Purchase, the first pioneers coming to the 
site in 1829. 

Connected with and inseparable from the history of this town is the story of St. 
Jerome Catholic Church. To reveal the history of one is to unravel the life story of 
the other. For what became known as Fancy Farm, was at first only a small Catholic 
settlement with the first St. Jerome Church, a small log structure (built in 1836), as 
the center of social as well as religious activity. 1836 is considered the date of the 
beginning of the parish, while a post office was not established or a name given the 
place till several years later. 

St. Jerome is doubtless, one of the oldest churches in the Purchase, and is the oldest 
of nine Catholic parishes in the same area. She continues, as she has from the begin- 
ning and through a century and more of existence, to be the guiding spirit that rules 


the lives and fortunes of her people. She is the hub or axis about which dial the 
principal events in the foundation, growth, and development of Fancy Farm. 

During the past eight years, the parish has been under the pastorate of Rev. Edward 
Russell, a native of Springfield, Kentucky. He received his early education in the graded 
school there and later attended St. Xavier College, Cincinnati. His studies in philosophy 
and theology were made at St. Meinrad Seminary, St. Meinrad, Indiana. 

The present St. Jerome Church, now fifty years old, beautiful, unique, and impres- 
sive, almost invariably arrests the attention of passing and visiting strangers. Recently 
renovated both exteriorly and interiorly by Fr. Russell, it stands serene and imposing, 
presiding, over the enterprises of the surrounding country and the little town whose 
bosom it adorns. It is the only church at Fancy Farm or for miles around as the people 
all profess the Catholic faith. This is the reason for the immense proportions of St. 
Jerome as a rural church; the secret of her uniqueness. It is also the one thing that 
gives to Fancy Farm a far-and-wide reputation; one not common to towns of only fout 
hundred souls. 

Under the pastorate of St. Jerome are two other Catholic parishes, branch missions 
of and once a part of St. Jerome parish. These are St. Charles, Carlisle County, about 
one and one-half miles west of Kirbyton and St. Denis' lying between Dublin and 

Remnants of Catholics of Fancy Farm also form a portion of St. Joseph parish, 
Mayfield. The first church there was built in 1887 by Rev. Lawrence B. Ford who was 
then pastor of Fancy Farm. The St. Joseph parish continued under the pastorate of 
St. Jerome till 1911, when a resident pastor took charge. 


Bound up in the history of Fancy Farm of St. Jerome Church and the missions, is 
the story of the people who came and settled here in the early part of the nineteenth 

The people themselves are almost one hundred percent lineal descendents of the 
persecuted Catholics who came over from England with the Catholic Lord Baltimore, 
Cecil Calvert, and founded the Catholic colony of Maryland in 1634. 

Descendents of these, one hundred and fifty years later, decided to settle in Ken- 
tucky. They were doubtless moved by a spirit of adventure and the desire to found 
new homes on new and better lands. They were also actuated by a desire to evade new 
persecutions which, according to the history of Maryland, were at that time rather potent. 

By the terms of the pact signed in Baltimore, sixty families agreed to settle in Ken- 
tucky on Pottenger's and Cartwright's creek at the nearest possible date. The first 
group, led by Basil Hayden, left St. Charles and St. Mary's counties in the early 
months of 1785. Trekking across the mountains of upper Virginia, they came by way 
of Pittsburgh, and from there on down the Ohio on flatboats. Entering the wilderness at 
Limestone, (Maysville) they stopped by Goodwin's Station. Pressing on, they reached 
Pottenger's creek, their intended destination, by the end of spring of the same year. 

There they made their homes, warding off Indian invasion and enduring the toil and 
hardships necessary to pioneering in the wilderness of Kentucky. They built the first 
Catholic Church in the state, dedicating it to the Holy Cross in 1792. Holy Cross, 
Marion County, marks the site of this first Catholic settlement in the state. 

Belated arrivals of the signers of the Baltimore Pact came in 1887 and settled on 
Cartwright's Creek, about twenty miles from Holy Cross. The site of this settlement, 
the birthplace of Lincoln, is Springfield, Kentucky. 


Other contingents of the pact got over in the approximate years that followed. In 
fact there was a steady influx of Catholics into the state during the last quarter of 
the eighteenth century. In all, eight Catholic settlements were made. Besides those 
named there were Lebanon, Bardstown, New Hope, New Haven, and Fairfield. 

According to records, the first families at Holy Cross and Springfield bore such 
names as Hayden, Willett, Carrico, Toon, Hobbs, Spalding, Elliott, Buckman, Cash, 
Mills, Riley, Bowlds, Burch, Thomas and Wilson. These same names have been the 
most prevalent at Fancy Farm from the beginning to the present time. 


When in 1818 General Andrew Jackson and Isaac Shelby bought the west end of 
our state from the fierce Chicksaw Indians, news of the new and unmolested territory 
soon spread throughout the commonwealth. The first white settlers got here in 1821. 
Others followed and settlement of the Purchase was soon under way. 

Meanwhile, at Springfield in 1808 the Dominican Fathers had erected the first 
Church of St. Rose. The same year, there was born in that parish a youngster whose 
name now heads the list of Catholic pioneers to Graves County. This was Samuel 

In July 1828, at the age of twenty he married Elizabeth Hobbs, also of St. Rose 
parish. Having heard of the new rich territory, the Purchase, these newlyweds decided 
to stake their chances in the west. In the spring of 1829 they made their toilsome 
journey cross state on horseback and came to Graves County. Young Sam bought a 
half a township of land from the government at the rate of twelve and one-half cents 
an acre. His domain embraced all the present site of Fancy Farm. 

At Christmas, John W. Willett came to visit his brother, Samuel, and to make his 
home here. These two brothers, with a few families that followed in the approximate 
years, were the pioneers of St. Jerome's congregation and founders of Fancy Farm. 
Ever found to be among the most active members of the neighborhood, they toiled for 
the good of the church, and for the furtherance of any enterprises that were conducive 
to their civic advancement. 

Having been a leader in the building of the first and second churches at Fancy 
Farm, Mr. Willett had fondly hoped to see the completion of the present edifice. 
However, death claimed him in the year of its erection, June 1892, at the age of 84. 

Others who pioneered to these parts were former friends and neighbors of the Wil- 
letts in Washington County. Mrs. Polly Hobbs, mother of Sister Julia one of the 
first members of the Nazareth Sisterhood, and also mother of Elizabeth Willett, wife 
of Samuel Willett, came in 1831. With her came two grown sons, Albert and Thomas 
Hobbs. In 1833, William, Hilary, and Lloyd Toon as well as Cornelius and Henry 
Carrico brought their families and settled in the vicinity of St. Jerome. John and 
James Cash came with their families in 1834. James Cash bought and homesteaded 
a place near the present site of St. Denis Church in Hickman County. The late 
William Bennett and Louis A. Cash, financiers of Fancy Farm, were his sons. Grand- 
sons are the late Edward F. Cash, Will L. Cash, James Cash of Fancy Farm, and 
Robert L. Cash of St. Louis. Granddaughters are Mrs. Allie Carrico of Paducah, 
Mrs. Edward Gardener of Mayfield, Mrs. Victoria Elliott, Mrs. Maggie Blincoe and 
Mrs. Julia Carrico of Fancy Farm. 

In 1834, also, Thomas M. Hayden migrated here with ten sons and three daugh- 
ters. Several of these were married and had large families at the time. This Thomas 
Hayden, the ancestor of all the many Haydens in Jackson's Purchase, as well as of 


a great many in Missouri and Arkansas, was a known direct descendant of the first 
Catholics in Kentucky. He was the son of Basil Hayden, whose name is on record 
as being the leader of the first group of Catholics who left Maryland and settled Holy 
Cross, Kentucky, in 1785. Basil Hayden and his brother of Fancy Farm are his 


The Rev. Elisha Durbin, who for many years was famous as a missionary of all 
Western Kentucky, heard of the sprinkling of Catholics in the Purchase. From his 
headquarters at Sacred Heart Church, Union County, he visited them as early as 
1830 or 1831. In their homes, he administered the sacraments bringing to them the 
consolations of their faith. 

It was at the exhortation of Father Durbin the first church of St. Jerome was built. 
He bought a plot of ground and in 1836 a small log church stood by to mark the zeal 
of the pioneer Catholics of Graves County. 

Rev. Alfred Hagan, a native of Nelson County, was appointed the first resident 
pastor of St. Jerome in 1843. Father Durbin never relented his interest in the parish. 
He continued his visitation at long intervals, practicing his ministry here until pre- 
vented by enfeebled health about 1885. 


Up to 1845, Father Durbin had acted as postman for the isolated Catholic pioneers. 
Collecting their sparce mail at certain stations in the upper counties, he brought it in 
his saddle bags as he made his rounds to visit them. 

During the pastorate of Father Hagan, the people living near the St. Jerome Church 
petitioned for the establishment of a post office in the neighborhood. A Government 
Inspector was sent to investigate and report on the matter. While staying here, he 
was the guest of Mr. John Peebles an applicant for the position as postmaster. The 
Inspector was requested to suggest a suitable name for the new post office. In compli- 
ment to the neat home-surroundings and well planned farm of his host, Mr. Peebles, 
he suggested the name "Fancy Farm." The post office was established in that year, 
1845. The suggested name was applied and the then incipient town has ever since 
been known as "Fancy Farm." 

Father Hagan died at Fancy Farm in 1846. His remains were interred in the St. 
Jerome Cemetery. 

Rev. Patrick McNicholas then had the pastorate till about 1851. He was succeeded 
by Rev. William Oberhiiiilsman, a Belgian. He began the second church of St. Jerome. 
This was to be of brick, burnt on the premises by members of the parish. Death over- 
took Father Oberhiiiilsman and the task of completing the church fell to his successor, 
Rev. Patrick Bambury. He saw the beautiful ornate brick structure dedicated June 13, 
1858. This church after 1893, was used as a town hall and school auditorium. In 
1911 it was razed and the brick used in the interior construction of the present rectory. 

In the St. Jerome Church Cemetery today stands a plain tomb in the form of a shaft 
bearing the insignia of the priesthood. It marks the final resting place of Fathers Hagan 
and Oberhiiiilsman. 

During and after the Civil War, we find Rev. John M. Beyhurst, Rev. William 
Bourke and Rev. Thomas A. Barrett on the roster. From 1871 to 1881 the Carmelite 
Fathers, who were then stationed at Paducah, had the pastoral care of St. Jerome. 

In 1881 Rev. Richard P. Feehan of the Louisville diocese became the pastor. He 
built the first parochial school (the present convent building) at Fancy Farm. This 


school was first opened in September, 1882, with the Franciscan Sisters of Shelby ville, 
Kentucky in charge. 

The late Mr. W. C. Carrico of Fancy Farm as a lay teacher had had the educa- 
tional care of the youngsters of Fancy Farm in his hands before that time. 

After eight years here, the Sisters of St. Francis moved to Iowa in 1890. Two 
years later the St. Jerome School was reopened by the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth. 
This Sisterhood has ever since retained their charge at Fancy Farm. Due to the untiring 
zeal of these Sisters, many students have left the portals of St. Jerome's School imbibed 
with higher education and more extensive training than is ordinarily obtained from 
secular schools of the same standing. 

Resigning the pastorate in 1884, Father Feehan was replaced by Rev. Lawrence B. 
Ford. He remained in charge till 1888, being the guiding spirit, and winning the love 
and respect of the people in whose midst he moved and worked. 

Many of the old residents of Fancy Farm remember as far back as the pastorate 
of Fathers Bourke and Barrett, of the cherished Carmelites, and of Fathers Feehan 
and Ford. We have in Fancy Farm today a white haired patriarch, Mr. James B. 
Carrico, who was baptized in his infancy by Rev. Patrick Bambury in 1859. Mr. 
Carrico now 84 years of age, is the grandson of the pioneer, Henry Carrico. He has 
witnessed the growth of Fancy Farm from a village to its now most modern stage. 

On September 30, 1888 Rev. Charles A. Haeseley, who rightly has been called the 
"Builder of Fancy Farm," arrived to begin a lengthy pastorate of thirty-two years. 
Volumes might be written and all would not be told of the many good deeds performed 
by Father Haeseley for the benefit of the people of his parish and the advancement of 
Fancy Farm. 

Native son of Switzerland of German descent, he came here after having spent eleven 
years in the priesthood in Kentucky. With his coming, there distinctly begins in the 
history of Fancy Farm what we might term "a period of transition." Here he spent 
his best years, giving vent to his genius, and leaving to his credit and to his memory 
the only buildings of moment at Fancy Farm — the church, the school, and the rectory. 
These buildings are visible proof that Father Haeseley was a man far ahead of his times. 
For who would have conceived of buildings of such proportions for a rural parish in the 
nineties and early years of the present century. It is to the farsightedness and genius 
as well as to the zeal of Father Haeseley that Fancy Farm is indebted for these beautiful 
and substantial buildings today. 

Seeing the need for a mission church in Carlise County, his first care was the build- 
ing of the present St. Charles Church in 1891. 

In 1901 Father Lambert, a Jesuit, preached a mission at Fancy Farm. Having 
long before seen the urgent need of a larger parochial school, Father Haeseley peti- 
tioned of the Bishop of Louisville through Father Lambert the permission to build. The 
request was denied at the time. However, filled with the hope of a new school in the 
near future, Father Haeseley began preparations for building. Brick was burnt and 
lumber was cut and placed on the grounds. In 1907 Father Lambert gave a second 
mission at Fancy Farm. At Father Haeseley's request, he again asked the Bishop to 
consent to the building of a large parochial school at Fancy Farm. This time the re- 
quest was granted. At an expense of $13,000, with much labor and materials furnished 
by members of the parish, the present school was erected. Debt on the structure was 
cleared by the time it was ready for classes in September, 1909. 

The following Sisters of Charity of Nazareth have held the superiorship of St. 
Jerome since the beginning of their charge: 


Sister Samuella, who with two others reopened St. Jerome after the Franciscans re- 
linquished their charge. 

Sister Lazarilla, superior at the time of the opening of the present school. 

Sister Mary Josepha— 1911-1915. 

Sister Mary Claver, in charge during World War I. 

Sister Agnes Patricia, who for twenty-three years was missioned at Fancy Farm as a 
primary teacher and superior for one term of six years. 

Sister Mary Martnia and Sister Mary Bathildes, both superiors here during the de- 

Sister Helen Frances, enshrined in the hearts of all who knew her. 

Sister Mary Carmelia, present Superior, who already claims the love and esteem of 
the people of Fancy Farm. 

The crowning glory of St. Jerome's School as well as of the parish are her many 
former pupils who have devoted themselves to the religious life. 

In the priesthood she claims: Rev. Francis M. Burch, Rev. Paul Durbin, Rev. 
Hildebrand Elliott, Rev. Rudolph Carrico, Rev. Thomas M. Hayden, Rev. William 

In the brotherhood: Otis Elder, Brother Dominic. 

More than fifty young ladies in recent years have entered the Nazareth sisterhood. 

Close on to fifty others have entered other orders, to mention: Mt. St. Joseph's Con- 
vent, Davies County, Mt. Clare, Clinton, Iowa, the Holy Cross Sisters of Notre Dame, 
Indiana, and others. 

In 1913 and 1914 Father Haeseley and his assistant were occupied with the build- 
of the St. Denis Church named above. 

Rev. Albert J. Thompson was appointed assistant in 1915. With the coming of 
World War I, he volunteered his services in the U. S. Army. This left the whole 
burden of St. Jerome and the missions on Father Haeseley who already was fast be- 
coming enfeebled by age. 

In April 1920, a fire, originating in the church, damaged the interior to the extent 
as to necessitiate a complete renovation and decoration. To see this huge task through, 
Father Haeseley remained at Fancy Farm nearly a year longer than he had intended. 

Resigning the pastorate November 20, 1920, he was given the chaplaincy of St. 
Joseph's Infirmary, Louisville. His death occurred there October 19, 1926. His re- 
mains were interred in St. Louis Cemetery, Louisville. 

He was succeeded at Fancy Farm by his assistant, Rev. Albert J. Thompson who 
had returned from France to his former post, July, 1919. 

Father Thompson had as assistant erected the parochial schools at St. Charles and 
St. Denis. In 1923 as pastor of St. Jerome, he directed the exterior renovation of the 
church. About 1929 a plot of ground was purchased enlarging the school premises. 
In 1931 the present boys' playground was improved and reconstructed. In 1933, due 
to the effects of the Depression, it became necessary to ask state aid for the school. 
Through the efforts of Father Thompson, this was obtained and the people of St. 
Jerome thereby relieved for the time being of the financial burden of the school. 

Father Thompson's pastorate was not marked by any great material advancement, 
but he certainly had the spiritual interests of his people at heart. It has been said, 
"He stood at his post during one of the most trying times in the history of our country, 
preaching to the exclusion of all other interests, Christ and Him crucified." 

He left Fancy Farm in February, 1935, and took up his charge as pastor of St. 
Stephen Church, Owensboro. For the past four or five years he has been pastor of 
St. Francis De Sales, Paducah. 


The present pastor, Father Russell, aforenamed took charge of the parish, March 1, 
1935. The present assistant pastor is the Rev. Benedict F. Huff, who devotes most of 
his time to care of the missions of St. Charles and St. Denis. 

During these eight years, he has completely lost himself in service to his people. 
His first care was the spiritual advancement of his charges. He organized societies: 
The Holy Name, Altar Society, Sodality of Our Lady and Children's Holy Childhood 
Society, all conducive to the spiritual benefits of members. The material side has not 
been overlooked. Large debts have been completely cancelled and the church renovated 
both exteriorly and interiorly at an expense of about twenty thousand dollars. The 
convent building and school have each been repaired and improved. 

Father Russell plans to build an auditorium and classrooms to supplement the now 
crowded school. The St. Jerome School has under the pastorate of Father Russell be- 
come consolidated. The Pirtle, Wrights, Richardson, Salem schools of Graves County 
and the Redix school of Carlisle have of recent years been merged with St. Jerome's; the 
people of those districts so desiring this change. 

Our Boys in the Service 

Father Russell's pastorate here will ever be remembered as of World War II. Over 
one hundred and fifty names are inscribed on the Honor Roll in St. Jerome's Church. 
They are of young men of the parish who have been called and have volunteered their 
services to their country in the present war. To date, June, 1944, one gold star, in 
memory of Thomas Merritt Willett, has been placed on our service flag. 


Notre Dame Academy, Covington, has been functioning as an educational institution 
since 1876. In 1875 the Sisters of Notre Dame purchased a lot upon which was 
erected a four-story building. Solemn dedication took place July 26, 1876. In Sep- 
tember classes were opened for grade and high school students, with music and needle- 
craft as private courses. 

Within a short time, it was necessary to enlarge the building by the addition of east 
and west wings, and by adding another story to the entire structure. In 1901 a new 
chapel building was erected. An adjoining residence was purchased in 1921, and con- 
verted into a music studio. 

From an enrollment of sixty pupils, including grades and high school, the registra- 
tion steadily increased. In 1937, the elementary grade department was discontinued in 
order to devote the entire building to high school classes. The present enrollment, in 
1943, is three hundred and eighty girls. 

Notre Dame Academy was accredited by the State in 1923 and received an "A" 
rating, which has been maintained to the present. In 1924, Notre Dame Academy 
became a member of the Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools and 
has remained a fully accredited high school. 

Covington, Kentucky 

It was 1856, and leap year. More than that it was February twenty-ninth, when at 
Nazareth, Kentucky, the Council of the Sisters of Charity met in special session to make 
final deliberations on what was at the period of history, a momentous venture, a new 
colony of Sisters would be sent out to found a schoql in the Northern Kentucky diocese 
of Covington. 


Covington, originally known as "The Point" because of its location at the confluence 
of the Ohio and Licking Rivers, had long outgrown its status of a mere trading post 
in the wilderness, and was fast becoming a flourishing industrial settlement. It counted 
in its population a goodly number of German and Irish immigrants eager to establish 
homes in America, the "Land of Promise," and to give, in full reciprocation, all their 
youthful vigor and enthusiasm to the beloved land of their adoption. 

In testimony of the religious spirit of its growing population, Covington was a city of 
churches. As early as 1833, it had been made the center of the newly formed Northern 
Kentucky diocese with Most Reverend George Augustine Carrell, its first bishop. This 
saintly prelate immediately interested himself in the spiritual and material welfare of 
the people. Quite naturally, he felt the training of the young was his serious obligation 
and he insisted that no matter at what sacrifice schools must be built and a Christian 
education provided. 

Animated by this spirit, Bishop Carrell, in 1855, petitioned Nazareth that the 
Sisters "take charge of a pay and poor school in Covington." The terse minutes for 
the Council meeting merely record the resolution together with the names of Sister 
Clare Gardiner, who was appointed superior, and her five assistants, two of whom were 
to teach in the "poor" school and the others at the "pay school." 

The Cincinnati Commercial gave publicity to the event and after eulogizing the 
work of the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth, went on to say, "The charitable services 
of these Ladies will find a proper field in the growing and industrial population of 
their new charge." The Cincinnati Telegraph and Advocate in its issue of January 26, 
1856, quaintly and "respectfully solicits the kind countenance and aid of the benevo- 
lent public of the sister cities" toward furnishing the house and school for the Sisters. 
The generous response to the appeal was evidence of the esteem and welcome accorded 
the newcomers. 

The new school was established in a small two-story brick house on "The Commons," 
the present site at Seventh and Greenup Streets. At the request of Bishop Carrell, it 
was given the title of Academy of Our Lady of La Salette after the famous French 
shrine where the Blessed Virgin had appeared in 1840. Classes were organized im- 
mediately and sixteen families were registered as patrons. The average tuition was one 
dollar a month, often paid "in kind." The next year the enrollment had more than 
doubled itself. 

Interesting are the entries in the carefully kept records of those early days: "Mr. John 
Handlcn donates a box of candles . . . often keeps the little community in milk, butter, 
and eggs all month." "Mr. Murray donates vinegar." Five pair of shoes are invoiced 
at a total of $5.50; a barrel of sugar is purchased for $14.90; even the opening of a 
barrel of flour is recorded as an event of importance. 

In short time the little six room school and convent, with its clean whitewashed in- 
terior, had become far from adequate. There was the added disadvantage that the 
Sisters did not own even the ground on which the school was located, and it was not 
until 1886 that this was secured. Plans for a new building had long been in the making 
and now the cornerstone was finally laid for what was then the latest in school buildings. 
Immediately the number of pupils so increased that additional teachers had to be pro- 
vided. By 1903, expansion again was necessary. A third story was added to the school 
and a permanent convent at last supplied for the Sisters. 

The story of La Salette is akin to that of other pioneers in the field of education. 
The unbounded trust in Divine Providence instilled by Saint Vincent de Paul in his 
first Daughters of Charity and received as a precious heritage by the Sisters of Charity 
in the New World, gave them dauntless courage in the face of every obstacle; love of 

10— Vol. II 


God and of neighbor prompted whole-hearted response to every call for self-sacrifice. 
Truly did the Sisters live their motto, "The charity of Christ urges us!" 

But the history of La Salette would be incomplete were not some mention made of 
those admirable women, administrators and teachers, whose influence has left a distinc- 
tive impress on the school's aims and quality of instruction, for, under the Providence 
of God, it is to their ability, generosity, and self-sacrifice that the institution owes its 
growth and opportunity for service. Notable among them are: Sister Clare Gardiner, 
the pioneer superior; Mother Helena Tormey and Mother Cleophas Mills, both of 
whom later became Superior General at Nazareth; and Sister Lauretta Meagher, who 
was the last living Civil War nurse and whose life would make rich copy for the bio- 
grapher. It was she who directed the school during a period of over thirty years, from 
1879 to 1912. 

La Salette, in the century of rapid and manifold changes in education has kept abreast 
of each advance; yet, conservatively, she has clung to the permanent in ideals and 
principles. The weighted curriculum of earlier days offers an interesting comparison to 
the present clearly organized courses of studies, classical, commercial, and homemaking, 
each of which is supplemented by speech; music, instrumental and vocal; and physical 

In 1920, La Salette merited affiliation with the Catholic University of America; in 
1923, the school was accredited by the State of Kentucky; and, in 1930, by the Southern 
Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. 

We have seen how in rapid stages, the Academy outgrew its humble foundations. 
In 1939 came the crowning achievement when the modern fireproof high school was 
completed. It contains all that is latest and best in classrooms, library, science and 
homemaking laboratories, gymnasium-auditorium, lunchroom, and recreation hall. 

For close upon a century, La Salette has served the community of Covington in the 
field of education. In times of public distress, she has hastened at the call of charity 
to relieve the suffering and the afflicted. But it is not in this, nor is it in her excep- 
tional educational opportunities that she takes just pride; rather her joy is in the 
fruit of her labor, the sterling young women who, through the years, have confidently 
gone forth from her prepared to occupy intelligently and with becoming grace an hon- 
orable place in Christian society, be that place the professions, business, or woman's 
grandest career, the home. 


Academy Notre Dame of Providence, a five-story brick ediface in Renaissance style, 
was erected at Sixth and Linden Avenues, Newport, Kentucky, by the Sisters of Divine 
Providence in September, 1903. The Academy was established with the approval of the 
Right Reverend Camillus Paul Maes, D.D., then Bishop of Covington, who recognized 
both the desirability of such a select educational institution in the newly opened resi- 
dential district of eastern Newport and the inadequacy of the quarters of the original 
school begun in 1899 at Mount Saint Martin's Convent, Newport, the first home of 
the Sisters of Divine Providence in America. 

Academy Notre Dame of Providence was built with vision. It is spacious and sur- 
rounded with grounds laid out into park, lawns, and playground. From the beginning 
it was equipped far in advance of the times. It has a chapel, an extensive reference 
and a fiction library, chemistry laboratories, museum, specialized commercial, domestic 
science, dress-making, and fancy-work departments, an art department and a music 
department, a large study hall, capacious recreation halls, cafeteria, and an excellent 
auditorium with stage and balcony. 


It opened as a day school in September, 1903 with an enrollment on the first day of 
one hundred pupils, the number increasing thereafter year by year. The purpose of 
the Academy, as the early prospectus states, is "to provide for girls and young women 
a solid, practical, and Christian education and to develop in them that simplicity of 
manner and delicacy of feeling characteristic of noble Christian womanhood." Boys 
were admitted to the grades, however; and difference of religion was no obstacle to 
entrance, attendance at classes in religion not being exacted of non-Catholic students. 
The academic or high-school department offered then as now four courses: the Classi- 
cal, the Scientific, the English, and the Commercial, the last now being limited to 
elective classes. Modern languages were specially cultivated from the elementary 
grades throughout the academic classes with the particular advantage of native teach- 
ers. There were also a literary post-graduate course and a course in elocution. The 
Academy is authorized to confer diplomas in music and elocution as well as in the 
academic field. 

Since October, 1905, Academy Notre Dame of Providence has been affiliated with the 
University of Kentucky at Lexington. James K. Patterson, then the distinguished and 
learned president of the University of Kentucky, made the final inspection in person. 
At the close of his visit he remarked: "When I see all this, it almost makes me regret 
that I cannot go back forty years and begin all over again." In 1914 the Academy was 
also affiliated with the Catholic University of America at Washington, D. C. 

In September, 1929, the scholarly Bishop of Covington, the late Most Reverend Fran- 
cis W. Howard, D.D., selected Academy Notre Dame of Providence as the Central 
Catholic High School of Campbell County. The classes expanded so extensively as a 
result that in June, 1934, the grade school was discontinued. The enrollment at the 
present date, January, 1945, numbers 250 young girls who come from the various dio- 
cesan and private grade schools in the vicinity. As Central Catholic High School the 
Academy retains its title, Academy Notre Dame of Providence; it remains an institution 
of the Sisters of Divine Providence whose members constitute its faculty. 


The Sisters of Divine Providence are the youngest of the communities of religious 
women in Kentucky, the Congregation having made its American foundation at New- 
port, Kentucky in the Diocese of Covington, in August, 1889. In 1888 the Right Rev- 
erend Camillus Paul Maes, third bishop of Covington, Kentucky, in quest of teachers, 
visited the Mother House of the Congregation of Divine Providence at St. Jean de 
Bassel, Moselle, a flourishing educational institution founded in France in 1762 by the 
Venerable John Martin Moye, the cause of whose beatification is now at Rome. The 
request of Bishop Maes fulfilled the hopes of Reverend Mother Anna (d. 1908) that 
the Sisters participate in the education of American youth and form a province of the 
Congregation in the United States of America. The next year (1899) accordingly, 
found in Covington, Kentucky, the three pioneers of the American foundation. 

By October, 1899, these three, under the direction of Bishop Maes, purchased 
and were established in the historic Colonel Jones mansion, crowning a hill on 
the outskirts of Newport, Kentucky. Mt. St. Martin's, as the house and hill were soon 
designated, became the first American Mother House, convent, and novitate of the 
Congregation. There in November of that same year the first school, Mt. St. Martin's 
Academy, was opened in what was originally the capacious carriage house. In the 
following March the Sisters, whose number had been increased by other Sisters from 
the Mother House in France, accepted their first parochial school. 

In August, 1903, the new Academy Notre Dame of Providence, at East Sixth and 


Linden Avenue, Newport, Kentucky, was dedicated. Superseding Mt. St. Martin's 
Academy, it was an instant success. It carried a full college preparatory course as well 
as a commercial course, and specialized in music, the arts, and domestic science. In 
1934 the Academy closed its elementary and grammar school grades to become, under 
the patronage of His Excellency, the Most Reverend Francis W. Howard, D.D., Bishop 
of Covington, the Central High School for Catholic Girls in Campbell County. Acade- 
my Notre Dame of Providence was affiliated with the University of Kentucky in Oc- 
tober, 1905, and with the Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C, in 1915. 

St. Anne Convent, the present Mother House and novitiate of the Congregation in 
the United States, was completed in 1919 at Melbourne, Kentucky, about eight miles 
from Newport. St. Anne's was erected on a splendid piece of property of 187 acres, 
the generous gift of the late Mr. and Mrs. Peter O'Shaugnessy of Newport, Kentucky. 
The training school of the Sisters was transferred here from Mt. St. Martin's; a house 
for aged and infirm was built, and in 1931 the magnificent Sacred Heart Chapel 
was erected. 

Recruited by American girls and assisted by additional numbers from abroad, from 
the very first year in America the Sisters of Divine Providence assumed charge of 
parish schools in Kentucky, Ohio, West Virginia, Rhode Island, and Maryland. Be- 
sides Academy Notre Dame of Providence, they opened other select academies and 
private and parochial high schools. They undertook homes for the aged in Baltimore, 
Maryland, and at Staten Island; they have an Infant Asylum at Providence, Rhode 
Island, a home for working girls at Mt. St. Martin's, Newport, Kentucky, and for 
French immigrant girls in New York City. 

Since 1890 they have participated in the Kentucky Mountain Mission work begun 
by Bishop Maes and zealously promoted by the Most Reverend Francis W. Howard, 
D.D., Bishop of Covington. In 1915 the Sisters of Divine Providence opened a sub- 
stantial and beautiful academy and boarding school, St. Camillus Academy, at Cor- 
bin, Kentucky, in the heart of the mountainous district. In August, 1920, they opened 
St. Agatha Academy and boarding school at Winchester, Kentucky. 

In 1928 under the auspices of the Most Reverend Francis W. Howard, the Sisters 
of Divine Providence, with the other teaching communities of the Diocese of Coving- 
ton, founded Villa Madonna College at Covington, Kentucky. The College is a 
senior liberal arts college, conferring the A.B. degree and also having a department of 
teacher training equipping the student for state certification in elementary or secondary 
school teaching. 

This year, September, 1943, the Sisters of Divine Providence are staffing two paro- 
chial schools for negroes in the Diocese of Covington. 


Of the many Convents of Ursulines in the United States, the largest independent 
House is that which has its Motherhouse and Novitiate in Louisville, Kentucky. 

The Ursuline Order was founded by Saint Angela Merici in 1535 in Brescia, Italy, 
when it spread to Milan, Lyons, Paris, Wuertzburg, Straubing, and thence to Louis- 
ville. In 1858, the Most Reverend Martin John Spalding, Bishop of Louisville, through 
the agency of the Reverend Leander Streber, O.F.M., applied for Ursulines at Strau- 
bing, Bavaria, to take charge of the newly-established parochial school of St. Martin. 
In answer to the call, three nuns left Straubing on September 13, 1858, took passage 
on the steamer "Ariel" (which twice barely escaped destruction — once from an ex- 
plosion, and once from being struck by a Turkish man-of-war) landing in New York 
in late October and arriving in Louisville on October 31, 1858. The Superior of the 


little band was Mother Mary Salesia Reitmeier, and her companions were Sister Mary 
Pia and Sister Mary Miximilian. 

On arriving in Louisville, the nuns were domiciled in a small, miserable frame house 
consisting of two rooms and a garret, situated near St. Martin School on what is now 
Shelby and Chestnut Street. In November they opened classes in St. Martin's parish 
school with an enrollment of fifty pupils. During the long winter that followed, the 
nuns suffered loneliness, heartache, and even want, but these heroic souls never looked 
back. Their days were filled with works of mercy and their nights recorded long hours 
spent in mastering the English language. 

The principal end and aim of Ursulines being the education of young girls, Mother 
Salesia decided to enlarge her sphere of activity by establishing a boarding school where 
girls might receive both an elementary and high school education. Accordingly a two- 
story brick building of about twenty rooms was built in 1859, which was to serve as a 
convent for the Sisters and a temporary residence for boarders. It was called the 
"Ursuline Convent of the Immaculate Conception." Six little boarders entered, and 
Mother Pia was named Directress. Three more nuns came over from Straubing to assist. 

Early in 1860 a novitiate was opened, and the first American girl to enter was Miss 
Cecelia Schweri, later known as Sister Mary Leandra. She was joined by three young 
ladies from Straubing and another American girl, and on September 8th, these five 
young ladies received the habit of the Ursulines. The little Community now numbered 
eleven. In order to give the girls who finished St. Martin's parochial school an oppor- 
tunity of higher education, day pupils were now admitted to the Academy. Quarters 
again became too small, and a dormitory and refectory were added for the boarders. 

Ursuline Academy of the Immaculate Conception was well on its way when the Civil 
War broke out. In 1862, food was scarce and expensive, the price of fuel rose, and the 
Sisters were in great distress. Then Louisville was threatened with bombardment, which 
caused such terror that the parents took their children home, and the boarding school 
had to be closed. However, after a few weeks the danger passed and the pupils re- 

When classes were resumed in September, 1863, boarders in great numbers enrolled 
in the Academy, and the school from that time on continued to flourish. By an Act 
of the Legislature of the State of Kentucky, on January 12, 1864, the Academy was 
incorporated under the title of "Ursuline Society and Academy of Education," and 
was empowered to confer the "usual academic degrees of a literary educational institu- 
tion." At the graduation exercises which took place in 1867, the first graduate of Ursu- 
line Academy, Miss Anna Kotter, received her crown and diploma. There were 125 
pupils in the Academy during this year. 

In 1867 the cornerstone of the present Chapel of the Immaculate Conception was 
laid, but on account of bad weather the work had to be discontinued during the winter. 
In the spring of 1868 the work was resumed. The walls had been completed and the 
gable finished, when the cable fastened to the second beam gave way. The beam fell 
backward and shattered the gable and the wall to a depth of about fifteen feet above 
the ground; both side walls were badly damaged. After six weeks the debris was 
cleared away and the rebuilding of the walls was begun. The chapel was completed 
and dedicated on December 26, 1868. As a result of the shock sustained when the 
walls of the chapel fell, Mother Salesia became seriously ill and died on June 25, 1868. 
With her passing a great and remarkable life was ended — a life whose fine, true, and 
elevated character impressed itself upon all with whom she came in contact. At the 
death of the Foundress, the Community numbered thirty professed Sisters, six Novices 
and five Postulants; and the nuns were conducting, besides the Academy, four parochial 


schools — St. Martin's, St. Mary's, and St. Joseph's in Louisville, and Corpus Christi 
School in Newport, Kentucky. 

Mother Salesia was succeeded by Mother Martina Nichlas, a woman of rare ability, 
whose administration, covering a period of thirteen years, was principally noted for 
the extension of the Order, in and out of the State, in parochial school work. During 
this period St. Peter's School and St. Vincent dePaul's School in Louisville, Sts. Peter 
and Paul School in Cumberland, Maryland, and fifteen other small schools in Indiana and 
Illinois were placed in charge of the Community. Later some of these schools were 
transferred to other Orders. 

On August 14, 1874, at the invitation of the Reverend Paul J. Volk of Daviess 
County, Kentucky, five nuns were sent to the Green River Hills of Southwestern Ken- 
tucky, fifteen miles from Owensboro, to open an academy for girls. On their arrival 
they found a house not yet plastered, with no doors in the second floor, and no furniture. 
Undismayed by hardship and the direst poverty, the nuns set to work, and as /soon 
as the house was completed and the most necessary furnishings procured, they an- 
nounced the opening of school. Five pupils enrolled at the beginning of the first year; 
eleven at the beginning of the second year; and from year to year the number increased. 
In 1880 the Charter of Incorporation was obtained, and Mount St. Joseph Ursuline 
Academy was beginning an era of expansion. A noviatiate was opened in 1895, and 
many young women from the neighboring counties entered to swell the ranks of the 
Sisterhood; and in 1912 Mount St. Joseph became an independent Ursuline Mother- 

In 1876 a plot of about thirty-two acres of land, beautifully located on what is now 
Lexington Road, was purchased with a view of establishing a boarding school in the 
country. Four Sisters moved into the small brick house which stood on the farm, and 
on October 4, 1877, they opened school. Five children came the first day; eight days 
later there were seventeen, and by Christmas the number had increased to seventy-two. 
This was the beginning of Sacred Heart Academy. The first pupils were day pupils 
who came from the vicinity, but after two years boarders only were accepted. It func- 
tioned as a boarding school until 1916, when day pupils were again admitted. 

In 1887 the Ursuline Convent on Chestnut Street was no longer spacious enough 
to accommodate the nuns, day pupils, and boarders; hence the boarders were transferred 
to Sacred Heart Academy, and Ursuline Academy became exclusively a day school. 

In 1888 the first Commencement of the Sacred Heart Academy was held on June 26. 
Miss Sabina Orrick of Canton, Mississippi was the first graduate. In 1889, to accom- 
modate the increased number of boarders, an addition was built to the original struc- 

In September, 1894, the novitiate was transferred from the Motherhouse on Chestnut 
Street to Sacred Heart Academy, as living in the country was more conducive to the 
health of the young Sisters. 

On December 28, 1897, sixteen nuns took charge of St. Joseph's Orphanage. There 
were 122 children to be cared for at the time. 

In 1900 the old convent on Chestnut Street was replaced by a new building which 
was used as the Motherhouse until 1917. It was then given over to the exclusive use 
of Ursuline Academy, and the Motherhouse transferred to the present site on Lexington 
Road. Today Ursuline Academy stands as an historic witness of Ursuline missionary 
zeal, the fruitfulness of which is still evident in the educational aims and methods of 
the institution. 

The continuous growth of Sacred Heart Academy on Lexington Road called for 
new buildings, and in 1903 the cornerstone of a large three-story edifice was laid, 


and in May, 1904 it was dedicated. It was destroyed by fire in 1918. For a period 
of six years one wing of the new Motherhouse (which had been completed and dedi- 
cated the previous year) was taken over by the Academy and used until in May, 1926 
the new Academy was ready for occupancy. 

In the interval another building was erected, St. Ursula Hall, containing an audi- 
torium, gymnasium, and class rooms, and in 1921, the Sacred Heart Junior College 
and Normal School opened, principally to provide an opportunity for higher educa- 
tion and professional training for the young members of the Community. Provision was 
also made for observation and practice teaching in the Model School, which offers 
young teachers in training an opportunity to prepare for the work of the Institute 
under the direct supervision of critic teachers. The latest building erected on the campus 
is Brescia Hall, the science building, the first unit of a college building project. 

In 1938 Ursuline College, a Liberal Arts Senior College for the higher education 
of women, in which vocational training is not disregarded, absorbed and superseded the 
Junior College. The College is affiliated with the Catholic University of America, and 
is approved by or has membership in the National Catholic Educational Association, 
Kentucky Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, the American Association of 
Colleges, the Association of Southern Colleges for Women, the American Association 
of Collegiate Registrars, the Catholic Literary Association, and has filed application 
for membership as a senior college in the Southern Association of Colleges, while re- 
taining the Junior college membership held since 1933. The College is fully recognized 
by the State Department of Education and is empowered to issue Teachers' Certifi- 
cates on both elementary and secondary level. 

As the years passed and the Community grew in numbers, new schools were opened 
in the various States. At present the Community numbers 467 professed nuns, 15 
novices, and 8 postulants, and is in charge of the following schools; with a total enroll- 
ment of a little more than eleven thousand pupils: 

St. Martin's School, Louisville, Kentucky, since 1858; St. Joseph's School, Louis- 
ville, Kentucky, since 1867; St. Peter's School, Louisville, Kentucky, since 1868; Sts. 
Peter and Paul School, Cumberland, Maryland, since 1870; St. Mary's School, Madison, 
Indiana, since 1871; St. Vincent de Paul's School, Louisville, Kentucky, since 1881; St. 
Boniface School, Evansville, Indiana, since 1881; Holy Trinity School, St. Matthews, 
Kentucky, since 1883; St. Joseph's Orphanage, Louisville, Kentucky, since 1897; St. 
Boniface School, Louisville, Kentucky, since 1898; St. Anthony School, Louisville, 
Kentucky, since 1899; St. George School, Louisville, Kentucky, since 1899; St. Helen's 
School, Shively, Kentucky, since 1902; St. Mary's School, Cumberland, Maryland, since 
1903; St. Elizabeth's School, Louisville, Kentucky, since 1906; St. Leo's School, Louis- 
ville, Kentucky, since 1906; St. Therese School, Louisville, Kentucky, since 1907; St. 
Ann's School, Louisville, Kentucky, since 1907; St. Peter Claver Colored School, 
Louisville, Kentucky, since 1908; St. Francis Assisi School, Louisville, Kentucky, since 
1911; St. Augustine's School, New Straitsville, Ohio, since 1915; St. Francis de Sales 
School, Morgantown, West Virginia, since 1915; Sacred Heart School, Conemaugh, 
Pennsylvania, since 1915; St. Patrick School, Sidney, Nebraska, since 1916; St. Patrick 
School, North Platte, Nebraska, since 1916; Blessed Sacrament School, Omaha, Ne- 
braska, since 1920; St. Michael School, Madison, Indiana, since 1922; St. Rita School, 
Okolona, Kentucky, since 1928; St. Peter's School, Columbia, South Carolina, since 
1936; St. Joseph's School, O'Connor, Nebraska, since 1937; School of the Holy Spirit, 
Louisville, Kentucky, since 1937. 
High Schools and Academies: 

Ursuline Academy, Louisville, Kentucky, since 1859; Ursuline Academy, Cumber- 


land, Maryland, since 1891; Sacred Heart Academy, Louisville, Kentucky, since 1877; 
St. Francis de Sales High School, Morgantown, West Virginia, since 1916; St. Pat- 
rick's Academy, Sidney, Nebraska, since 1916; St. Patrick's High School, North Platte, 
Nebraska, since 1916; Ursuline High School, Columbia, South Carolina, since 1937; 
St. Joseph's Academy, O'Connor, Nebraska, since 1937. 
Senior College: 

Ursuline College, since 1938. 


Among the Religious of the West, the name of Mother Catherine Spalding must 
long stand pre-eminent. She was endowed with attributes of mind that fitted her 
beyond others for leadership. In purpose she was straightforward. She was con- 
ciliatory in speech and manner. She discovered quickly and acted promptly. She 
sympathized deeply with poverty and suffering and it was the comfort of her life to 
be able to relieve the one and assuage the other. It is impossible that one in her po- 
sition, so qualified, should not be able to command willing support. This she did from 
the beginning to the end of her career. She lived to see the unpromising seedling she 
had helped to plant, and to which her tender care was given at every stage of its 
growth, lifting its branches in the free air of heaven and scattering its fruits broadcast 
for the refreshment of the multitudes. 

Catherine Spalding was born in Maryland, December 23, 1793. She and her sister, 
Ann, having early lost their parents, were cared for by their aunt, Mrs. Thomas Elder, 
of the Cox Creek settlement. At the age of nineteen, she left her comfortable home 
to become the companion of the two young women who had preceded her to Nazareth, 
with the avowed purpose of devoting themselves to the Religious life and its unselfish 
pursuits. By the suffrages of her associates, she was placed at the head of the com- 
munity for eight terms of three years each. 

In April, 1823, Mother Catherine, having been replaced at the Mother House by 
Mother Agnes Higdon, went with three other sisters to White Sulphur, Scott County, 
to establish a school on a farm given for that purpose by Mr. James Gough. This 
gift was made on condition that the donor should receive a small annuity during the 
remainder of his life. The transaction really amounted to a purchase as Mr. Gough 
lived a long time and the annuity was paid to the last. 

The house was named St. Catherine's in honor of Mother Catherine's patroness, St. 
Catherine of Siena, in compliance with the desires of Bishop Flaget and Bishop David. 
By a coincidence the Nazarenes started for their new field of labor on the feast of St. 
Catherine of Siena. These sisters carried with them a letter from Bishop Flaget, Bishop 
of Bardstown, to Father Chabrat of White Sulphur. 

The little colony in Scott County met with many hardships. The sisters used to 
tell of many trying circumstances connected with this hard and seemingly fruitless 
mission. Journeys back and forth to Nazareth had to be made on horseback or in a 
private carriage. It took about three days to make this trip; the nights were spent in 
farmhouses on the way. They never failed to take advantage of the hospitality of 
Mrs. Bostows, an English lady living at Frankfort. She had two daughters who were 
educated at Nazareth and she was always glad to harbor the sisters when they passed 
through Kentucky's Capitol. 

The school at White Sulphur was never very prosperous; the congregation was scat- 
tered, the pupils few; hence it was decided to move the school to a more propitious lo- 
cation. The farm in Scott County was sold and the proceeds helped to purchase prop- 
erty on Limestone Street, in Lexington, eighteen miles distant. Thus after the first decade 


of the history of St. Catherine's had been told at White Sulphur, the sisters, acting 
under the guidance of Father Reynolds, Nazareth's new Ecclesiastical Superior, took 
up work in the new field November 28, 1833. 

Sister Ann Spalding, the youngest sister of Mother Catherine, was at that time in 
charge of the school. Sisters Seraphine, Clementia, Pelagia, Christine and Claudia- 
labored with her. 

The Lexington property was conveyed by deed dated May 4, 1834, from James 
Logue to the Rt. Rev. Benedict Joseph Flaget, in favor of Nazareth Literary and 
Benevolent Institution. It extended from Limestone Street to Walnut, having a depth 
of six hundred feet and frontage of one hundred and twenty feet, and costs four 
thousand dollars. On the Limestone side there was a small frame house opening on 
the street. Back of it was Mr. Logue's residence, the first brick house in Lexington. 
There were four rooms above and four below. The rooms on the first floor were 
utilized as parlor, music room, girls' refectory and sisters' refectory; the last named 
served also as community room. On the second floor a room was fitted out as a 
chapel and used until Saint Peter's Church was built. The other rooms were dormi- 
tories. Soon after the sisters' arrival, the frame building at the front was moved to 
the rear and a brick house was repaired and enlarged for the class rooms. 

All the buildings on the new property were in a delapidated condition, and it took 
time, labor and expense to put the while in a becoming state. The sisters thought the 
tribulations of Scott County were to be renewed, but their fears were unfounded, and 
their school was immediately patronized. Lexington was then growing rapidly; rail- 
roads and other improvements were a means of greatly increasing the population 
of the sparsely settled city. 

In 1837 the sisters allowed St. Peter's Church to be built on a portion of their lot. 
Rev. E. McMahon, pastor at the time, supervised its erection. Then Father McMahon 
bought the Walnut Street end of the sisters' property for one thousand dollars. On it 
was a two-story brick house which was the priest's residence until St. Paul's Church 
was built. This house became the girls' parochial school after it had been purchased 
back by Nazareth from Father Becker on the sixth day of November, 1866. This old 
school had been built partly from the brick which once composed of the old Catholic 
Chapel in which the celebrated Father Baden officiated for so many years. 

A remarkable incident took place at St. Peter's Church on Sunday, August 13, 
1854. Just a few minutes after the congregation had retired from the building, the 
entire ceiling fell to the floor beneath, flattening everything to its level, with the single 
exception of a statue of Our Lady. This statue was later enshrined on the Academy 

On the 16th of August, 1845, Nazareth gave permission to build. Sister Ann Spald- 
ing was still in charge of St. Catherine's and superintended the work. It was not com- 
pleted when she died, May 15, 1848, and Sister Isabella Drury, who replaced her the 
following August, saw it finished. 

The death of Sister Ann, who for fifteen years had been the guiding spirit of St. 
Catherine's was tragic. In those days the sisters had some women slaves working about 
the house. Sister Ann unwittingly offended one of these slaves and was poisoned by 
her. The fatal dose was administered by mixing poison with some seemingly fine 
butter milk. Sister Ann died very suddenly and by some accident it was discovered 
that she had been poisoned. The sisters had the young slave sent south, but had 
nothing further done to her. 

Sister Ann was buried in the old Catholic graveyard on Winchester Street, now 


Third Street, but the remains were afterward removed to our beloved "God's Acre" 
at Nazareth. 

Among the pioneers, Sister Ellen O'Connell deserves a distinguished place. After 
holding many important offices at Nazareth, she was transferred to St. Catherine's 
where she accomplished much in a few years, and where she died in 1841. 

St. Catherine's has experienced seasons of depression and of prosperity. Her early 
years were marked with trials of various kinds, not the least of which was her struggle 
with prejudice; but Providence took care of her and raised up chivalrous men who 
nobly defended her cause. Their sentiments are voiced in an editorial of the time 
which says: "There is nothing more calculated to raise us to an eminence than nurseries 
of learning of this kind. Many of my acquaintances have been under the sisters' tute- 
lage; and I have found the sisters affable, agreeable, intelligent, polite, though quite 
plain, unassuming and unaffected in their dress and manner." 

The work begun by Mother Catherine and Sister Ann was continued by worthy 
successors — Mother Frances, Sister Isabella, Sister Gabriella and Sister Mary. In 1864 
Sister Lucy was placed in charge. This proved an event of importance not only to St. 
Catherine's, but to the people of Lexington as well. 

Just before her arrival, a destructive fire burned the whole third story of the academy 
and damaged much of the second. The building was saved from utter destruction by 
the bravery of the fire department and the prompt and kind assistance of the men of 
Lexington. Sister Lucy's first labor at St. Catherine's was to repair the damage as 
soon as possible. The sisters had been given shelter in the homes of kind friends, but 
soon returned to resume their school work. This siege of hardship was followed by a 
period of prosperity — the number of students increased steadily and St. Catherine's soon 
reached a high degree of efficiency. 

On May 18, 1874, Sister Lucy left St. Catherine's for the new Saints Mary and 
Elizabeth Hospital in Louisville. The duties of superior were then assumed by Sister 
Cleophas who had spent the first fourteen years of her religious life as music teacher 
at St. Catherine's. Sister Lucy's absence was of short duration, for in a few years she 
was again at St. Catherine's. 

The commodious music hall and auditorium, which stands in the rear of the academy, 
may be justly styled a monument to the memory of Sister Lucy. The last two years 
of her life were spent in planning and erecting this building. Sister Lucy died sud- 
denly May 11, 1892, before she saw the first commencement exercises in the new Saints 
Mary and Joseph Hall. 

Many remember with affectionate gratitude the noble self-sacrificing character of 
Sister Lucy and many owe to her not only their accomplishments in education, but also 
their training in character and manners. Sister Lucy did much for the moral uplift 
and mental advancement of the pupils of Catherine's. She was not only capable and 
accomplished, but pious and solidly learned. During her twenty-eight years at St. 
Catherine's the institution prospered materially as well as intellectually, and even today 
her name is a household word in many non-Catholic as well as Catholic homes of 
the city. 

Mother Cleophas was a second time Sister Lucy's successor, having been at Nazareth 
in the meantime filling the office of Mother Superior. After five years she was re- 
called to Nazareth to resume the duties of Mother Superior. It is to good Mother 
Cleophas that we owe the privilege of having our dear Lord in the house with us. 
She had the parlor transformed into a chapel, calling it Saint Lucy's after the patron 
saint of the late beloved superior. 

Reluctant as Religious are to receive any publicity, certain ones have, by long service, 


become ^identified with certain schools. A sketch of St. Catherine's would hardly be 
complete without mention of some individuals who have given the best years of their 
lives to its upbuilding and maintenance. Prominent among these are Sister Lauretta, 
Sister Miriam, Sister Johanna, Sister Salesia, Sister Wilhelmina, Sister Christine, Sister 
Agnita and Sister Alma. The last named has spent her entire Religious life in Lex- 
ington and her diligence in the office of Sacristan has become almost proverbial. Sisters 
Francina, Ambrosia, and Wilhelmina taught at St. John's Parochial School. Sister 
Anita came to St. Catherine's in 1872. Such a true mother was she to the little ones 
under her care that a whole lifetime has not been able to obliterate her memory from 
those whose early years she trained. After nearly twenty years the voice of obedience 
called her to other fields. Some one asked her on the morning of her departure, 
"Sister, have you had your breakfast?" "I really do not know," was her forced reply. 
Indeed her bodily needs were all forgotten in her deep grief of heart. 

Saint Paul's Parochial School, adjoining Saint Paul's Church, was for the boys of 
the parish and was taught by lay teachers. These except a professor for the older boys, 
were replaced in September, 1887, by Sisters Mercedes, Hilda and Geraldine. Thus 
the number of Sisters at Catherine's was increased to fifteen, and in the year 1888, to 
seventeen, by opening a school on Jefferson Street for the colored children, Saint Peter 
Claver's School. Sister Ambrosia was in charge of this school, assisted by Sister Mary 
dePazzi. For more than twenty-five years Sister Ambrosia labored among the colored 
people of Lexington. She effected much good. Among those whose influence at St. 
Catherine's will be felt for many a day is Sister Mary George, who is still in charge 
of the primary department, after thirty-five years of service. The names of Sisters 
Kostka, Susanna and Mechtildes also will long be remembered. To the interest and 
activity of Sister Salesia and Sister Mary Benita is due the establishment of the 

St. Peter's Parochial School was opened in 1915 with three Sisters and a lay teacher. 
During its short existence it has prospered and each year has increased its attendance 
and efficiency. 

For the last quarter of the century affairs at St. Catherine's have been directed by 
Sister Ligouri, Sister Mary Vincent, Sister Evangelista, Sister Teresina, Sister Imelda 
and Sister Constance. Under the guidance of these superiors many improvements have 
been made. 

In 1895, Nazareth granted St. Catherine's the privilege of conferring high school 
diplomas, recognized by the State. In 1918 the academy was affiliated with the State 
University of Kentucky. Standardized methods, up-to-date equipment and carefully 
planned school rooms have enabled St. Catherine's to keep pace with the times. 

Among her loyal friends the academy gratefully numbers Major Falconer, who, 
during many years so generously rendered valuable aid to the growing institution. An 
honored guest at the commencements since '64, he has lent material as well as moral 
support to these exercises by sending a decorator each year to help to beautify the hall 
and stage whence St. Catherine's daughters entered Life's school. 

St. Catherine's also owes a deep debt of gratitude to Dr. R. C. Falconer, who has, 
for over a quarter of a century, given his professional services, not only gratuitously 
but unsparingly, promptly responding to every call, whether by day or night, that might 
be requested. 

Since education is the battlefield of the present day, Saint Catherine's Academy con- 
tinues its untiring work in this battlefield. It is the objective of this institution to 
turn out pupils with some self knowledge, some energy and some purpose. 

The preparation and development of the faculty receives first consideration. Ex- 


cellent specialized courses are offered. The Academy is affiliated with the State Uni- 
versity and is a member of the Southern Association with an "A" rating. 

To perfect discipline of mind and the power of steady application, material expansion 
is now going on. Improvements in painting, heating, ventilation, lighting have received 
special attention. Large, airy rooms are being annexed in the rear providing a desirable 
location for a recreation hall, chemistry laboratory, class and music room. 

The Music Deparement is second to none. Saint Catherine's Orchestra is widely 
known; music students have received recognition by partaking in the McDowell Club 
programs. The gratifying results of the various musical contests at the University, in 
violin, harp, piano and wind instruments, as well as the high rating received in Vocal 
and Glee Club selections assures the general public that S. C. A's success is an end 
proposed and attained. 

In order to improve speaking abilities, as well as to give poise and confidence, Speech 
Classes are daily conducted. Competitions in Oratory and Debates are gratifying, 
besides giving to the students something completed or accomplished in the best sense. 

Saint Catherine's Cafeteria is an asset to the Institution as has been verified by 
Government inspectors. Hot dinners are carefully planned and served to some 270 
pupils, thus affording them the opportunity of enjoying a real meal at a minimum 


The Benedictine Sisters of Covington, Kentucky, trace their origin to the first foun- 
dation in America made by the Benedictine Sisters of the Cassinese Congregation. 
Seven years after the foundation of the first convent of Benedictine Sisters in Ameri- 
ca, at the request of Bishop Carroll, the first Bishop of Covington, four Sisters in- 
cluding Reverend Mother Alexia, the Superioress, were sent from Saint Benedict Convent 
in Erie, Pennsylvania, to open a school in Saint Joseph parish, Covington. This was 
in 1859. 

Although the little foundation encountered poverty, difficulties, and hardships in- 
numerable, the sacrifices and sufferings of these pioneer Sisters were rewarded by the 
encouragement and financial assistance of friends and benefactors so that, in 1862, 
they were able to erect a small convent, which was subsequently enlarged to meet the 
needs of the growing commnuity. In the Providence of God, the first postulant to 
seek admission to the Order, Helen Saelinger, was destined to become the second Mother 
Superior, Reverend Mother Walburga. To date the Order has been governed by only 
five Mother Superiors, members now number one hundred and ninety. 

The small beginning made in 1859 bore such fruit that from the Covington Mother 
House were established three other convents, in Indiana, Louisiana, and Alabama, which 
when they became self-sustaining, were incorporated as independent establishments. 

After the erection of a convent in 1862, the Sisters opened Saint Walburg Academy 
in Covington, which continued in existence until 1931, when the need of the academy 
building for other purposes necessitated its closing. 

The continued expansion of the Order enabled the Sisters, in 1907, to erect a board- 
ing school, Villa Madonna Academy, on a large tract of land six miles from Covington. 
Later the Mother House was transferred to Villa Madonna, and in 1937 a separate 
Mother House was erected on adjoining property. 

One of the early charges of the community was the care of Saint John Orphanage, 
which it was asked to undertake in 1877, by the Society for the Protection of Orphans, 
and which is still under its care. 

In 1921, the Benedictine Sisters opened Villa Madonna College, which they conducted 


successfully for seven years. In 1928, the need arising for a more central location, it 
was transferred to Covington and has since operated as a diocesan college under the 
joint direction of the Sisters of Notre Dame, the Sisters of Divine Providence, and 
the Benedictine Sisters. 

Besides Villa Madonna Academy, a boarding and day school, which the Benedictine 
Sisters conduct, they are also in charge of the following parochial schools: 

Holy Cross Elementary and High School, Latonia, Kentucky; Saint Benedict Elemen- 
tary and High School, Covington, Kentucky; Saint Henry Elementary and High School, 
Erlanger, Kentucky; Saint James Elementary and High School, Brooksville, Kentucky; 
Blessed Sacrament Elementary School, Fort Mitchell, Kentucky; Saint Joseph Elemen- 
tary School, Covington, Kentucky; Saint John Orphanage Elementary School, Fort 
Mitchell, Kentucky; Holy Guardian Angels Elementary School, Sanfordtown, Ken- 
tucky; Saint Anthony Elementary School, Forest Hills, Kentucky; Saint Joseph Ele- 
mentary School, Crescent Springs, Kentucky; Saint Paul Elementary School, Florence, 
Kentucky; Saint Therese Elementary School, Southgate, Kentucky. 


The Liberal Arts College conducted by the Sisters of Charity of Nazareth, Ken- 
tucky, and located at Fourth and Breckinridge Streets in Louisville has presented many 
changes, even exteriorly, since its inception on October 4, 1920. Then it was a fine 
old mansion about fifty years old with imposing white stone front and wrought metal 
balustrades, and an elegant interior of carved walnut, imported wall coverings and 
Venetian etched glass, crystal chandeliers and huge mirrors. In 1931 a three-story wing 
was added to provide additional library and laboratory facilities and an assembly hall. 
In 1933 two adjacent buildings were purchased for dormitories, and named Catherine 
Spalding and Flaget in honor of the Founder and the promoter of the Nazareth Con- 
gregation of Sisters of Charity. In 1938 a gymnasium-auditorium was erected. Fire 
destroyed Flaget Hall in December, 1938, and necessitated extensive changes; plans for 
two new buildings were drawn in 1940. The first of these was completed in June, 1941, 
and includes living quarters for thirty-five Faculty members, a cafeteria, laboratories 
and class rooms for the home economics department, and a central heating plant. What 
is now the administration building was completed in June, 1942. It has offices for the 
Dean, the Treasurer, and the Registrar, parlors and other social rooms, ten new class- 
rooms, laboratories for biology, physics, and psychology, and science lecture halls. 
Three of the laboratories vacated have been renovated and added to the chemistry 
department. The former administrative offices have become part of the library. Ex- 
ternally, the fine old residence has been replaced by a group of impressive red brick 
buildings trimmed in white sandstone; the style is Tudor-Gothic. 

Mother Rose Meagher founded Nazareth College; she received loyal assistance from 
a group of Louisville ladies, among whom Mrs. R. I. Nugent, Mrs. Florence Busch- 
meyer and Mrs. Eliza Enos were prominent. The work of these ladies is being con- 
tinued today by the Nazareth College Guild, founded in the fall of 1927. Mrs. Louis 
J. Hollenbach is President of the Guild. Mother Mary Catharine Malone was the 
first President of the College and was succeeded in 1936 by Sister Mary Anastasia 
Coady, the present incumbent. Sister Dula Hogan was Dean for the first four years, 
Sister Berenice Greenwell from 1924 to 1932, Sister Mary Anastasia Coady from 
1932 to 1936, and Sister Mary Ramona Mattingly from 1936 to 1942. Because this 
article deals with Catholic educational institutions in Kentucky, conducted by the Sisters 
of Charity of Nazareth, it should note that Sister Berenice's dissertation for her Doctor's 
degree was Nazareth's Contribution to Education (1812-1933), and Sister Mary Ra- 


mona's was The Catholic Church on the Kentucky Frontier (1785-1812). Sister Charles 
Mary Morrison, appointed Dean on August 15, 1942, had been since 1925 head of the 
mathematics department and since 1926 Registrar at Nazareth College. In both these 
positions she exhibited extraordinary administrative ability and won a wide circle of 
friends for herself and for the College. She was born in Hyde Park, a suburb of 
Boston, Massachusetts, July 19, 1895, entered the Congregation of the Sisters of 
Charity of Nazareth in 1916, received her A.B. at Fordham University, New York 
in 1922, her M.A. at Fordham University, New York, in 1925, and her Ph.D. at 
Catholic University, Washington, in 1931. 

The original Faculty consisted of Sister Mary Eunice Raisin, Sister Mary Adeline 
O'Leary and Sister Mary Alicia Meyer. Early in the first year, 1920-1921, Sister Mary 
Edwin Fennessey joined the teaching staff. In 1941-1942 the Faculty numbered forty- 
five, among whom were four M.D's, one J. C. L., and sixteen Ph.D's. In September 
1942, the Faculty was increased by three additional Ph.D's. Nearly all the rest of the 
Faculty hold Master's degrees. 

On October 4, 1920, the enrollment at Nazareth College was seven, representing 
Kentucky, Indiana, and Arkansas. October 18, 1920, afternoon and evening classes were 
begun for part-time students, and by the end of the year the enrollment was fifty-five. 
In 1935 six leading hospitals — General Hospital, Norton Memorial Infirmary, St. Joseph 
Infirmary, Sts. Mary and Elizabeth Hospital, St. Anthony's Hospital and the Jewish 
Hospital — registered their student nurses for courses in biology, chemistry, dietetics, 
English, philosophy, psychology, sociology and religion. The total enrollment during 
1941-1942 was six hundred and seventy-two. 

The first curriculum included English, French, Latin, Spanish, chemistry, mathe- 
matics, and religion, all except French and Spanish obligatory. Today there are nine 
major Departments: Education, Fine Arts, Home Economics, Languages, Mathematics, 
Philosophy and Psychology, Religion, Science, and Social Science, and twenty-seven 
distinct branches; the Language Department, for instance, includes English, Latin, 
Greek, French, German, Italian, and Spanish; the Science Department includes chem- 
istry, physics, botany, and zoology. The four-year curriculum now offered leads to 
the degrees: Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Science in Medical 
Technology, Bachelor of Science in Home Economics, Bachelor of Science in Educa- 
tion, Bachelor of Science in Nursing, and Bachelor of Science in Nursing Education. 
Students of the College, upon completion of the required conditions, are entitled to 
Teachers' Certificates from the Kentucky State Department of Education. Presenta- 
tion Academy, located on the campus, serves as a laboratory school for teacher training. 

Degrees were granted for the first time in June, 1924. The six graduates almost im- 
mediately organized the Nazareth College Alumna which now has a membership of 
over five hundred. 

Nazareth College was accredited by the Kentucky State Department of Education in 
April, 1925, and became a member of the Association of Kentucky Colleges and Uni- 
versities in December of the same year. It was affiliated with the Catholic University of 
America in February, 1926, and became a member of the Catholic Educational Asso- 
ciation in June, 1926. The College has been a member of the Southern Association of 
Colleges for Women since December, 1928, and of the Association of American Col- 
leges since January, 1929. It was approved by the Southern Association of Colleges 
and Secondary Schools in April, 1938. 



Maple Mount, Kentucky 

Mount St. Joseph Ursuline College and Academy, Maple Mount, Kentucky, situated 
fifteen miles southwest of Owensboro, the metropolis of Daviess County, is under the 
direction of the Ursuline Nuns who bear the same standards of Christian education* 
today as their great patroness St. Ursula bore centuries ago. St. Ursula was teacher 
of innumerable young women of the sixth century, who with her young followers sur- 
rendered her life in defense of Christian principles. The Ursulines who have been re- 
nowned as educators of youth for more than four hundred years, trace their lineage 
back to the Society of St. Angela in 1535. In her admiration and devotion to St. 
Ursula, St. Angela chose St. Ursula as the patroness of her Order, thus calling her 
band Ursulines. 

The history of Mount St. Joseph College and Academy goes back to its lowly 
origin in 1862, when a school was opened on the Feast of the Annunciation, March 25, 
by the Rev. Ivo Schacht, first resident pastor of St. Alphonsus Church. Father Schacht 
and his parishioners constructed a log house, 50x20, to serve as the school building. 
Two lay teachers were employed for the first year. The following September four 
Sisters from the Motherhouse of Loretto, Nerincks, Kentucky, came in response to 
Father Schacht's appeal for teachers who consecrate their lives to the Catholic training 
of youth. They named their home St. Joseph Academy, and in October began their 
mission of labor and love with an encouraging number of pupils. Records of the year 
1870 show an enrollment of thirty-seven. About three o'clock on a severe winter morn- 
ing of December, 1870, the Academy burned. For four years the mount on which the 
Academy stood lay desolate in a veritable forest of the Green River hills and valleys 
in Western Kentucky. 

Mount St. Joseph Ursuline Motherhouse, College and Academy had its beginning 
in 1874 when the third pastor of St. Alphonsus Church, the Rev. Paul Joseph Volk 
laid the foundation of another Academy just in front of the ruins of "old St. Joseph's." 
Unlike the log structure of 1862, Father Volk and his co-workers erected a three-story 
brick building at the cost of charity and sacrifice, in a location destined to become a 
"place for prayer, a place for study, and a place for happiness," as described by Bishop 
McCloskey. Father Volk applied to the Bishop of Louisville for Sisters to open the 
school which was also to serve as a boarding school for young women. The Right Rev. 
William George McCloskey proposed the Ursulines of Louisville. 

On August 12, 1874, five Ursuline Nuns, Mother Pia, Sister Johanna, Sister Xavier, 
Sister Margaret and Sister Martina of the Ursuline Convent, Chestnut and Shelby 
Streets, Louisville, responded to the proposal. After a voyage down the Ohio, they 
landed in Owensboro; the fifteen mile ride in a spring wagon which followed was a 
new experience for the pioneers who thought their journey would never end and prob- 
ably lead into an impenetrable forest of wild beasts. The delayed announcement of 
their coming made their unexpected arrival on the evening of August 14th a surprise 
and a pleasure for Father Volk. They had expected the building to be completed, 
but not one habitable room was to be found in the house; only the bare walls with 
roof and a floor stood before them. Thus began the career of the Ursulines of Mount 
St. Joseph. Though they were without an article of furniture, without provisions and 
without pecuniary means, they had a rich fund of determination and unwavering trust 
in God to promote the Christian education of youth. In September, the new Academy 
was ready for the formal opening of the scholastic year. Five girls, constituting the 


first boarders of the Academy, matriculated to learn the truths of religion, music, 
art, and the secular subjects, not excluding the domestic arts. 

In the summer of 1875, Father Voile planted the maple grove which became re- 
nowned for its beauty and gave Mount St. Joseph its popular title, "Maple Mount." 

The second and third years were for the Nuns a repetition of the first in hardships, 
suffering, and a real struggle for existence. In the fall of 1877, an increase of stu- 
dents gave new courage and vigor to their efforts. 

The summer of 1878 marks the beginning of a new epoch for Mount St. Joseph, 
financially and educationally, when Sister Augustine Bloemer was appointed by her 
Superior of the Ursuline Convent, Louisville, to labor at Mount St. Joseph. In the 
glow of health and zeal Sister Augustine was a person capable in every way of build- 
ing up the new Academy. Mother Augustine succeeded Mother Leandera as the third 
Superior of Mount St. Joseph, and during her tenure of eight years 1882-1890, 
Mother Augustine's name became synonymous with the growth of the institution. 
However, the phenomenal success of Mother Augustine's arduous zeal and labor could 
never have been accomplished without the financial aid of her father, Henry Bernard 
Bloemer of Louisville, and the educational ability of her pupil, Leona Willett who 
received the name Sister Aloysius when becoming a Nun in the Ursuline Convent, 
Louisville. In the fall of 1882, Sister Aloysius Willett was appointed by her Mother 
General of the Ursuline Motherhouse, Louisville, to take charge of the senior depart- 
ment of Mount St. Joseph Academy. In cooperation with Father Volk, Mother Augus- 
tine made plans for another building. During the year of 1882, Mother Augustine's 
father was architect, artisan, and financial security in the erection of the three-story 
brick building adjoining the first structure, and later in 1883, he purchased for the 
benefit of the Institution, the adjoining farm of two hundred and fifty-seven acres 
which supplied the fruit, vegetables and meat for the Academy. In 1884 Mr. and 
Mrs. Henry B. Bloemer moved from their Louisville home to a residence on Mount 
St. Joseph farm where they remained until 1890 when Mother Augustine was transferred 
back to Louisville. At Mount St. Joseph, Mr. Bloemer was a constant benefactor, a 
generous kind father who not only kept the buildings but also the farm in splendid 
condition. A short time after returning to his Louisville home, Mr. Bloemer died. 
When Mother Augustine was appointed Superior at Mount St. Joseph for a second 
term, 1897, Mrs. Bloemer, through devotion to her only child, returned to Mount St. 
Joseph. Like her husband, Mrs. Bloemer's zeal for souls and the Catholic training of 
youth continued. Before her death, December 14, 1898, Mrs. Bloemer deeded the farm 
of two hundred and fifty-seven acres to the Institution and erected another three-story 
brick building now known as the Chaplain's residence. 

Lives of hundreds of Christian mothers in happy family homes and Sisters in various 
religious orders serving in the capacity of teacher, nurse, and care for the poor, etc., 
bear testimony to the fruit of the instructions given by Mother Augustine and her co- 
workers at Mount St. Joseph. At the time of Mother Augustine's death in 1906, the 
records show there was an average enrollment of more than one hundred students in 
the Academy. Under the wise leadership and tutelage of Mother Augustine the aca- 
demic course was organized in three divisions, primary, junior and senior. Annie John 
son, daughter of Ben Johnson, Calhoun, Kentucky, was the first to complete the aca- 
demic course, receiving graduation honors in 1880. During this year Mount St. Joseph 
was incorporated by the State Legislature of Kentucky, and under the charter granted 
was empowered "to confer academic diplomas and degrees as are conferred by the 
Colleges of the United States." Though modest in its claims as an Academy which 
today is classified as a four-year high school, the senior division of the Academy was, 


in reality offering the lower division of a college curriculum because its courses em- 
braced branches in science, philosophy and literature which today are considered be- 
longing only to a college curricula. The senior division also provided the teacher train- 
ing curriculum which prepared the students to secure first class certificates to teach in 
the public schools. Among those students was Leona Willett, one of the first pupils 
from Union County, Kentucky to be enrolled in the Academy. After her graduation 
in 1881, Miss Willett secured a first class State teacher's certificate to teach in her 
home county. But the position of a public school teacher was not her ideal. On the 
feast of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, 1882, in the Ursuline Novitiate, Louisville, Leona 
Willett invested in the holy habit of religion and receiving the name Sister Aloysius, 
consecrated her life and extraordinary talents to the service of religion and the instruc- 
tion of youth. The following November, Sister Aloysius Willett, pupil of Mother 
Augustine, was appointed to teach and serve as Directress of education at her Alma 
Mater with Mother Augustine Bloemer, Superior. Thus began the life of Sister Aloy- 
sius Willett at Mount St. Joseph in the cause of Christian education for which she 
labored approximately forty years. Of the pioneer Ursulines, Sister Aloysius receives 
special mention because she was destined by Divine Providence to become the foundress 
of Mount St. Joseph Ursuline Motherhouse. 

From its very foundation in 1874 to the year 1895, under the leadership of such 
superiors as Mother Pia Schonhofer, Mother Leandera Schweri, Mother Augustine 
Bloemer and Mother Aloysius Willett, Mount St. Joseph Academy gradually prepared 
essentials which made possible the establishment of an Ursuline Novitiate at Maple 
Mount. At the time few besides Bishop McCloskey and Father Volk realized that in 
the workings of Divine Providence Mount St. Joseph was educating her future Ursu- 
line autonomous Community. In July, 1895, Rt. Rev. William G. McCloskey, D.D., 
as Bishop of Louisville Diocese, convinced of the necessity of a Novitiate to perpetuate 
and vitalize the work of religion and religious education in southwestern Kentucky, 
opened the Novitiate. The first five young women to become Novices in Mount St. 
Joseph Ursuline Novitiate were: Mary Agnes O'Flynn of Owensboro, Sister Mary 
Agnes; Teresa Jenkins of Union County, Sister Mary Ursula; Lelia Kohl of Sebree, 
Kentucky, Sister Mary Angela; Mary Winters, Sister Mary Joseph; and Elizabeth 
Harvey of Maryland, Sister Mary Clodilde. The first three mentioned received not 
only their Catholic education at Mount St. Joseph, but also their novitiate training 
under Mother Aloysius Willett, the first Mistress of Novices. Until her death in 
1920, Mother Aloysius continued without intermission in the various offices of Direc- 
tress of the Academy, Mistress of Novices and first Mother General of Mount St. 
Joseph Ursuline Community. 

The present prosperity and far reaching influence of Mount St. Joseph is to a great 
extent due to the zeal and wisdom of Father Volk and Mother Aloysius who built 
firmly the foundation of Mount St. Joseph Ursuline Community as well as that of 
the College and the Academy. With Mother Aloysius, Mother Agnes O'Flynn served 
as first Mother-Assistant, and Mother Angela Kohl, second Mother-Assistant. 

Mother Agnes succeeded Mother Aloysius as Mother General of the Ursuline 
Community in 1920. Under the leadership of Mother Agnes and her successors, 
Mother Teresita Thompson, Mother Gonzaga Cotter, and Mother Teresita Thompson, 
the present Mother General, Mount St. Joseph continued to grow and expand. With 
Mother Teresita Thompson who is completing her fourth term of office — twelve years 
as Mother General, the membership of the Community numbers approximately four 
hundred Nuns caring for more than seven thousand youth in Mount St. Joseph Junior 
College and Academy, and in fifty-two parochial schools, elementary and secondary. 

11— Vol. II 


Forty- two of these schools are conducted in Kentucky; the others in Missouri, Nebraska 
and New Mexico. Sacred Heart Academy, Waterflow, New Mexico, and St. Bernard 
Academy, Nebraska City, Nebraska, are boarding schools for young women. This 
does not include the Summer schools of catechetical instruction, began in 1923 and 
continued annually after the regular school year, for children in the rural districts 
of Kentucky and the other states. 

For nearly seventy years, Mount St. Joseph has served as an educational institution. 
Each year as accrediting agencies developed, the Academy was duly accredited as 
Class A by the State Board of Education, the University of Kentucky, and by the 
Southern Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, as well as being affiliated 
with the Catholic University of America. The Academy continues to enroll annuallv 
more than one hundred students, offering the college preparatory or four-year high 
school curriculum including music, art, and the commercial subjects. 

To meet the modern demands of a Catholic college education for women, the Junior 
College curricula was added September, 1925, with an enrollment of sixty-two students. 
During this scholastic year, the State Department of Education and the Committee on 
Accredited Relations of the University of Kentucky fully accredited and admitted Mount 
St. Joseph College with highest classification to the Class A Accredited Private Junior 
College Institutions. In 1926 the College was admitted as member of the American 
Association of Junior Colleges, and in 1932 as a member of the Southern Association 
of Colleges for Women; and in the same year when the Kentucky Association of Col- 
leges and Universities provided for junior college admission, Mount St. Joseph College 
was admitted to membership in the association. Adjoining the campus is St. Alphonsus 
School which serves as an elementary laboratory school in which the college students 
pursuing the teacher training curriculum do their laboratory work in the various sub- 
jects of the grades from the first to the eighth inclusive, under experienced Ursuline 
Teachers with broad training and legally certified by the State Board of Education. 
The official approval of the College by the accrediting agencies is a guaranteed recog- 
nition of the high scholastic standards of the Institution enabling students to transfer 
their sequence with advanced standing to the junior class in a leading senior college or 
university, or technical school. Through reciprocal recognition accorded accredited in- 
stitutions the teacher training curricular also meets the requirements of the Department 
of Education of the various States. Teachers' Certificates are issued by the Department 
of Education of the various States on a basis of transcripts from Mount St. Joseph 
Junior College showing the completion of a two-year curriculum including courses speci- 
fied by the regulations of the respective States. 

Since 1928 the annual enrollment in the college including the six to twelve weeks 
summer sessions averages from one hundred fifty to two hundred students from various 
parts of the United States and Puerto Rico. The great majority of students completing 
the required curriculum are now successfully laboring as homemakers, teachers, nurses, 
social service workers, librarians, laboratory technicians, secretaries and accountants, 
public health workers in various parts of the world. 

Mount St. Joseph, no longer isolated as in its lowly beginning, is situated on paved 
highways 54 and 56, only a twenty minute drive from Owensboro, and one hour from 
Evansville, Indiana. The Owensboro-Princeton Bus Line passes Mount St. Joseph 
daily in its two round trips between Owensboro and Princeton; to this bus line con- 
nections may be made with the Louisville-Nashville and the Illinois Central Railroads 
enroute to distant places. Mail facilities were through the first U. S. Post Office, St. 
Joseph, established in 1886, adjoining the campus, until mail circulation was sufficient 
to secure the establishment of a U. S. Post Office on the campus in 1934, bearing the 


title "Maple Mount." In a delightful room centrally located on the campus, Maple 
Mount U. S. Post Office now serves two daily mails coming through Owensboro from 
all parts of the world. 

Through the facilities of modern communication material growth rapidly developed. 
The three-story structure of 1874, the nucleus from which the surrounding buildings 
grew, and fronted by the historic grove of 1875, is now the Main Building. This brick 
edifice contains reception rooms, the music and art studios. In the music studio is 
the Gallery of Living Catholic Musicians began by the Music Department, October, 
1938; the Gallery numbers sixty-five living Catholic musicians who have made worth- 
while achievements in the field of music; besides the gallery of portraits, the music 
library contains manuscripts of their compositions. From the belfry and observation 
tower of this building one may view the surrounding country or study the constella- 
tions. The Museum, located on the ground floor, contains valuable historic collections 
and a variety of specimens for the study of the sciences. Adjoining the Main Build- 
ing to the south, is another three-story brick structure erected in 1882, which houses 
the Mount St. Joseph Library of thousands of books in common demand, and priceless 
historic volumes, current magazines and bound volumes of periodicals to supplement 
the book material in the various fields of instruction. To the north of the Main 
Building and facing the terraced campus in evergreens, including the majestic oaks 
which sheltered the arrival of the first Ursulines in 1874, and the Norwegian Spruce 
Avenue planted by the hands of Father Volk in 1890, is the present Academy; this 
four-story brick edifice of colonial architecture, erected in 1904, is equipped with needs 
for the Academy boarders and day students. The Mount St. Joseph Auditorium on 
the first floor is supplied with modern picture and stereopticon machines affording 
educational pictures and illustrated lectures; the stage with its lighting fixtures, velour 
drapes, and scenes make fitting setting for recitals, concerts, and plays produced by 
the students' dramatic classes, and visiting artists. East of the Main Building and 
facing the terraced campus is the Students' Infirmary, a two-story brick structure 
erected in 1882. Facing the east balconies of the Main Building is the two-story 
brick structure known as the Bloemer Building erected in 1886, equipped for the com- 
mercial department. St. Angela Hall, a four-story brick edifice erected in 1913, is 
the college residence for lay students, and contains the administration offices of the 
Dean and Registrar, lecture and social rooms. Directly west of St. Angela Hall, St, 
Michael Hall was erected in 1922 and equipped with laboratories, lecture rooms, etc., 
for the natural sciences. The Chapel which was originally in the building of 1874, 
became more centrally located when the new Chapel of brick and stone construction, 
Tudor-Gothic design, was dedicated in 1929; the stained glass windows are the work 
of Munich artists, the choir is equipped with a splendid pipe organ. East and west 
wings of the Chapel are the Ursuline Halls of 1929, containing reception rooms, lec- 
ture and assembly rooms, and residence for the Nuns. The dining halls, culinary de- 
partment and the refrigeration plant occupy the ground floor of the Chapel and Ursu- 
line Halls. 

The grounds which surround Mount St. Joseph comprise five hundred acres, includ- 
ing parks, campuses, gardens, orchards, fields and woodlands. From the dairy farm 
of modern equipment and well-selected livestock are derived milk, butter, cheese, and 
a large part of the meat consumed at Mount St. Joseph. The water supply comes 
from two wells of more than two hundred and five hundred feet deep respectively, 
operated by a Meyers Self-Oiling pump run with a five-horse power direct current 
generated by the Institution's Power Plant; the steam laundry is also connected with 
this plant which supplies heat and electric light for the campus. 


Thus, Mount St. Joseph enjoys the quiet seclusion and atmosphere conducive "to 
prayer, to study, and to happiness." Its organization and enrollment gives ample 
opportunities to cultivate that home-like spirit for which the Ursulines are noted pre- 
paring young girls for the responsibilities of Christian motherhood, in accord with 
the ideals of St. Angela, Foundress of the Ursuline Order. Designed not for antago- 
nistic competition but for sympathetic cooperation to provide a needed unit in the 
educational work of the diocese and the State. Mount St. Joseph, as an educational 
institution under the inspiration of Faith, stands for the best, both in the natural and 
supernatural order; it is guided by the spirit and traditions of the Catholic Church in 
education and culture, combined with American principles and ideals. While it wel- 
comes non-Catholic students and subjects them to no undue influence in regard to 
religious beliefs, it aims to train young women in whose leadership others will find 
direction in the attainment of the ideals of the Catholic Church for the service of God 
and society. 


Conducted by the Sisters of Loretto. Founded in 1812. Incorporated in 1829 

The Sisters of Loretto, a teaching body of religious women, is an. American founda- 
tion, having been established in Marion County, Kentucky, by a zealous missionary 
priest from Flanders. Rev. Charles Nerinckx, with the consent of the first Bishop of 
Kentucky, Right Rev. Benedict Joseph Flaget, accepted the offer of Mary Rhodes, who 
had been educated in a convent school in Baltimore, to teach the children of the 
neighborhood. She succeeded so well, that she was glad to accept the proffered help 
of Christina Stuart, Anne Havern, Anna Rhodes, Sarah Havern and Nellie Morgan, 
who were willing to share the poor log-cabin home, which Miss Rhodes was having 
prepared for herself adjoining the equally poor cabin wherein she conducted her classes. 
Before many months, the young teachers found their school work so much to their taste, 
they decided to band themselves into a body of religious instructors, and devote their 
lives to the cause of Christian education. This was in 1812. The location was near 
Hardin's Creek, in Washington County, now Marion, St. Charles's parish. Moved to 
the present location in 1824, beginning there also with log cabins, though of more 
ample proportions and better quality, the Teaching Order began to grow apace. In 
1829, December 18, the House of Representatives, and December 21 the Senate, at 
Frankfort, Kentucky, discussed the desirability of passing a bill to incorporate Loretto. 
Mr. Hardin of Nelson, in his eloquent speech on that occasion, said: 

"Is it generous to refuse Legislative aid to the efforts of these helpless females, who 
have already done a great deal for virtue, a great deal for piety, a great deal for 
charity, a great deal for literature?" "Dr. Rudd," the records continue, "rose to sup- 
port the motion of the gentleman from Nelson . . . the bill carried by a majority of 
31 to 4," and Loretto was incorporated under the title of Loretto Literary and Benevo- 
lent Institution. 

Loretto's first branch establishment was at Calvary, on the Rolling Fork, Kentucky, 
where for eighty-four years the Sisters conducted a prosperous school, and Calvary 
Academy could claim many a wise and holy woman among the mothers of Christian 
households of Kentucky and neighboring States. Two other foundations that have 
done incalculable good and continue in unbroken success in the line of education are 
Bethlehem Academy, St. John, Kentucky, founded in 1830, and St. Benedict's Academy, 
Louisville, founded in 1842. Of the one hundred twenty-five schools founded by the 
Lorettines since 1812, five were opened in their Centennial year, 1912, the most promis- 


ing of which is perhaps that in Rockford, Illinois. The Sisters of Loretto are now 
presiding over schools in ten states — Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Alabama, 
Nebraska, Missouri, Illinois, Ohio, and Kentucky, and conducting day schools in the 
large cities. The Institution numbers at present approximately one thousand members. 
Candidates enter upon their training as soon as they join the sisterhood and pass later 
to the Normal school of the Society to prepare for the career of teachers. The Aca- 
demic course is taught in the larger boarding schools, with such accomplishments as 
young ladies desire; grammar grades in the parochial schools including kindergarten 
work in some localities. 

Negroes and Indians likewise claim the attention of the Loretto Sisters, but in 
separate schools. 

The Sisterhood is a Catholic organization, but non-Catholic pupils are admitted 
without question as to belief, outward respect only being expected of them during 
religious services. 


Conducted by Sisters of Loretto, 1842-1925 

In the spring of 1842 Coadjutor Bishop Chabrat purchased the property in Port- 
land, then a suburb of Louisville, better known as Cedar Grove, paying $1,200 of the 
Sisters' money for the lot which was deeded to them in 1856 by the Right Reverend 
M. J. Spalding for a consideration of $4,000 on which was erected the Academy 
buildings. It was first known as St. Michael's. 

The first community consisting of four members left Loretto on August sixteenth, 
accompanied by Mother Superior Generose Mattingly. Those destined to commence 
the establishment were Sisters Thecla Myres, Bridget Spalding, Angela Green, and 
Eulalia Flaget (niece of Bishop Flaget) . 

They reached their destination about four o'clock p.m. on the seventeenth. On 
the 25th of the same month, Sister Angela Green was appointed Local Superior with 
Sister Eulalia Flaget as Treasurer. Sister Angelica Hayden arrived to assist in the 
school which opened September third. 

On August eighteenth they received the congratulatory visit of Right Reverend Dr. 
Flaget, Bishop of Louisville, together with many others, from the most respectable in- 
habitants of Louisville. The Bishop blessed the house and offered up the Holy Sacri- 
fice in a small room fitted up as a temporary chapel. 

By December first the Sisters were able to give hospitality to five Sisters of Good 
Shepherd who had come from France to open a house of their Order in Louisville, their 
first in the United States. While here, the Good Shepherd Sisters applied themselves 
to the study of English. Their own convent was ready for their occupancy the following 
September. (See Below) . 

On July 2, 1844, the scholastic year terminated with 25 boarders. The examinations 
were conducted by the Reverend Father Larkin, S.J., and the Reverend J. McGill, later 
Bishop of Richmond. Two pupils Misses Anna Carrell and Terese Langhorne finished 
their course of studies, and were crowned. To Misses Louisa Barbaroux and Mary 
Elizabeth Wathen were awarded the gold medal of superior merit. 

On July 2, 1846, at the annual examination, Miss Isabel Churchill was crowned. 

In August of 1866, Bishop Lavialle changed the name of the Academy to Benedict's 
in honor of Bishop Benedict Joseph Flaget, but it continued to be more generally known 
as Cedar Grove. This name we believe was derived from the fact of the number of 
cedar trees there. 


NOTE: From the Annals of the Good Shepherd Order in Louisville, 1853-93, "The 
Sisters of Good Shepherd arriving in Louisville on December 1, 1842." 


St. Camillus Academy, erected in 1915 under the direction of the Sisters of Divine 
Providence of Kentucky, is situated in Corbin, Kentucky, one of the most pleasant and 
picturesque localities of the cliff regions of southeastern Kentucky. The site of the 
institution is ideal, combining the climatic advantages of a height of some hundred feet 
with beautiful, healthful environment. Excellent train service renders it easy of access. 

The architecture of St. Camillus Academy, modeled after the old French Chateua 
style is most pleasing; the grounds are spacious, offering ample opportunities for recre- 

The purpose of its foundation is to provide for girls and young women a solid, 
practical, Christian education, and to develop in them that delicacy of feeling charac- 
teristic of noble Christian womanhood. 

The school is approved by the State Department of Education and is affiliated to 
the University of Kentucky. The regular courses of study of the Academy include 
the Elementary and High School grades. There are also courses in Dramatics and 
Music, and a special Commercial Course for Post Graduates. 


Rev. Martin Spalding, Sketches of Early Catholic Missions in Kentucky, Vol. V, 
p. 486. 

"Alvin Fayette Lewis, History of Higher Education in Kentucky, (Washington: 
Government Printing Office, 1899) , p. 12. 

Collins, History of Kentucky, Vol. II, p. 570. 

Lewis, op.cit., 32. 

Ibid., p. 32. "Ibid., p. 12. 'Ibid., p. 30. "Ibid., p. 31. "Ibid., p. 32. "Ibid., p. 13. 

Marshall, History of Kentucky, Vol I, p. 443. 
"Lewis, op.cit., p. 28. 

Lewis, op.cit., p. 22. 
"Ibid., p. 23. "Ibid., p. 25. "Ibid., p. 28. "Ibid., p. 33. 

K Rev. W. J. Howlett, Life of Rev. Charles Nerinckx, (Techny, Illinois: The Mis- 
sion Press S.V.D., 1915), p. 86. 

"Ibid., p. 87. "Ibid., p. 251. "Ibid., pp. 255, 256. 

"Ibid., pp. 120-123. "Ibid., p. 254. 

Lewis, op.cit., p. 36. 
Ibid., p. 37. "Ibid., p. 40. 


"Ibid., p. 43. "Ibid., p. 46. "Ibid., p. 51. "Ibid., p. 60. 
"Ibid., p. 45. Ibid., p. 47. "Ibid., p. 58. "Ibid., pp. 58-64. 

'"'Hamlett, op.cit., pp. 292-295. 
"Ibid., pp. 5, 6. "Ibid., p. 7. s Ibid., p. 8. 

Frankfort Commonwealth, November 5, 1850. 
w Ibid., p. 50. 

Legislative Documents of 1850, pp. 616-619. 

4 "The copy of the Third Constitution of the State of Kentucky, in Carroll's Ken- 
tucky Statutes (1909), p. 80. 


See Appendix — for debate upon public education in constitutional convention of 

"Hamlett, op.cit., p. 106. 

"Ibid., p. 162. "Ibid., p. 200. "Ibid., p. 205. 

''History of Education in Kentucky 1915-1940, compiled under direction of H. W. 
Peters, State Superintendent of Public Instruction (Frankfort, 1940) , pp. 30-45. 

"Ibid., pp. 85-108. 

4 'H. L. Donovan, A State s Elementary Teacher Training Problem, p. 13. (Disser- 
tation in partial fulfillment of doctrate at Peabody College, 192) . 

"° I bid., p. 16. "Ibid., p. 16. "Ibid., p. 17. 

"'Alfred Leland Crabb, "an Estimate in Strong Colors." (In Teachers College 
Heights, December, 1937) . 

'Ibid., pp. 3, 4. "Ibid., p. 4. 

"J. T. Dorris Three Decades of Progress, (history of Eastern Kentucky State Teach- 
ers College, Richmond) , p. 26. 

"Ibid., p. 27. 

" Hamlett, op.cit., p. 278. 

"Moses E. Ligon, A History of Public Education in Kentucky, pp. 337-357. (Bulle- 
tin of the Bureau of School Service, College of Education, University of Kentucky, 
June, 1942). 

'Senate Bill, No. 14, as follows: 

"An Act for the establishment of two normal schools for the training of white 
elementary teachers, and appropriating moneys for the maintenance and operation 

"Whereas; the state normal schools already established can neither reach nor train 
all elementary teachers needed for the common schools; 

"Therefore, be it enacted by the Commonwealth of Kentucky: 

Section I 

"That the State Board of Education is hereby authorized and empowered to es- 
tablish two new normal schools for the training of white elementary teachers, one to be 
located in the western part of the state and one in the eastern part of the state. 

"The State Board of Education is hereby authorized to receive gifts — of land, 
buildings, or money for the establishment of these two normal schools for white ele- 
mentary teachers. 

Section II 

"The management and control of these two normal schools, when established, shall 
be and is hereby vested in the State Board of Education. 

Section III 

"There is hereby appropriated out of the General funds of the state, to each of 
these normal schools, for the maintenance and operation, the sum of thirty thousand 
dollars annually. The Auditor of the Commonwealth is directed to draw his warrant 
for said sums above appropriated, upon requisition signed by the chairman and secretary 
of the State Board of Education. Provided, that the above for the maintenance and 
operation shall not become available for said normal schools until the State Board of 
Education has received for each of the said schools gifts of land suitable for the pur- 
poses of each school, and also, gifts of buildings or money, or both equivalent in value 
to at least one hundred thousand dollars. Provided further, that if gifts and donations 


are made, sufficient to establish one of said schools, then the sum of thirty thousand 
dollars shall be available for the operation of said school." 
Paducah Evening Sun, September 2, 1922. 

'"An Associated Press dispatch from Mayfield printed in the Paducah Evening Sun, 
September 4, 1922. 

" Sketch quoted from Louisville Courier-Journal, December 28, 1871. 

(,4 Hamlett, op.cit., pp. 41, 42. 

"Ibid., p. 75. 

"Ibid., p. 76. 

"Ibid., p. 77. 

GS Ibid., p. 77. 

m Ibid., p. 78. 
Quoted from Courier-Journal, July 5, 1911. 

''Hamlett, op.cit., pp. 106-109. 

"Collins, History of Kentucky, II, 340. 
Hamlett, History of Education in Kentucky, pp. 193, 194. 

''Hamlett, op.cit., p. 198. 

"Ibid., p. 198. 

"Ibid., p. 202. 

"Ibid., p. 205. 
Quoted from The Courier- Journal, July 23, 1928. 

"Ligon, History of Public Education in Kentucky, pp. 170, 171. 

Bulletin of the Bureau of School Service, College of Education, University of Ken- 
tucky, Vol. XVI, No. 3, Lexington, March, 1944 (Kitty Conroy, "George Colvin, 
Kentucky Statesman and Educator") , pp. 18, 19. 

"Ibid., pp. 20, 21. 

"Ibid., p. 22. 




By Colonel Lucien Beckner 

Ihe closing years of the century saw a number of progressive political 
steps taken. The recent invention of gasoline-driven vehicles and the increasing wealth 
and culture of the farm people brought on an agitation for dismantling the toll-gates, 
putting the upkeep of the roads on the county governments, and freeing them to the 
use of all. 

The most thickly settled parts of the State had what was then thought to be an 
excellent system of graded and macadamized roads. These had been built by private 
companies and were maintained by tolls collected from all who traveled them. Many 
of these companies paid dividends on stock and all of the roads gave their communities 
invaluable services. On account of these the managements and many of the best citizens 
were loath to have changes made in the system, fearing inefficiency in county management. 


Noting the reluctance of the managements and fearing the political power of the 
others who were opposing change, certain other elements of the population, particularly 
country residents, in many places took the law in their own hands and proceeded to 
pull down the toll-poles at night, threatening those who would collect tolls, and even 
burnt the houses of gate-keepers. So many of these night raids took place at about 
the same time that it looked like a wide-spread organization was behind them; but the 
facts were that after the first raid the others were merely copying an action that 
appealed to them as effective. 

The Legislature of 1897 placed severe penalties upon anyone injuring property, real 
and personal, particularly that of roads and railroads; and empowered any officer from 
Circuit Judge to Constable to select a posse, arm it "with guns and ammunition," 
and protect threatened property and apprehend the criminals if the property was injured. 

While the toll-gate "night riders" got the largest headlines at the time, there were 
other important things done by the 1897 Legislature. One of these was a law to 
prevent the spread of glanders; all important in a State so much of whose wealth was 
in live stock. Another was the organizing of the State's cities into classes as con- 
templated by the new Constitution of 1899. Others were acts against riotous assem- 
blages; against sending or circulating threatening letters; and the appointment of a 
committee to investigate conditions at the Eddyville Penitentiary, the management of 
which had received state-wide criticism; and to determine "whether or not it is best 
to place the State's prisons under a commission of business men with power to remove 
officers at its pleasure." 

Upon the report of this committee the Legislature of 1898 enacted laws setting up 
such a commission and giving it complete powers to manage the prisons and care for 
the prisoners. The commissioners were also empowered to hire to the highest bidders, 
all the able-bodied convicts; and to permit parties so securing prison labor to set up 
maachinery and equipment inside the prison. On March 1st, the Republican Governor, 
William O. Bradley vetoed this bill, but five days later the Legislature passed it over 
his veto, thus continuing in Kentucky the vicious crime of selling helpless human beings 
to labor. The Legislature also appropriated $30,000. for installing plumbing, electric 


lighting, cold-storage and better fire protection, and repairing and renovating the old 


This Legislature also enacted what was known as the Goebel Election Law. Under it 
the Legislature was to elect three commissioners, who were to hold office for four 
years, a majority of whom would constitute a quorum. Vacancies in this commission 
were to be filled by the Legislature, if in session, and, if not, by the remaining 

This commission was given power to appoint three commissioners for each county 
annually — possibly all of the same party. A county commissioner could be removed at 
any time by the State Commission which could also fill the vacancy thus created. 
These county election commissions appointed all local election officers and could also 
remove them at pleasure. The county commissioners were to act as canvassing boards 
of the election returns and to award certificates of election. Any two of the board 
constituted the board. 

In case of a contest over the offices of Governor or Lieutenant Governor the General 
Assembly was to elect by lot a Contest Board consisting of eight House members and 
three Senators, any seven of whom could act. In other contests the State Canvassing 
Board, consisting of a Judge of the Court of Appeals, the Clerk of the same court, 
a Circuit Judge and a commonwealth attorney, was to judge the returns. The county 
boards were to have like powers in their jurisdictions. 

The bill stated that "the election frauds now perpetrated in the State" were the 
reason for its going into effect at once. As the bill was plainly a "ripper," designed in 
passing to take from the newly elected Republican governor all power to influence 
election machinery and place it in the hands of assured Democratic partisans, Governor 
Bradley vetoed it on March 10th, but the Legislature passed it over his veto the next day. 

The same legislature prohibited the sale of liquor in any local option district in 
Kentucky, an act considered necessary because of the over-riding the expressed will of 
the voters in so many places and ways. This was a faint rumble in what was later to 
become a national thunder storm. Laws were also passed to melt the casting upon the 
County governments of the public roads by the turnpike troubles. 

The Geological Survey which has been such a stimulus in the mineral and soil 
development of the State, suffered one of its periodic removals to the State University. 
Non-technical legislators, not realizing the wealth which accurate knowledge and publi- 
cation of mineral resources produce think to save expense by amalgamating the Survey 
in whole or part with the University. Those who engage in mineral development too 
often find that this removal is but an eclipse of the Survey's largest usefulness. This 
removal, however, was of benefit in that it assisted in creating a mining school at the 


The last years of the century were marked by initial steps of one of the most 
profound political revolutions in Kentucky's history. Until the election of Governor 
Bradley, Kentucky had been electing Democratic governors ever since the Civil War. 
During Bradley's regime, Democratic leaders began actions to recapture the State 
government. There was much difference of opinion as to method, but the most elaborate, 
determined, and to many seemingly the most efficient method was expressed by the 
Goebel law which would "rip" from the Republican governor and his party the influence 
his position gave him. 















The Democratic convention, meeting in Louisville in June, 1899, became known as 
the "Music Hall Convention," from the place of its meeting. The candidates whom 
the county conventions sent to it were William Goebel, Parker Watt Hardin, and 
William Johnson Stone. Yet the anti-Goebel sentiment, which was very strong, centered 
about Mr. Hardin, making him very strong. Goebel had 168 j4 votes out of 1092 
which made Stone so confident of the nomination that he gave Goebel the organization 
of the Convention. The Stone-Goebel coalition beat Hardin. Then the Goebel man- 
agers managed to throw out enough Stone delegates to nominate Goebel. Seeing the 
trend of this agreement early, together with their dislike of the actions of the permanent 
chairman, Judge D. B. Redwine, of Jackson, some delegates who had not been unseated 
left without voting, intending thereby to void all obligations to support the nominee. 
These balking delegates later had much influence in the defeat of Senator Goebel at the 
polls. The conduct of the Convention was one of the points of heated debate throughout 
the campaign, many voters holding that the Convention did not have the right to overturn 
the actions of the county conventions which had given Goebel only one delegate in six. 

This was the last election in which the Civil War was influential. The Confederate 
veterans were now on the decline from the apex of their power, not having enough votes 
to hold their control of the Democratic party, but enough to affect the final result. 
William J. Stone had lost a leg while captain in the Confederate Army and most of 
the prominent Confederate veterans had loyally championed his candidacy. Not only 
were the old veterans for Stone, they were determinedly against Goebel. 

In April, 1895, Senator Goebel had shot and killed Gen. John L. Sandford in an 
altercation that was the culmination of many years of political contention. Gen. 
Sandford had served throughout the Civil War in important positions and particularly 
as Adjutant General under Gen. John H. Morgan. At that time in Kentucky there 
were many members of Morgan's Brigade still living and, although Goebel was acquitted, 
the Morgan veterans and many other Confederates were very angry at the killing as the 
proof showed that Goebel immediately before the shooting had published in his paper 
a defamatory article about Sandford, containing "fighting words" in Kentucky. As 
a body the Confederate veterans threw their influence against Mr. Goebel. 

Amongst other features in this complicated political picture was the fact that, 
although Senator Goebel had inclined towards the "Sound Money," or gold standard, 
policy at first, he had remained loyal to the regular ("Free Silver") wing of his party. 

Those who had left the Music Hall Convention in disapprobation and their followers 
throughout the State, not wishing to vote the Republican ticket, met in convention in 
August, under the name of "Honest Election Democrats" and nominated a full State 
ticket headed by Ex-Governor John Young Brown. 

To all of these troubles in the Democratic Party must be added the opposition of 
the Republican Party which had been ruling the State for four years under a vigorous 
and astute politician, Governor William O. Bradley, and had an organization stimulated 
to its best efforts by the opportunity presented in their opponents' confusion. 

The Republican nomination had been contested between Samuel H. Stone, a leading 
business man and Auditor in the retiring administration, and William S. Taylor, the 
retiring Attorney-General. Although Stone's social and business connections were the 
stronger, Taylor proved the better politician. In this contest feelings were not 
inflamed and in the election the Republicans were solidly behind their nominee. 

The regular Democrats made the campaign emotionally bitter rather than sanely 
constructive; and by election day overly-ardent followers were ready to go the limit 
for their champions. 


Although the Democratic party was the stronger normally and carried the Legislature, 
it was not able to control its anti-Goebel members; and Taylor and the whole Re- 
publican ticket were declared elected by the Election Commission appointed under the 
Goebel Law, consisting of two Democrats and one Republican. This Commission 
declared the result to be, for Taylor 193,714; for Goebel, 191,331; and for Brown 
12,140, a plurality for Taylor of only 2,383 votes out of 400,000 votes cast. Taylor 
was sworn in December 1, 1899, and the rest of the Republican ticket on January 1, 
as the Kentucky Constitution directs. Goebel at once contested before the Legislature 
the decision of the Election Commission and the feeling in the State became electric. 
His contest was based on alleged frauds in the counties where the Republicans were in 
power, mostly in Eastern Kentucky. 

In Frankfort inflamatory speeches were made containing expressions such as "Wading 
through blood up to the saddle-girths" and "Goebel must be stopped at whatever cost." 
Republican voters from the counties contested had been pouring into Frankfort allegedly 
to assert their right of personal petition. They were too many to be accommodated by 
the hotels and consequently had to camp in the Capitol grounds, finding shelter in the 
halls and basements of the public buildings. 

This mob of men was not organized for revolution or any extra legal action. Its 
members were present as individuals and their petition to the Legislature, while fervid, 
was a well worded appeal for justice under the law. But in the back of each individual's 
head was the idea that personal appearance was more terrifying to the Goebelites than 
a mere paper petition. These men arrived in a highly emotional mood and the speeches 
made to them by Democratic anti-Goebel orators increased the high tension. 

Governor Taylor called out the militia and had it patrol the Capitol and grounds. 
All this was proclaimed by the Goebel members of the Legislature an effort to intimidate 
them. Objecting to pass through files of soldiers to reach their seats in the legislative 
halls, the Goebel majority adjourned the meeting to the Frankfort Opera House and 
later to Louisville. Governor Taylor, by proclamation declared a state of revolution 
and adjourned the Legislature to meet in London, a Republican stronghold, which only 
the Republican members proceeded to do. 

On January 30, in the midst of this confusion Goebel was shot as he was proceeding 
through the Capitol grounds to the Capitol; the rifle being fired from the window 
of the office of Caleb Powers, the newly installed Republican Secretary of State. He 
was carried to his room in the Capital Hotel where he lingered until the Legislature 
declared him Governor and he was sworn in. His opponents denied that he was alive 
when sworn in; but the horror of the assassination, and the fact that it must have been 
the work of one or more of his opponents, quickly turned the State against the 
Republicans. In the hunt for the criminal, emotions and political opportunism were too 
fierce and eager to permit calm judicial procedures. Arrests were numerous, the trials 
which dragged on for months and even years were tainted at times with perjury, and 
a number of men were convicted. 

The trials were held before Ex-Lieutenant Governor James Cantrill, then the regular 
judge of the circuit in which lies the county of Franklin. Robert B. Franklin, the 
Commonwealth Attorney, led the prosecutions but many of the ablest lawyers and 
orators in the state appeared on one side or the other. 

These trials were confusing to the people at large, little testimony being so clear and 
free from political suspicions as to completely convince. A few objective facts were 
established. Henry Youtsey possessed the rifle, purchased the shells, had been guilty 
of wild talking, was in the building from which the shot was fired at the time, and 


borrowed from Caleb Powers, a short time before, the key to his office from whence 
the shot came. He made several confessions, differing in details. 

Governor Taylor and several of the Republican officials were indicted on the theory 
that it was a Republican plot to which he was accessory. The proof about a general 
Republican plot had little more than the march of the petitioners on Frankfort and the 
fact that the Republicans only would profit. Governor Taylor and others finally fled 
to Indiana whose governor refused to extradite them on the grounds that no evidence 
of their guilt was produced. This theory of a conspiracy was finally given up and 
all those indicted, indicted and tried, or merely suspected were finally granted executive 
pardons. Youtsey was the last one pardoned. Powers was elected to Congress after 
his pardon. 

The Goebel Election Law was revised and its objectionable features amended or 
repealed in 1900, at a special session of the Legislature called by Governor Beckham 
for that purpose. 


During the height of the excitement of the Goebel contest there occurred in 
Frankfort an event that added much fuel to the conflagration. Col. David G. Colson, 
on January 17, shot and killed Ethelbert Scott in the crowded lobby of the Capital 
Hotel, as the result of a feud originating when they were officers in a Kentucky regiment 
during the Spanish War. Both drew weapons and shot it out. Two bystanders were 
killed, one wounded, and another broke his leg in jumping down a stairway to get out 
of range. Colson had been a member of Congress and Scott was a nephew of the 
retiring Republican Governor, William O. Bradley. 

J. Cripps Wickliffe Beckham, having been elected lieutenant-governor on the Goebel 
ticket, succeeded at the latter's death on February 3, filled cut the unexpired term 
and was then elected by a plurality of 4,100, and for the next term reelected to succeed 
himself by about 27,000. In his first election Governor Beckham was opposed by 
John W. Yerkes of Danville, an accomplished and well-known lawyer. 

The year 1901 saw an unusual outbreak of mob violence. On January 11, a negro 
was hanged at Springfield for raping a white girl; on February 6 another was hanged 
at Nicholasville for the same cause; on July 17 a white man was hanged at Owensboro 
charged with murdering his wife; and in August another white man was lynched at 
Russellville for assault upon and murdering a sixteen-year-old white girl. These lynch- 
ings, so deplorable at the time, probably had a salutary effect upon the thinking of 
those who had not been accustomed to consider themselves responsible for such un- 
judicial punishments. Certainly lynchings have become fewer since the opening of the 
new century and have practically died out by its middle. 

Judge Clifton J. Pratt, who was the candidate for Attorney-General on the Taylor 
ticket, took his appeal against the action of the Legislature to the courts, who unseated 
his opponent, R. J. Breckinridge, of Danville, and declared Pratt legally elected, 
whereupon he took over the office, Judge Breckinridge bowing gracefully to the 
Courts' decision. The Legislature of 1902, however, took from General Pratt the right 
to appoint the legal assistants in his office and gave it to the Auditor, showing that 
partisan resentment was still strong. 

This Legislature provided for the present public library system in Louisville by 
enabling the city to accept the Carnegie offer of $200,000. It also provided for 
libraries in cities of the second class. It also authorized the voters of a county to vote 
a tax for extension of the common-school term. 


At the congressional elections in 1902 the Democrats elected all their candidates 
except in the 11th District; and two Republican members of the Court of Appeals, 
Judges George DuRelle and B. L. D. Guffy, were defeated for reelection. 

An interesting and, it might be said, unique figure that appeared in the political 
scene in Kentucky at the beginning of the century was Percy Haley of Frankfort. 
He was of Irish extraction and not of the social type from which Kentucky was 
accustomed to draw her leaders. His education had been restricted to the grade 
schools but his mind was excellent, his ability to educate himself far above the ordinary, 
and he had an Irishman's love of and genius for politics. 

His entry into politics is said to have arisen at a session of the Legislature, when 
he furnished the Democrats every morning with a report of the meeting of the 
Republican canons of the evening before. The Republicans were appalled with the 
accuracy of the Democrats' knowledge and the consequent efficiency of their counter 
actions. The Republicans' solons had been meeting in the library room at the State 
Capitol which had very deep shelves from the floor to the high ceiling. Hearing a 
slight noise from one of the upper shelves one evening, the Republicans investigated and 
found Haley hidden behind the row of books. He had ensconced himself there each 
evening before the members arrived and was rescued by the janitor after their departure. 
With the fame this gave him he continued to mount the political ladder until in 
the Beckham administrations he became a power. He never ran for office but Governor 
Beckham made him Adjutant General in charge of the State Militia. Practically the 
whole of his political life was devoted to Governor Beckham; for, although his 
political acumen was always respected, he practically retired after Beckham's Senatorial 
defeat. He was not only a shrewd politician but ofttimes showed statesmanship. In the 
rather shady political machines of the early Twentieth Century he played a conventional 
role; but in curing the wounds of the Goebel era, for which Governor Beckham's 
administrations will always be thanked, his influence was always on the side of forgetful- 
ness and for the rebuilding of confidence in the government and its leaders. As he was 
Governor Beckham's chief political advisor throughout, he must be given much credit 
for that happy advancement in the State's political sanity which caused the emotional 
hurricane of the Goebel affair to leave few scars and little rancor. 

As J. C. W. Beckham, being Lieutenant Governor on the Goebel ticket, at the 
latter's death assumed the duties of governor, the Democrats in the Senate at once 
elected Senator Lillard Carter to preside. Lieutenant Governor John Marshall, who 
had been elected on the Taylor ticket and had presided up to the time of Legislative 
decision in favor of the Democrats, in conformity with Governor Taylor and the 
rest of the Republican officials, refused to step aside. This led to a rather laughable 
situation in the Senate. The Evening Post of Louisville on February 19th, tells it 
as follows: 

"Shortly before 10:30 Carter stepped rapidly into the Speaker's chair. A moment 
later Marshall, smiling broadly, took the seat alongside of Carter. Both shook hands 
pleasantly and Carter moved over to make room, causing applause and laughter. 
Promptly at 10:30 Marshall and Carter rapped for order, Carter with his penknife and 
Marshall with the gavel. Then, in chorus both said, amid laughter, 'The Senate will 
now come to order.' " 

Before Carter could call for petitions, Marshall called in Rev. Darsie to pray. He 
made a strong plea for peace and harmony during which the Republican senators arose, 
as the custom was, but the Democratic senators kept their seats. This double-headed 


"control" continued good naturedly until the courts of State and Nation had declined 
jurisdiction, after which the Republicans gave up. 

Many other difficult situations arose during this double-headed government, one of 
them being the refusal of the banks to honor the State's checks no matter by whom 
issued; and Republican Auditor Sweeney, who occupied the office, refused to issue any 

Everywhere wild rumors were flying, coming from no one knew where. In every 
county mass meetings were held, addresses made, resolutions adopted. Everyone's 
nerves were "as tense as fiddle-strings" as one editor expressed it, expecting each hour 
to hear that "all hell had broken loose in Frankfort," that actual fighting had begun. 
The situation was a near violent revolution as English-speaking people can come; it 
was as far from revolution as innate sanity and respect for law could keep it. 

Henry E. Youtsey was stenographic secretary to the retiring Auditor, Samuel H. 
Stone, and had been recommended by Mr. Stone as a good one to his Republican 
successor. The attorneys for the prosecution claimed to have a statement from him 
that he offered the mulatto barber, "Taller Dick" Combs, who had been a deputy- 
sheriff in an Eastern Kentucky county, and a Negro named Hockersmith $1,200 to 
kill Goebel but that they held out for $1,500; and that Governor Taylor was behind 
his effort to have Goebel killed but refused to have anything to do with the colored 
men. But this was doubted by many because it fitted in too patly with the intention 
alleged to have been voiced by a leading Democratic atatorney that the assassination 
would be used "to hang Taylor and damn the Republican Party." This political 
ambition undoubtedly existed in the minds of many and clouded the waters of the 

Another distracting influence was the $50,000 reward voted by the Legislature. 
However, good its purpose, it attracted vultures and was undoubtedly the incitement 
to the perjured testimony that crept into some of the trials. 

While much of strength of the Beckham administrations was due to the sympathy 
of the plebiscite for the Democrats over the loss of their leader, and to anger at the 
Republicans who were at first held responsible, and to the desire of many to get 
on to the "band-wagon" of the Democratic parade, much more of it was due to the 
course of Governor Beckham in such nervous times. With calming courtesy towards 
all and by leading the public mind into more fruitful fields than strife, he in time 
brought the State out of the excitement. 


His administration was not all easy going. Tobacco was the money crop throughout 
the best farming lands in the State. For sometime its falling price had been producing 
economic tensions and even destitution. The growers charged the buyers with the 
troubles and organized into cooperative societies for selling. Their method was to 
form a "pool" of the crop by pledging its individual growers to a corporate Society. 
When this was done the Society, acting as agent, notified the buyers that they could 
buy only from the "pool," and would have to give the "pool" price. This the buyers 
at first refused which led to some financial troubles as few of the planters were 
financially able to hold their crops over. 

By 1904 the price was below the cost of production, even as estimated by the 
grower who did not always deem his wife's and children's help as part of his expense. 
In Western Kentucky where the tobacco had never brought the prices paid in the Central 











t- 1 

12— Vol. II 


counties, the distress grew so great that the growers took the law into their own 
hands, formed sub-rosa "night-rider" societies, taking their popular name from the toll- 
gate raiders of the recent past, and threatened the non-poolers and the purchasing 
agents and even wrought violence upon them, whipping the first, scraping their plant- 
beds and even burning their barns and threatening the agents and even burning their 
great factories or collecting plants in the local market towns. A few men were killed. 

While most of these crimes were committed in Western Kentucky, some of the 
lighter methods were practiced in the Central counties or Bluegrass, known to the 
tobacco trade as the "Burley-patch." The night-rider organization gained slight hold 
in this "patch." In December, 1905, the night-riders burned the tobacco factory at 
Trenton in Todd County. In January, 1906, they dynamited one in Elkton in the 
same county. On Thanksgiving night, the same year they burned two factories at 
Princeton; and the next month tried to burn the town of Hopkinsville. The alert 
mayor of this city prevented them, but a year later they succeeded. 

This "war" carried on into the regime of Beckham's successor, Governor Augustus E. 
Wilson, who used the militia to patrol the tobacco "patches" but with no very marked 
success. Finally the rise in the price which the new and efficient selling methods induced, 
and the action of the Legislature which gave legal authorization to "pooling" and forbade 
selling of tobacco which had been pooled save through the pool, put an end to the 


Governor Beckham also had to meet the feud murders in Breathitt County in 
Eastern Kentucky. The building of the Lexington and Eastern Railway from Lexington 
to Jackson, the county seat of Breathitt, made the latter the most important com- 
mercial center in that part of the State. Here the steam shipments were unloaded and 
both large distributing stores arose and the wagon trade began for supplying the 
smaller stores in the country beyond. 

For the profits of this trade great rivalries arose. Judge James Hargis, who had 
acquired a commanding position in the Democratic party, and his brother Alexander 
("Alec") owned the largest store in Jackson. To the commercial rivalry was added 
a political one. James Hargis was elected County Judge, a position which made it 
nearly impossible to punish him or his henchmen. In the trials which later arose it was 
proven that there were associated with the Hargis brothers, in politics at least, Edward 
Callahan, the high sheriff and who owned a big store south some miles of Jackson, 
and B. Fulton French, who had been leader of the French-Eversole feud in Perry 
County some years before. 

A number of people who were against the Hargis regime was assassinated; amongst 
them being Dr. D. B. Cox, the leading local physician, James B. Marcum, the leading 
Republican lawyer and James Cockrell the Town Marshall. Captain B. J. Ewen, who 
owned a large hotel, happened to be the leading witness in the killing of Marcum, 
and just as the trial was beginning his hotel was burned, for the purpose, it is said of 
intimidating him. 

Conditions in this county were so bad and seemingly so hopeless that the suggestion 
was made to abolish the county; and it gained many adherents throughout the State. 
Every little while the press would announce another shooting in Breathitt. Some of the 
evidence was so repulsive that it was hard to believe. However, most of it was not 
refuted save by denial of the accused parties. 

Mose Feltner was ostensibly on the Hargis gang but was placed there as a spy by 


Attorney James Marcum, who was afterwards killed. He told that Judge Hargis 
placed several others in ambush to shoot Marcum as he came to his office from his 
home. Marcum himself a Mountain man, and knowing that even Mountain thugs 
would hesitate to injure a child, would carry his baby in his arms with him to work. 
When they failed to carry out their orders to kill, Hargis demanded their reason. They 
answered that they could not shoot because of the baby. He ordered them to "kill 
the baby and wrap its guts around its father's neck." 

The proof and disproof of such statements may be hard to get, but it is a fact 
that Marcum was shot by Curtis Jett, one of the Hargis henchmen, that Hargis went 
on his bond and fought for him through the courts, that the hotel of the chief 
witness against Jett was burned just as the trial was to begin, that Mose Feltner was 
offered $1,500 by Hargis to leave the State and not appear as a witness, and too 
many other things in all of the trials to permit of doubt as to Hargis's hatreds and 
guilt. The note for the money to pay Mose was signed by Alec Hargis, Ed Callahan, 
and B. Fult French, and endorsed on the back by James Hargis. Judge Hargis later 
deposited another thousand to induce Mose to leave. 

Jim Cockrell was shot from the second story windows of the Courthouse. Dr. Cox 
was shot from Judge Hargis' barn as he was passing along the sidewalk across the 
street. Cox was Cockrell's uncle. One of the assassins testified that Judge Hargis 
boasted to him that he could get a pardon in advance, even for any one, for any crime. 
This was doubtless untrue, but its publication had a bad effect on the State administra- 
tion, and the following elections. 

The Democratic Commonwealth's Attorney A. Floyd Byrd, despite the threats and 
examples of what happened to those who opposed the Hargises, prosecuted vigorously 
and was the largest factor in breaking up the horrible conditions. Most of the trials 
were changed to other counties where juries could be found who were not intimidated 
by threats against their properties and families. No executions resulted but a number 
of sentences to prison, and the widow Marcum got damages in a civil suit against the 
four leaders above mentioned. Judge Hargis was shot and killed by his own son; Ed 
Callahan was assassinated in his own store; Alec Hargis lost everything he had; and 
B. F. French, who had moved to Winchester, died in his bed. Judge Hargis, who was 
Democratic State Chairman, by his proven misbehavior, did much to help elect the 
Republican successor to Governor Beckham. 

In March, 1902, the Legislature made provision for a home for infirm and dependent 
Confederate Soldiers. Kentucky had refused to join the Confederacy but did send her 
quota of soldiers to both sides in the great Civil conflict, but it did not hesitate to care 
for the old soldiers of the Lost Cause. For this purpose land was bought and buildings 
were erected near Louisville. The same Legislature arranged to take care of the graves 
of the Confederate dead at the State's greatest battlefield, Perryville, in Boyle County. 
It also established the State Fair. 


In the gubernatorial election of 1903 the Republicans opposed Governor Beckham 
with one of the State's best business men, Col. Morris K. Belknap. Col. Belknap, as 
an officer in the crack Louisville Legion, the First Kentucky Infantry, had served in 
Porto Rico in the Spanish War, and had been a public-spirited citizen, with a knowledge 
or the State's affairs. Those Democrats who had opposed Goebel were by now coming 
back to their normal allegiance, led by such men as Judge Alex P. Humphrey and 
Col. W. C. P. Breckinridge and others in every county; Beckham proudly boasted of 


the accomplishments of his regime, amongst which was the repeal of the obnoxious 
election law, and although Belknap had a strong ticket behind him and made a vigorous 
personal campaign, he was defeated. 

There occured in this campaign for the first time the modern phase of the Negro 
question. Negroes had been taking advantage of the public schools, and many men and 
even families were appearing who could not be ranked with those who had made little 
social advancement from their slave time culture. Many of these were teaching in 
the schools, some were practicing the professions, and a few were flaunting signs of 
wealth. As most of the Negroes were Republicans, the Democratic orators argued that, 
if the former were elected, they would at once place Negroes in positions of public 
trust, where they could claim and impose social equality. However, the educated 
Negroes were not all voting for "Marse Abe" Lincoln; many were considering public 
questions and voting as they thought best. How many, it is impossible to say, because 
of the secret ballot; but it is true that education of the black man was beginning to 
help the Democratic party. Besides the educated Negro vote, there were numbers of 
Negro young men coming on to vote who knew next to nothing of slavery and not feeling 
the ex-slave's gratitude, were selling their votes to whomsoever offered the most. The 
party in power perhaps had the best of this. 

While the intimidations of the open ballot had long since passed away and election 
frauds were the stock in trade of local and even state leaders, violence at elections was 
waning. In many parts of the state election day was exciting, but peaceful and opposing 
leaders were not often armed. 

In the cities police and thugs still intimidated the peaceful, and purging the lists of 
"repeaters" and nonexistent registrants was an onerous duty imposed on the party's 
lawyers. The Evening Post of Louisville said editorially that "The election was a farce. 
Police, thugs and repeaters ran roughshod over voters and returned the required ma- 
jority." While conditions were improving constantly they did not disappear in general 
until women voters came to the polls. By more refined methods elections are still 
swayed by other means than voting. 

In May, 1907, the Court of Appeals, which was overwhelmingly Democratic, ousted 
the recently elected Democratic officials in Louisville, and all the Jefferson County officers 
save judges and magistrates. Its opinion was a scathing denunciation of the Democratic 
committee, likening its actions to the conspiracy of King George III and his council 
against the liberties of the Colonies. 

The Republicans struggled to overcome the bad impressions of the Goebel troubles 
as can be garnered from Ex-Governor Bradley's speech in this campaign in which he 
said: "The scaffold is indeed a narrow platform on which a great party should stand." 

The struggle away from Civil War conditions can be in some measure glimpsed from 
an editorial from the pen of Henry Watterson appearing in the Courier- Journal which 
said, "Republicanism is not indigenous to our soil. It is a noxious weed." This 
statement ignored all claims the Nation might have on a voter's consideration and 
assumed that voting was a purely state affair. Needless to say, Kentuckians vote as 
their intelligence dictates (save the venal few) , and its allegiance swings from one 
party to the other as do its sister states. Again we see that this era is the one in which 
the old political concepts of the Civil War were passing away forever. 

In his inaugural Governor Beckham promised not to have a partisan administration, to 
improve the common school system, to make text-books as cheap as in any other state; 
to encourage outside capital to develop the state's resources. 

Caufield and Shook. 




The Republican Convention for State officers met in Louisville on June 17, 1907. 
The feeling of the leaders was against Roosevelt but not for Taft. They preferred 
Charles Fairbanks. Few Negroes were present. Ex-Governor W. O. Bradley was 
permanent chairman and fired the delegates with his eloquence and zeal. Augustus E. 
Willson, a leading attorney of Louisville, was nominated for governor with a strong 
ticket and a platform which called for the enforcement of the law, and the abolition 
of the Kentucky Racing Commission. There were few contested delegations and no 
squabbles serious enough to make bad feelings. Marshall Bullitt, a young attorney 
of Louisville, made a speech declaring that the assassin of Goebel ought to be hanged. 

The Democrats nominated W. S. Hager and made the best fight possible under the 
circumstances, but their whole ticket was defeated. The Democratic candidates were 
carrying too great a load. Both candidates for Governor were of high standing as 
lawyers and citizens, but the people were tired of the Beckham-Haley machine, confused 
about the tobacco troubles, and the Democratic party was suffering all over the Nation 
from the vigorous administration of Theodore Roosevelt, the first fearless progressive 
who had occupied the president's chair since the Civil War. Roosevelt's abandoning 
Civil War Issues nationally was winning votes for the Republican party everywhere; 
and the passing of the Confederate power in Kentucky was weakening the state Demo- 
cratic party. The election of Governor Willson may be set down as a part of the 
revolution that was taking place throughout the Nation. Later the Democratic party 
was to make one more appeal to the Civil War feeling by nominating Senator McCreary 
for Governor. He was elected, however, not by war votes, — but he did the party no 

Bradley was nominated by the Republicans for United States Senator and Beckham 
by the Democrats. As the Democrats usually elected the Legislature regardless of the 
vote for state officers, they were very confident of Beckham's election; but in the first 
ballot he was four votes short in the Senate and three in the House. Necessary to 
elect, 69; Beckham had 66, Bradley 64, bolting Democrats 4, absent 3, and one not 
voting. This was a deadlock and on January 21, 1908, William J. Bryan appeared 
before the joint body and appealed for Beckham. On February 28, Bradley was 
elected, one Democratic Senator having died and three Democrats voting for Bradley. 

Governor Willson set out vigorously to curb the lawless spirits in the tobacco organiza- 
tions by using small detachments of mounted militia for patrolling the several districts. 
He also called the leaders for a conference meeting in Frankfort. His first Legislature 
also legalized producers' pools and made illegal the selling pooled tobacco outside of 
the pool. 

Governor Willson's regime is also noted for the expansion of the school system and 
the establishment of the state's high school system. This last is part of a movement 
that was sweeping the Nation about that time which was to make easy a preparation 
for college and thereby increase college attendance in America to numbers undreamed 
of in the world theretofore. At the beginning of the century college attendance in the 
United States was around 115,000, but the work of the high schools constantly increas- 
ing, it was 1,300,000 in 1941, almost or possibly as great as all of the non-English- 
speaking world together. 

Governor Willson's second Legislature appropriated $500,000 for completing the 
handsome new Capitol; $10,000 for repair of Henry Clay's statue in Lexington, it 
having been injured by a storm; the name of the State A. & M. College at Lexington 
changed to Kentucky University; the Christian Church institution in Lexington which 


had been using that name being induced to give it up and return to its original name 
of Transylvania University. 

Annual appropriations were fixed for the various state colleges and better organizations 
provided for county school districts and sub-districts. Each county was directed to 
establish one or more high schools. Child labor laws were passed to protect children . 
from exploitation or heavy or dangerous tasks. An educational commission was formed 
to study the state's school system, compare it with other states, and report to the next 
General Assembly. The Attorney General was empowered to employ legal assistance 
when needed. The education and training of teachers were standardized. An experiment 
station and farm were appropriated for. Mine safety laws were passed; and the remains 
of Captain Thomas F. Marshall taken from their grave in Woodford County and 
reintered in the State Cemetery at Frankfort. 

Governor Willson's second legislature established the State Board of Health, with 
duties to investigate and prevent where possible the diseases current; to make bacterio- 
logical survey of the state's waters and other possible sources of disease; to collect vital 
statistics; to control disease amongst domestic animals; to train county and city health 
officers. Another act was passed to prevent cruelty to animals. 

The compulsory school law was strengthened. The law on compulsory attendance 
at this writing (1945) seems to have fallen down or the will of Kentuckians to go to 
school seems weak. In 1940 the attendance on school of persons from 5 to 24 years 
of age in the various states shows Kentucky at the bottom of the list. In the states 
surrounding Kentucky, Virginia has an attendance of 52 percent; West Virginia (a 
Mountain state) 56 percent; Ohio, 59; Indiana, 59; Illinois, 58; Missouri, 57; and 
Tennessee, 53. Kentucky has only 39, the lowest in the Union. 

Other interesting acts were passed. One designating electrocutions as the means for 
carrying out the death sentence. Hanging which had been the conventional way at 
least since the days of Esther gave way to modernism. Another was the providing 
a plant for making serum and virus for prevention of hog cholera. Thus registered 
the end of witchcraft and nostrums, swept aside forever by knowledge. Another 
provided for the registration and management of motor vehicles and traffic. Another 
passage from the dying past to the eaning future. The National income tax amend- 
ment was ratified, a long step away from the tax ideas of the founders of the Republic. 
It also decreed that the state would take part in the Centennial Celebration of the 
Battle of Lake Erie, as Kentucky had supplied cordage, hardware, and men, and the 
results of the battle were so beneficial to the state. Eight hour work day was established. 

This regime shows how revolutions arrive in free democracies. The end of the ante- 
bellum, Civil War, and post-bellum ideologies arrives and the new era begins, not 
entirely free from stress and violence, witness the Goebel troubles, the Mountain feuds, 
but the violence never rules, it is but a minor incident, although sensational. The deeper 
movements are hardly noticed. 


In the political campaign of 1911 ex-Governor and ex-Senator James B. McCreary 
was the Democratic nominee for governor and Judge Edward O'Rear the Republican. 
During Willson's regime O'Rear had been Chief Justice, and differences had arisen 
between them so serious that Willson did not attend his party's convention and seemed 
to take no interest. The burning issue was probably prohibition, the form in which 
it was presented was whether local option should be county-wide or for sub-districts 
within the county. Mr. Watterson in the Courier- Journal argued that local option was 
a Trojan horse" and if admitted would shortly mean state-wide prohibition. Besides 


Mr. Watterson's personal predilections, his fear was that Louisville would be voted dry 
by the state, and against its wishes. 

Mr. Desha Breckinridge, editor of the Lexington Herald, the Democratic daily for 
Central and Eastern Kentucky, did not think that county option could be enforced but 
warned the liquor interests to clean house if they wished their industry to survive; that 
they must break all ties with politics or the people would consider them fair marks for 
political action. McCreary and Beckham favored the county option plank, and it was 
adopted. There was an anti-lobbying plank; one favoring woman suffrage in school 
elections; one for workman's compensation and arbitration of labor disputes by law; 
and the usual promises of financial reform, school improvements, and criticism of the 
Republican administration. 

The Republican platform denounced the Democrats for not apportioning the state 
into state and National election districts according to the provisions of Congress; de- 
manded a corrupt practices act that would limit the size of campaign contributions and 
prohibition of contributions by corporations and demanded bipartisan control of elections. 
Asked that direct primaries be held under state auspices and paid for by the state. 
That the judiciary be chosen in a non-partisan manner and for non-partisan grounds. 
Favored the county unit in local option; equal educational opportunities to children of 
both races, longer school terms and better paid teachers. Condemned the "Third 
House," the lobby; favored arbitration of labor disputes; and the usual promises of 
reform and recriminations against the Democrats. 

The split between conservatives and progressives that caused the "Bull Moose" de- 
fection was beginning to be noticeable. The progressives disliked Taft but had to 
endorse him to get into the "pie" in event of his election. Senator Bradley, an old 
line conservative, led the "pie" brigade and won. One of the wags got off this quatrain: 

"Little drops of Willson, 
Little grains of Taft, 
Make for Billy Bradley. 
Isn't it a laugh?" 

The county was running against the conservative branch of the Republican party 
and its machine, and O'Rear, although making a vigorous campaign was defeated. 
Although Governor McCreary was long past the most active of life he proved still a 
potent campaigner. He and Governor Shelby, who was the first and fifth governor are 
the only governors to be reelected with intervening regimes of others. It is interesting 
to note that although the new governor had been in public office practically all of his 
adult life, the opposition found nothing in his public record that could be successfully 
attacked. He proved a conservative, matter-of-fact, political administrator. 

The outstanding act of his regime was the organization of the State Highway Depart- 
ment. The "Moonlight School" movement to cure Kentucky of illiteracy, inaugurated 
by Mrs. Cora Wilson Stewart, of Morehead, proved to be rather helpful and popular 
at that time. The new methods of transportation were demanding legal controls and 
adjustments and better roads. A realization of this at first appalled the taxpayers as 
it was not foreseen where the new taxes were to come from. 

In 1914 Senator W. O. Bradley died in office and Governor McCreary appointed 
Johnson Camden, a wealthy horseman of Woodford County, to fill the unexpired term 
until the November election. In November Camden won the remnant of Bradley's 
term over William Marshall Bullitt, Republican, and George Nicholas, Progressive, both 
attorneys of Louisville. 


For the full term Senatorial election coming at the same election, J. C. W. Beckham 
won the Democratic nomination over Governor McCreary and A. O. Stanley, a Member 
of Congress, and defeated the Republican ex-Governor A. E. Willson. 

In the presidential campaign of 1912 a new party appeared, the Progressive, led by 
the ex-President Theodore Roosevelt. To the prestige of Theodore Roosevelt there 
were added the national opposition to Taft's regime, the impression that he was using 
Federal office holders to gain a renomination, and the revolution in political thought 
that was sweeping the country, to which neither of the older parties was hospitable, 
and which the new party expressed in its platform and candidates, capturing many 
leaders from both the Democrats and Republicans. 

The new party was popularly known as the "Bull Moose," from an expression of 
Theodore Roosevelt relative to his physical fitness, and it adopted the bull moose as 
its emblem. In Kentucky it did not take as well as in some states — perhaps because 
the Republican party was a Federal office holders' party and expected Taft's reelection. 
The proportions of the parties were expressed in the Senatorial race between Camden, 
Bullitt and Nicholas. The figures were 177,797, and 133,137, and 31,641 respectively. 
In the adjoining State of Indiana, where the Republican party had been a state party 
and where leaders like Beveridge favored it, it cut a large figure. Mr. Taft's over- 
whelming defeat and the election of Woodrow Wilson is National history. 

One of the results of Governor McCreary 's return to the governor's chair was the 
creation of McCreary County. This made the one hundred and twentieth county in a 
state that needed not over forty; more than any other state in the Union except Texas 
and Georgia. Like the great majority of Kentucky counties, it cannot pay its way, 
placing the burden of maintenance more heavily than formerly on its residents and a 
further load on the twenty or thirty counties which pay their way plus a surplus into the 
state treasury which has to be devoted to their less fortunate sister counties. 

On November 11, 1911, President Taft visited Frankfort to dedicate the bronze 
statue of Lincoln placed in the rotunda of the new Capitol by the generosity of Mr. 
James B. Speed, of Louisville. It was a gala occasion. 

On Nov. 9, a few days before, the Lincoln Memorial Association presented the 
Lincoln Memorial at Hodgenville to the Nation. Governor Jos. W. Folk of Missouri 
made the presentation and President Taft accepted it. Senator Wm. E. Borah, of 
Idaho, Mayor General John C. Black, of Illinois, Brigadier General John B. Castleman, 
of Louisville, and The Right Reverend Thomas S. Byrne, Bishop of Nashville also spoke. 


The election of 1915 was led by A. Owsley Stanley, gubernatorial nominee of the 
Democrats and Edwin P. Morrow, of the Republicans. The Republicans had almost 
recovered from the Bull Moose defection while the Democrats were rather apathetic. 
The result was that, while Stanley was elected, he had 40,000 less votes than were cast 
for McCreary. 

The "wet" and "dry" question had become a burning one and many Democrats 
were dissatisfied, particularly those who had favored the candidacy of Harry V. 
McChesney, who had announced "dry." Not only was Stanley considered "wet" but he 
was thought by many to be the candidate of the liquor interests. In spite of the fact 
that he had declared himself in favor of the County Option law, which his platform 
endorsed, he was considered by many as wetter than Morrow. Harry McChesney and 
Lieutenant Governor Edward McDermott were not treated very well in the convention. 
Four members of the Democratic State Committee were removed without cause and 
Beckham was hissed when he protested. Stanley won. The Republicans thought they 


had the election won until a few hours before the voting when they learned that the 
two northern counties in which lie the large cities of Covington and Newport, and upon 
which they were relying, would not support Morrow because of the defection of the 
local Republican leader. Although it was noised around that this was due to the 
liquor and horse interests it was too late for Morrow to make use of this rumor. 

Although Stanley's plurality was less than 500, Morrow refused to contest because 
of the bitterness it would engender. Instead he conceded his opponent's election and 
in a gallant and magnanimous address claimed that his campaign would result in much 
good, because it had called attention to governmental extravagance and many other 
things the people ought to consider. 

Governor Stanley's inaugural speech won plaudits from the press and the public 
generally, in which he promised a number of needed laws and reforms. 

Mr. Watterson, who was very "wet," in an editorial in the Courier-Journal attributed 
the little done by Stanley's first Legislature to the "prohibition politicians and their 
fanatical dupes" who "paying no attention to the pronouncement of the people at the 
polls . . . insisted on keeping all sorts of liquor bills and resolutions to the front . . . 
so effectively that the wets as well as the drys subordinated everything else to mouthing 
and wrangling, bickering and dickering." 

A Kentucky Council of Defense was created and the possession of firearms and 
explosives by aliens was prohibited; a war-time necessity. 

In the Legislature of 1918, the National Prohibition amendment was ratified, and 
the pen with which the Governor signed it was auctioned on the floor of the House 
and bought by Representative Clarence Miller, of Estill, for $150.00 the money going 
to the Red Cross. The State was redistricted into the 100 legislative districts demanded 
by the Constitution. Other important incidents of Stanley's regime were acceptance 
of Federal aid in road building; a corrupt practices act; abolishment of railroad passes. 
The pardon record of Governor Stanley was sharply criticised so as to give the general 
impression that something wrong was being done. However, no successful accusations 
were made. 

The war stimulated the state's mineral production in oil, coal, fluorite, clay products 
and also in timber. There was no such industrial development as featured the state's 
contribution to the second World War. 

Senator Ollie M. James died in office in 1918, and Governor Stanley appointed 
George B. Martin, of Boyd County, to the unexpired term. Senator Martin sat until 
March 4th, 1919, when Governor Stanley, who was elected the preceding November to 
the succeeding term, took the seat. Senator Martin was in the Senate too short a time 
to make a mark, but he was an accomplished gentleman of native Kentucky stock, a 
highly educated and successful lawyer, and would have held his own in any body. 

When Governor Stanley resigned to become Senator, Lieutenant Governor James D. 
Black's regime was too short to have accomplished anything of note. He did not have 
a Legislative session. Most of his time was taken up with his candidacy to succeed 
himself. A feature of his campaign was his creations of numerous "Kentucky colonels." 

It has often been said that Kentucky is more like mother England than any of the 
states. In England anciently the Knight was a functional military officer; later the 
sovereigns knighted men who had done something worth while or were personal friends, 
regardless of military standing. In Kentucky the colonelcy has had the same history 
and, but for the oaths of chivalry candidates for knighthood had to take, is practically 
the same in public estimation. The "colonels" are a select body of men— and lately 
women — and while there is some inanity, there is hardly ever a lack of good breeding 
or good behavior. 



In the governor's race in 1919, Edwin P. Morrow, who had so nearly defeated 
Stanley was the opponent of Governor James D. Black. Black's opponent for the nomi- 
nation was Judge John D. Carroll, of New Castle, at the time Chief Justice of the 
Court of Appeals and one of the ablest jurists the state has produced. Black's majority 
was over ten thousand in the primary. 

While Black was a good visitor and handshaker and made an active campaign of 
that nature, Morrow was a great orator of the kind who could say good things 
eloquently but in the words of the common people. He discussed State affairs in a 
convincing and confident way and touched with wisdom and fine satire the good and 
bad issues, promising no more than seemed possible but things which everyone knew 
should be done. 

Morrow's indictment of his Democratic predecessors gives such a clear light upon 
conditions and the causes of his election that quotations from it can hardly be avoided 
in a description of political opinions and facts: (The Louisville Herald, May 15, 1919). 

"Four years ago there came to a close an administration of the people's affairs. An 
administration marked by broken promises and violated pledges, characterized by needless 
waste and reckless extravagance, branded by confessed and open political corruption, 
shamed by the plunder of the public treasury, and closing with naught to show for its 
existence save a public interest-bearing debt of more than three million dollars. Four 
years ago in a campaign which stirred the state to its depth, the people were asked to 
repudiate that administration, to rebuke its unworthy servants, to strike against their 
own dishonor. But wedded to their idols, bound by their customs, they withheld their 
condemnation and placed the welfare of the state in the hands of the present 

"Under fair and solemn platform pledges, and by word of mouth these public servants 
promised economy, retrenchment and reform; the abolition of useless offices; the removal 
of the charitable and penal institutions from political control; the turning on of the 
light, and faithful and efficient service. For four years this administration has had 
the full and absolute control of every branch and department of the state government. 

"As it approaches its wretched end, these are the known and admitted facts: 

"No economy, but increased extravagance. Six million dollars more collected from 
the people, while the state debt has grown greater by a million and a half dollars — 
More burdens to bear and less evidence of the benefits of government; no 'beheading' 
of useless officers, but increased cost in every department of state. 

"Impotent by its favoritism, befouled by its pardon record, stained and shamed by 
the mockery of political control of the state's charities, ludicrous in its text-book adoption 
— in the midnight of political corruption, it is dying — without a champion, a defender 
or an apologist. 

*K *K *K 

"This administration has been the husbandman of the fairest land on earth; it has 
let the golden harvest of its opportunities go ungathered, and permitted it to be dispoiled. 
Entrusted with the shining talents of government, it has buried them in the dirty napkin 
of political intrigue. 

"Now the master (the people) , demand to know the condition of the vineyard, and 
the use that has been made of the talents." 

Morrow's election is due to his proposals for progress and the public confidence in 
him — his accomplishments were many but the leading ones were his placing of engineers 
in charge of road construction; improved educational facilities, methods and school-book 


selection; corrected many bad conditions in the penal and charitable institutions; defeated 
the anti-evolution law which would have fined or imprisoned or both anyone mentioning 
that subject within long distances of a school-house; and added two new normal 
colleges, Morehead and Murray. His regime was not all plain sailing. There occurred 
a tobacco panic at the end of the war; a coal strike; and a terrible lynching battle at 
Lexington between citizens and the militia. On the whole Governor Morrow's regime 
was one of the best in recent times. 

Senator Beckham's term coming to an end, he stood to succeed himself, but was 
defeated by Richard P. Ernst, a prominent lawyer of Northern Kentucky. 


In the campaign of 1923 William Jason Fields at the time Congressman from north- 
eastern Kentucky, was the Democrat standard-bearer, while ex-Attorney-General Charles 
I. Dawson was the Republican nominee. The interesting events of this campaign 
occurred in the nominating conventions. The Democrats first selected J. Campbell 
Cantrell, son of the Judge in the Goebel trials, and at the time representing the 
Ashland district in Congress. But between his nomination and the election he died 
and Fields was then chosen hurriedly to carry on. Under such circumstances the 
Republicans had the advantage. But they had their troubles also. 

George Colvin, of Washington County, was ending a term in the too often colorless 
office of State Superintendent of Education, that had proven anything but colorless 
under him. His regime was not sensational but vigorously constructive and liberal, 
taking his obligations dead earnestly and putting into a highly trained intellect and a 
consuming zeal for education. 

The announcement of his candidacy was received with approbation by many Democrats 
who saw in his honesty, his earnestness, his courage, his efficiency, and comprehension, 
the opportunity for an administration to their taste. If elected by help of progressive 
Democrats, it would make of the Republican party one of state aims. A large and 
potent part of that party was determined to keep it in the hands of those who handled 
Federal patronage, and therefore saw that if Colvin should win, they would lose their 
power. Even since Kentucky had shown a willingness to go Republican, the National 
organization had been willing to put larger sums of money into its elections. The con- 
trol of this money was a vital consideration politically. In the days before Kentucky 
first went Republican the party had had to build its support from Federal office hopes 
and holders, so that the leaders who grew up in that day considered any other attitude 
as young presumptious impudence and threatening to their interests. They had been 
"ins" and resented Democrats coming into the party, since from their point of view 
winning state elections was not essential or even unsafe. 

This branch of the party violently opposed Colvin and when he came to the con- 
vention at Lexington a possible winner, they pulled all the tricks of organization possible 
to defeat him. Their candidate Judge Dawson had not appealed to the independent 
voters and few, if any, felt that he could win if nominated. His speeches lacked the 
progressiveness, the terseness, the zeal of Colvin's, and after the dissatisfaction produced 
by the defeat of Colvin, the independent vote went to Fields. As the Mountains were 
the stronghold of the Republican party, Fields who was a Mountain man, played upon 
the dissatisfaction in that section by promising, if elected, to put in good roads, which 
next to schools, were the Mountain peoples' greatest need. 

Dawson was later appointed Judge of the Western Federal District, which he resigned 
after some years to enter private law practice. 

History of Kentucky 741 

Colvin became President of the University of Louisville where he gave much promise 
but died after a short term. 

The administration of Governor Fields proved to be rather unpopular. Governor 
Fields had earnestly hoped to help the state, to bring progress. Yet he was far too 
ingenuous to deal effectively with the astute political manipulators of what was termed 
a "diabolical bi-partisan machine." He had gained the ill-will of the Courier-Journal 
which had bitterly opposed and helped to defeat his plan to float bonds to the amount 
of $50,000,000 or more for education, roadbuilding and general improvement. The 
enmity of this and its sister paper, The Louisville Times, has been fatal to many 
administrations and governors. As these are the only papers in the state with large 
statewide circulation, they wield a tremendous influence. If they choose to be partisan, 
which is sometimes the case, then the people get their political facts in a somewhat 
biased form. Yet these papers are more often right than wrong. Moreover, there 
was also much inefficiency and apparent waste in the management of the departments, 
together with flagrant nepotism on the part of the governor. Undoubtedly, the Gover- 
nor, a trusting man, was greatly imposed upon by many selfish, often ignorant, political 
leeches, who exploited state jobs without rendering adequate or competent service. 
It might be pointed out too that little of polish, urbanity, grace, charm or rhythm was 
associated with the administration. All in all therefore the Fields' administration moved 
to an unpleasant end, unwept, unhonored and unsung. Under these circumstances the 
Republicans became active. 


The tendency in the two parties regarding the approaching elections was to split along 
the line of reform and anti-reform, particularly as concerned legalized race-track 
gambling. As a reform candidate the Republicans presented Robert Lucas, while the 
"bi-partisan" or pari-mutual" Republicans put forward Judge Flem D. Sampson. In 
the Democrat party, the "reform" elements advanced J. C. W. Beckham, while the old 
line Democrats presented Robert T. Crowe, of La Grange. Running rather independently 
was William Shanks, retiring auditor. Incidentally many officials as soon as they 
become seated in the Capitol begin grooming themselves for another state office, pre- 
ferably the governor's. After a few months of routine clerical-help flattery, many of 
these officials feel, no doubt, that they should be at least president of the United States. 

After a bitter race in which Mr. Crowe proved an able and popular candidate gaining 
support everywhere, the Democrats selected Mr. Beckham, known as The Courier- 
Journal candidate (Mr. Beckham was a close friend of Judge Robert W. Bingham, 
owner of The Courier-Journal) . Mr. Crowe made a good race. Somehow the people 
got the impression that he really would give them good roads and bridges; moreover, 
they liked Crowe, with his pleasing personality, his ability to throw everything he had 
into a speech, his apparent seriousness. He gained rapidly, starting from nothing, just 
the anti-Beckham-Bingham candidate. He promised 33 1/3 percent cut in State tax 
on agricultural land and a similar reduction in state license on automobiles. The support 
of the Fields administration was given him. Clearly vast numbers of people were tired 
of Mr. Beckham, who was thought to have little to offer. 

The old line machine Republican leaders, Chesley Searcy, Morris Galvin and Matt 
Chilton supported Judge Sampson, while the reform leaders, among whom were Mayor 
Huston Quinn, U. S. Senator Fred M. Sackett and William Heyburn, of Louisville, 
supported Colonel Lucas. In the primaries Beckham and Sampson won out. 

So clear was the disaffection in the Democrat party because of dissatisfaction with 
the Beckham-Haley-Bingham group that signs of bolting were evident. In November 


the entire Democrat ticket except Beckham was elected. In a very bitter race, Beckham 
was beaten by approximately 10,000 votes, while the other Democrat candidates won 
by fairly good margins. The racing interests had fought Beckham, as well as many 
of the women voters. (He had opposed the woman suffrage amendment in the U. S. 
Senate) . Clearly, the people had not voted for Sampson, they had voted against 

The two tickets had been made up of the following candidates: Republican Ticket: 
For Governor, Flem D. Sampson, Barbourville; Lieutenant Governor, E. E. Nelson, 
Williamsburg; Secretary of State, Mrs. F. D. Quisenberry, Elizabethtown; Attorney 
General, Miller Hughes, Prestonburg; Treasurer, John G. Rogers, Frankfort; Clerk 
of the Court of Appeals, W. A. Dicken, Albany; Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
Warren Peyton, Beaver Dam; Commissioner of Agriculture, Tate Bird, Shelby ville; and 
Auditor, John Perkins, Frankfort. 

Democratic Ticket: For Governor, J. C. W. Beckham, Louisville; Lieutenant Governor, 
James Breathitt, Jr., Hopkinsville; Treasurer, Emma Guy Cromwell, Frankfort; Auditor, 
Clell Coleman, Harrodsburg; Commissioner of Agriculture, Newton Bright, Eminence; 
Attorney General, J. W. Cammack, Owenton; Secretary of State, Miss Ella Lewis, 
Leitchneld; Clerk of the Court of Appeals, William B. O'Connell, Louisville; and 
Superintendent of Public Instruction, W. C. Bell. 

Governor Sampson, assuming that the people really desired his being governor, drew 
up an expansive program of reform and progress for the Legislature to enact — im- 
provement of education, welfare, penal and charitable institutions, roads, bridges, parks, 
building of memorials to the heroes, etc. But the Democrat Legislature had no inten- 
tion of passing his program, which was ridiculed by many from many angles. A bitter 
and acrimonious struggle ensued in the Legislature, preventing the passage of much- 
needed legislation. The Democratic majority proceeded to shear Governer Sampson of 
his appointing power and to bestow it upon the Lieutenant Governor. The impasse 
continued throughout the administration. The press howled fiercely and the people 
began to talk of gubernatorial incompetence. An editorial in the Courier- Journal of 
March 21, 1930 summed up the administration in this manner: 

"End of a Story that is not Ended. 

"Kentuckians interested in the welfare of their state will review with mixed feelings 
the Legislature's session just ended. It did good work and it did bad work, but its 
bad work was so very bad that it is likely to warp the minds of many against conceding 
the Legislature all the credit that is its due. 

"Chief among its good works was its enactment of a new election law and its salvation 
of Cumberland Falls. It could not have pleased more people than by its acceptance 
of the duPont offer; while the election reform it provided gives the State better assurance 
of fair elections than it has ever had — an assurance which it has sadly needed. Who does 
not believe that if this law had been in effect in 1927 Kentucky would not have been 
humiliated by the Governor who now discredits the Executive chair? In future it will 
be very difficult to steal elections in Kentucky, as elections in Kentucky have been 
stolen in the past — and not remote past. 

Louisville, by the way, has particular reason for being grateful to this Legislature 
for coming to the city's aid in its fight for fair elections. The passage of the model 
registration law was handsomely done, and is none the less appreciated because under 
a proper system of government Louisville would not be compelled to go to Frankfort 
for legislation regulating the city's local elections. 

The blight of this session of the General Assembly was partisanship — partisanship of 
the blindest, bitterest kind. The Democratic majority went to Frankfort hotly resenting 


the partisan maladministration of a Republican Governor, and especially his Highway 
Commission. They had ample cause for resentment, but in venting it they acted on 
the mistaken assumption that any course was justifiable to remedy the situation: that 
any wrong was right to right a wrong. 

It was a blunder which not only submerged the session in partisanship, but which will 
submerge the future politics of the state in partisanship. While a legislative investigation 
was not necessary to show that the Sampson Highway Commission should be removed, 
if that could not be effected through legal processes it would have been far better to 
wait for the installation of a new administration by the next election than to resort to 
the desperate expedient of smashing constitutional government in order to smash the 
Highway Commission. But the smashers were determined. They ripped out of office 
the Governor's Highway Commission and put in its place a commission of their own, 
all Democrats, by transferring a Republican Governor's appointing power to a Demo- 
cratic Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General. Not only that, but they replaced 
a bad piece of road machinery with a worse, doubling the number of commissioners and 
allotting them to geographical districts, in accordance with a system which cannot be 
well worked except by logrolling, and which, if the courts allow the commission to 
stand, will afford the members tempting opportunities to mix their official duties with 
politics, one of the curses of the old commission. It is not inexplicable that General 
Sibert declined to serve on the new commission. 

"Whether or not this revolution of the Democratic majority of the Legislature shall 
result in better administration of the Highway Department, it is bound to effect most 
injuriously the politics of the State. It will subordinate all other considerations in 
the next political campaign to the passions of the primitive partisanship, dividing the 
state into two camps, each actuated by the supreme, if not sole, purpose to cut the 
other's throats. 

"In its bearings on the fortunes of the Democratic Party, the enactment of the 
Highway Ripper bill was egregious tactical folly. With the notorious record made by 
the Sampson Administration, all that the Democrats had to do to sweep the last 
vestige of it out of power was to wait until they got a chance at it in the election 
booths. But they have now given the Sampsonites a new issue — an issue on which, 
the Democratic Party in Kentucky will be compelled to fight a defensive, instead of an 
aggressive campaign. 

"It is an issue which already is rallying all stripes of Republicans, including those 
to whom Sampson has been a nauseating dose. 

"That was strongly in evidence at the gathering of the clans at Frankfort Wednesday 
night, in response to the summons of Sampson, when even such Republicans as Louis- 
ville's Mayor joined Sampson in denouncing the Court of Appeals on its stand for 
clean elections in this city. But for the era of partisanship which has been inaugurated, 
no such powwow as that at Frankfort Wednesday night would have been possible. It 
was there that the Governor was able to convert a personal rebuke into a party 
insult. It was nothing to him to be prevented from making private deals for a few 
million dollars' worth of textbooks, an $11,000,000 bridge bond issue and a cement 
plant to do business with the Highway Department, or to be prevented from controlling 
the Highway Department during the approaching campaign. His agony was all for 
his beloved party. He would have it believed that he is only the vicarious scapegoat 
turned loose in a patronageless wilderness. 

'And the Governor didn't stop at the Legislature. In sympathetic company he 
attacked the Court of Appeals which had held him to the law against his attempted 
private negotiation of public contracts, two of the Judges being Republicans. He 


referred to the Louisville election case in which he had sat while a Republican candidate 
and he denominated it a judicial ^ripper dubbing his colleagues of the court six of 
the gloomiest little men,' although one of the Judges concurring in the ouster and 
disagreeing with him was a Republican of high character and legal ability. 

"The politicians who gathered at that banquet would not think of pitching the 1931 
campaign on an issue approving the Sampson Administration. They are belligerent 
with a new hope now because they believe they will not have to fight on that issue, as 
the Democrats of the Legislature have given the Republicans a new issue." 


The Democratic State Central Executive Committee called the democratic convention 
for May 12, 1931. Aspirants for nomination were: Judge W. R. Shakelford of Rich- 
mond, James Breathitt, Jr. of Hopkinsville, W. B. Ardery of Paris, Clell Coleman of 
Harrodsburg, Dr. Rainey T. Wells, of Murray, Ralph Gilbert of Shelbyville, Judge 
Ruby Laffoon of Madisonville, Joseph E. Robinson of Lancaster, and Osie S. Ware, 
of Covington. The former U. S. Senator Geo. B. Martin, of Catlettsburg, campaigned 
for Shakelford and was himself picked to run as coalition candidate for temporary 
chairman by the minority candidate. This was an attempt to ward off Ruby Laffoon who 
had more delegates than anyone else. The Woodland Auditorium in Lexington with 
a seating capacity of only 2,400 was packed with nearly 4,060 heads. With Shakelford 
and Wells withdrawing and Gilbert quitting on the second nomination, Laffoon got 
1,548 of the 1,922 votes. Later with only Ardery and Breathitt left in the race, he got 
1,735 votes. He was thus nominated on the first ballot. Congressman Fred M. Vinson, 
of Ashland, was elected temporary chairman and Fred Wallis of Paris, permanent 
chairman. While awaiting the reports of committees, the crowd found entertainment in 
Senator Barkley's and Logan's comments on the National and State Republican ad- 
ministration. The democratic platform called for (1) a complete audit of every 
department, (2) a balanced budget, (3) impartial distribution of road construction, (4) 
free textbooks, (5) economy in government, (6) continuation of present highway com- 
mission, (7) tax revision, (8) enlargement and modernizing of charitable and penal 
institutions, (9) educational extension and improvement, (10 stringent bank law, (11) 
consolidation of counties, (12) encouragement of manufacturing and enterprises. 

A disturbance which surely influenced the convention was a disagreement between 
the miners and operators of the Harlan mine. On May 11, the mine guards were 
replaced by 400 National Guardsmen and five had already lost their lives in the violence. 

The Courier-Journal, saying that Kentucky must be "rescued from the wildness 
of misgovernment into which it has been forced by both Democratic and Republican 
Administrations" has this comment on the Democratic platform: "In estimating these 
convictions and purposes, the platform put forth by the convention counts for little. 
That is an elaborate document, containing much that is commendable, including impor- 
tant recommendations which if heeded will promote the good of the commonwealth. 
It was written by a committee on which were Democrats of character and ability. But 
its authorship will not execute it. Nor was that expected of its authors who referred 
the detailed execution of its policies and principles to the Legislature and the Governor. 
To what extent it expresses the views of Judge Laffoon is not known; nor is it known 
to what extent it expresses the views of the convention, for it was adopted by that body 
in a jiffy, without being read to it." 

During the torrid heat of a July day, former Governor Morrow the temporary 
chairman, sounded the keynote for the Republican Convention in the Woodland 
Auditorium, Lexington. He declaimed the Highway Law as a Monster, demanded its 

Courtesy, Louisville Convention and Publicity League. 


13— Vol. II 


repeal, and pledged the Republican party to the formation of a Bi-partisan Road 
Commission if the law is not repealed. He also extolled Mayor W. Harrison, of 
Louisville as a knightly leader to carry forward the standards of the Republican party. 
Judge Sam Hurst, Beattyville's nominee for the Republican ticket withdrew, leaving 
Harrison as the sole Republican nominee for Governor. The platform of the Republican 
party for the 1931 election made the Road Board the target of its attack. It lauded 
theh Hoover and Sampson Administrations as well as advocating (1) a bipartisan or 
preferably a non-partisan highway commission, (2) free school books, (3) a scientific 
survey of the state's charitable institutions, (4) equal representation, and (5) greater 
economy in administration. It also asked for a Republican Assembly and denounced 
"bipartisan political combines and pledged the freedom of republican nominees from 
such influence. 

The Socialistic-Labor Ticket was made up of Herman Horning, Louis Fleischer, and 
James O'Hearn, all of Louisville, for the officers of Governor, Lieutenant Governor, 
and Secretary of State respectively. 

The outcome of the 1931 elections was an overwhelming democratic victory, Laifoon 
led Harrison by 73,078 votes — a margin that has been topped only once before in 
Kentucky when John W. Stevenson the Democratic candidate of 1868 triumphed by 
78,677 votes. The effects of his election on the Legislature was that the House now 
had 74 Democrats to 26 Republicans. "The explanation is that Kentucky, like the 
rest of the country, is flooded by a tidal wave against the Republican Party, caused 
by the unpopularity of the Hoover Administration and the conditions which for nearly 
two years during the life of that Administration have depressed the country and for 
which so many of the voters, however unjustly, hold the Administration to blame." 
(Courier- Journal, November 6, 1931). So this cause might also be added the un- 
popularity of the former Republican Governor Sampson and Laffoon's connections with 
the "political combine" which sought "to make itself supreme by fastening upon the 
state a hand-picked chief executive and a subservient Legislature." (Louisville Herald 
Post, July 21, 1931). 

The beginning of the Laffoon Administration — one of the most turbulent that Ken- 
tucky has suffered for many a decade — was one of pagentry and festivity. The oath 
of office was administered by Judge Richard Priest Dietzman and soon afterwards Laf- 
foon appointed Brigadier General H. H. Denhardt of the Kentucky National Guard, 
the former Lieutenant Governor, as the new Adjutant General. In his inaugural speech, 
Governor Laffoon showed deep emotions. He said that as a boy while plowing he 
had frequently entertained the dream to be governor, and that he would be Governor 
of and for the whole people. He also mentioned the pressing need of the under-privileged 
children, relief for penal and charitable institutions, and the demands for better roads 
and other improvements. He also congratulated Harrison for his courtesy during the 
campaign and for his felicitations. 

Governor Laffoon entered office at a bad time. The country was rapidly entering 
the depression. President Hoover had asked for higher taxes and burglarizing by 
armed bands was prevalent, especially in Louisville. Tobacco riots had broke out in 
Lexington as 200 tobacco growers held mass meetings because of the fall in tobacco 
prices. The dispute between the coal miners and the mine operators was still in 
progress and a group of 40 students under the auspices of the National College Com- 
mittee in New York were turned back by irate citizens of Bell County and were 
denied the protection of county officials when they sought to make a study of the 
miners's conditions in Harlan County. 

This lack of employment accompanying the depression was the principal social prob- 
lem of the Laffoon Administration. It was this unemployment that allowed thousands 


of workers to appear on the Frankfort streets March 3, 1932 in opposition to the Sales 
Tax measure that Governor Laffoon championed. Some of the mob even broke into 
the Governor's mansion, frightening members of the household and breaking some 
furniture. The Anti-depression War conducted by the American Legion, the Ameri- 
can Federation of Labor, the Associated Advertising Clubs and the American Legion 
Auxiliary in March of 1932 was mainly an attempt to curtail this unemployment. 
It aimed in this way to bring about a recovery of business and to employ large numbers 
of men. The War ended in Louisville on March 20th with a big parade of Legion- 
naires and other groups. To this date 600 had been employed in Louisville and $50,000 
of construction work pledged. 

The 1932 session of the General Assembly of the Kentucky Legislature adjourned 
with very little accomplished. The most important bills were the sales tax which was 
denied consideration by the State Senate, the redisricting bill which reduced Ken- 
tucky's congressional districts from 11 to 9, and the budget bills which increased the 
state's budget to approximately "$4,000,000 more than the anticipated revenues." The 
Legislature did provide for a board of eight to make a two year study of the state's 
educational needs. The need for such a survey was questioned by an editorial in the 
Courier-Journal of March 22, 1932, on he grounds that a survey had already been made 
by the Kentucky Educational Committee, employing the best minds in Kentucky and 
assisted by the General Education Board of New York and that the very definite recom- 
mendations of the Efficiency Commission on the subject of Education in 1924 were 

On the whole few sessions of the Legislature have been subjected to as much criti- 
cism as that of 1932 Assembly. The Herald Post, March 19, 1932, saw its sole re- 
deeming feature in the fact "that thy fell out among themselves so that the state may 
have been spared something worse." The Courier Journal of the same date had more 
to say: "Deplorable it truly is, for there never was a time in Kentucky history when 
sagacious competent patriotic statesmanship was so urgently needed in the administration 
of Kentucky's government. And yet there never was a time when such statesmanship 
was so lacking at Frankfort and when the abortive efforts, or pretensions, of the Ex- 
ecutive and Legislative department left the state in so shamefully wretched a con- 

"In the first place, that administration came in not on the broad, high plane of con- 
secration to public service regardless of party partisanship but consecrated to the en- 
abling theory, r to the victors belong the spoils.' From the first, that theory inspired 
and dominated the Governor and his partisans in the Legislature. They seized all the 
spoils in sight, and, hungry for more, created more spoils by the establishment of more 
offices and the payment of salaries to officials who had been unsalaried. Republicans 
everywhere were either dismissed by the Governor or ripped out by the Legislature, and 
their places were filled by persons who whether or not they were otherwise qualified, 
had the qualifications of calling themselves Democrats and of helping or professing 
to help the victors to get within reach of the spoils. 

". . . Both branches of the Administration the Executive and Legislative — worked 
cooperatively together in the effectuation of that policy but cooperation ended when 
they undertook to meet serious problems of the government's administration which 
confronted them, and which they were elected to solve. Then they were at sea. They 
were at loggerheads. They floundered in confusion and ignorance of what should be 
done, utterly unable to formulate and agree upon any method of solving the problems, 
whose solution the welfare of the State demanded and whose solution they had so 
fully promised when they asked to be entrusted with the solution." 


The 1934 session of the Kentucky Legislature passed among other bills the new 
school code. (See Chapter on Education) . 

Because the important task of levying taxes to provide the state with an adequate 
budget was not completed in the regular session, a special session of the General 
Assembly was called and convened Wednesday May 9, 1934. It will be recalled that 
this problem of state finance had claimed the attention of the 1932 assembly. Governor 
Laffoon asked for a reduction of the real estate tax and for the pooling of funds, ex- 
pecting, of course, that the Legislature would provide additional revenue from some 
other source. But he and the Legislature disagreed over the source. He succeeded in 
defeating the House plan to tax the sale of malt and the exploitation of natural re- 
sources; but his plan to tax the necessaries of life through a retail sales tax met with 
both popular and legislative opposition. It had the opposition of the Merchants and 
Commercial Associations, while a crowd of several thousand appeared in Frankfort, 
March 3, 1932 to boo the measure. The bill was defeated when the Senate refused 
to consider the proposed sales tax. Governor Laffoon declined to call a special session 
to provide the needed appropriations and when the regular session in 1934 convened, 
he failed to transmit to the House the report of his Budget Commission with budget 
bills appropriating the revenue until March. Then the House was "monopolized with 
the activity of the Committee on Foreign relations engaged in exposing the conspiracy 
of Kentucky retail merchants against higher prices and investigating the treasonable 
utterances of a number who had critized the way the House proceeded with its busi- 
ness in a [Courier-Journal] "Point of View" article from which his name was with- 
held. Perhaps the bipartisan majority felt they had earned the leisure for a man hunt. 
They already had prevented a vote on the compulsory primary law, passed the ripper 
legislation, placed municipal power, light, fuel and water plants and the rates of public 
service companies under a bipartisan State board over the opposition of the cities, 
reduced the taxes on utility, coal and gas lands, defeated N.R.A — State cooperation, 
and authorized the establishment of convenient nudist colonies." — (Courier- Journal 
March 17, 1934) . The result of this was that a special session of the Legislature be- 
came necessary to appropriate needed funds for the administration. Governor Laf- 
foon's Sales Tax bill was decidedly unpopular and a flood of tax bills were proposed in 
the House in opposition to it. After a long deadlock, however, the House on June 
8, passed the bill 51 to 47 and on June 15 the Senate gave its approval with a 20 to 17 
vote. Governor Laifoon signed the bill six hours later, saying: "Within six months 
this bill become the most popular act ever adopted in the State." The revenue from the 
sales tax, estimated at $12,000,000 annually, was divided between the state and county 
governments with the State getting two-thirds. After stripping Lieutenant Governor 
Chandler, bitter opponent of Laffoon, of his power with a ripper bill, the Special 
Session ended July 3. As it turned out the Sales Tax became what was perhaps the 
most unpopular bill in Kentucky's history as a state. 

Opposition to the Laffoon Administration was not long in arising. His administration 
actually was unpopular from the start, and the depression in no way helped this state 
of affairs. Before two years his program was torn apart by the depression and party 
defection. Lieutenant Governor Chandler had strongly opposed his sales tax bill in 
the Senate and his Drivers' License Law and the Chain Store tax repeal bill were passed 
only after the Chandler Anti-administration forces had adjourned. The crisis came 
when Governor Laffoon was in Washington to request $50,000,000 in Federal aid for 
road construction. Lieutenant Governor Chandler called an extra session of the Gen- 
eral Assembly to consider a compulsory Primary Bill that would undo the work of 
the nominating committee and submit the choice of Democratic candidates to the 
people. Governor Laffoon hastened back to the state and signed a revocation order 


to cancel the extra session; but the Court of Appeals declared that the special session 
was valid. Apparently the Governor felt that his favorite for the coming gubernatorial 
election, Mr. Thomas S. Rhea, would be more favored by a Democratic Convention, 
while Lieutenant Governor Chandler thought his hopes of running as the next Demo- 
cratic candidate for governor would be better advanced by a private ballot submitted 
to the people. When the Primary Bill won out in the special session, Laffoon gave 
his support to a proposed dual primary bill which provided that a second primary 
ballot be taken if no candidate obtains a majority in the first ballot, — only the two 
highest candidates would run in the second ballot. This bill became a law in Feb- 
ruary 27, 1935, when the Chandler forces joined those of the Laffoon — Rhea factions. 
It was this dual primary bill that won the 1935 elections for Chandler against Mr. 

Albert B. ("Happy") Chandler came to his nomination in large part because of 
his action in calling an extra session of the Legislature during the absence from the 
State of Governor Laffoon; and, in so doing throwing down the gauntlet to the interests 
who were popularly thought to be behind Governor Laffoon and so capturing the 
imagination of the people by his boldness. 

In his campaign for the nomination he set out his purposes and platform so clearly 
that he took the initiative and held it all through the campaign. Expense of state 
government had risen beyond reason and the sales tax imposed by the Laffoon regime 
was not popular. This he promised to repeal and at the same time reduce the state's 
debts and expenses. To many this sounded like pulling rabbits out of the hat, but his 
earnest campaign oratory did not sound like the usual campaign promises to be broken 
later on. 

Besides the popularity of his political ideals and the courage of his speech and actions, 
"Happy" Chandler has always been a pleasing personality so that besides his earnest- 
ness and understanding on the rostrum he exuded a wealth of geniality and good feeling 
in his personal contacts with the voters. 

In his opposition for the nomination he was blessed. Governor Laffoon had gotten 
through the Legislature a double primary law, which voters generally thought to be 
an effort to defeat Chandler. This was a compliment which produced both respect and 
sympathy for the latter. In the first primary John Rhea of Russellville ran ahead but 
in the second, Frederick Wallis of Paris, dropping out being also a progressive, his 
votes went to Chandler and aided greatly in his victory. 

In the regular election Judge Swope rather attacked Chandler than discussed affairs 
of state. Voters like to have their business discussed with them on a non-personal 
basis, and the more serious ones do not now take much interest in the candidate who 
does not take them into his confidence and explain how his election will benefit their 
future. To Swope's assertion that Chandler would prove a dictator, "Happy" answered 
happily by playing on Swope's first name and calling him "King of Kentucky." As 
neither gentlemen were inclined towards dictatorship or royalty, "Happy's" retort con- 
tained just as much sense as "King's" charge and besides contained the divine spark 
of humor which Swope's lacked. Amongst Chandler's champions was ex-Governor, ex- 
Senator J. C. W. Beckham, the "elder statesman" of the Kentucky Democracy. 
Swope also charged that the state's civil and highway employes were being bled for 
contributions to Chandler's election fund. This was doubtless true; but it had too 
long been a custom in Kentucky to cause dismay or even a shock; and, as the Republi- 
cans made no effort to prove it or stop it, but only used it for election ammunition, 
the public felt that it was exaggerated and that a Republican administration would not 
remedy it. The charge was far from a "bomb-shell" and it is doubtful if it did 
Chandler any more damage than it did Swope. 


At Governor Chandler's inauguration a vast and colorful procession marched in 
review at Frankfort on December 10, 1935. There were lowering winter skies and chill 
winter winds but the turnout was the largest in the history of the state. The pro- 
cession was two hours in passing the Governor's reviewing stand. 

A passage in his address typified the young Governor's disposition. It said "My joy 
at the opportunity to serve you is unbounded. I commenced this campaign in Kentucky 
this year with a smile upon my face and a song in my heart." Among the distinguished 
men on his platform were former governors of Kentucky, A. O. Stanley, J. C. W. 
Beckham, William J. Fields, and James D. Black; Governor George H. Earle of Penn- 
sylvania; Postmaster General of the United States, James A. Farley; Senators Joseph 
Guffey of Pennsylvania and Harry F. Byrd of Virginia. 

The retiring Governor, Hon. Ruby Laffoon made a kindly and gentlemanly address. 
Chandler promised reorganization "from top to bottom" of the state government; ade- 
quate appropriations for the public schools, charities, and public health, and establishment 
in Kentucky of President Roosevelt's program for social security and old age pensions. 

The Courier- Journal's editorial the next day said "The address of Governor Chandler 
was admirable in scope of reassurances and restraint of modesty." The new governor 
acted with vigor to make his promises good and "the majestic proportions of the vote 
cast, the mandatory majority, the inaugural demonstration were too imperative to be 
misunderstood by the legislator" as the Courier- Journal put it. 

J. Dan Talbott, the Insurance Commissioner, estimated that the Reorganization Bill 
that was passed would save the state $2,000,000 annually. 

On March 6, the Courier- Journal said: 

"This legislature has crowded an extra session within the constitutional period of the 
regular session with time to spare. It has proceeded with expedition and precision 
because it has been systematic in its procedure and attended to the state's instead of 
the Lobby's business." In its session no "gag" rule, no "deals," no bipartisan coal- 
ition, were in evidence. 

Particular attention was given to educational needs. The Sales Tax was repealed and 
higher taxes paid on alcoholic beverages. Reforms were instituted in the State High- 
way Department designed to prevent its participation in politics. When the appropria- 
tions exceeded the estimated tax income Governor Chandler called the Legislature in 
extra session to raise taxes for the following two years so that the appropriations could 
be met. 

The Kentucky Constitution forbids debt in excess of $500,000, but Governor Chand- 
ler inherited from past administrations one and one half million dollars of floating 
debt. The state's outstanding warrants on January 1, 1936, amounted to $21,366,000, 
which was $1,500,000 in excess or receipts for the preceding six months. Chandler's 
administration wiped out the $1,500,000 deficit, paid the state's bills, and had a balance 
of $1,120,000 in the treasury. In one month after his inauguration he had dropped 
3,500 people from the state's payroll. To this the Courier- Journal commented "Again 
the Governor displays the same alacrity and initiative which caught the public imagi- 
nation . . . He leaves himself no course but reform." 

At the close of his first legislative session the Courier- Journal said "Governor Chand- 
ler stands, still at the beginning of his administration, unsurpassed in accomplishment 
in this or perhaps any commonwealth. 

There were no ill-winds or untoward events in his administration worthy of mention. 
He showed a power of foresight and a skill in planning rarely displayed in our 
public officials. 

On October 3, 1939 Kentucky's United States Senator, M. M. Logan died and it 
became incumbent on the Governor of Kentucky to appoint his successor As Gover- 


nor Chandler had accomplished the reforms he promised in his campaign and as his 
term of office was nearly up, he resigned, and Lieutenant-Governor Keen Johnson suc- 
ceeding to the governorship, appointed "Happy" to fill out Senator Logan's unexpired 

History without reluctance and few apologies will tell that he was a good governor; 
and his legions of acquaintances will remember the exuberant spirits, and genial ways 
that made him to all, not Governor or Senator so much, as "Happy Chandler." 


As gubernatorial administrations go, Chandler's tenure must be considered as one 
of progress and achievement. His sentimentalism on the hustings was not carried into 
his administration of affairs. Yet Governor Chandler was far more unpopular upon 
leaving office than upon taking it, in spite of successful incumbency. This was due 
perhaps to four reasons, namely (1) the officiousness of his officials (2) the fact that 
the people were showing signs of satiety with the sustained combination of Horatio 
Alger — poor-boy-makes-good, Al Jolson-Eddie Cantor, "Pass the Biscuit Pappy" Mc- 
Daniel brand of campaign spell-binding. (3) Too, Mr. Chandler's chief adviser, or- 
ganizer and manager, J. Dan Talbott (former auditor and incumbent finance chief) 
had gained many enemies to the administration because of what were termed dictatorial 
and ruthless political methods; especially had the perennial extractions of funds from 
the job-holders for the campaign war chests irritated many. (4) Perhaps the principal 
cause of the growing unpopularity was the fact that he had audaciously challenged 
the Senatorial seat of Alben W. Barkley in 1938. The general feeling among Demo- 
crats was that Barkley for his many and faithful services to the party, in both the 
state and nation, deserved the nomination without serious opposition. This action, 
brought on by boundless ambition and faulty advice, proved to be a costly blunder 
indeed, one which seriously injured Mr. Chandler locally and nationally. 

That Keen Johnson, acceptable to both the Thomas S. Rhea and Dan Talbott wings 
of the party, would receive the Democratic nomination in 1939 was a foregone con- 
clusion. Yet it was known that Mr. Johnson was formed in a somewhat conservative 
retiring mold — none of the Chandler blare, blarney and fanfare, which but for the 
time would have in no wise been discrediting to Mr. Johnson. 

Nominated, along with Mr. Johnson were: Rhodes K. Myers, for Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor; George G. Hatcher, for Secretary of State; Ernest W. Shannon, for Auditor; 
David Logan, for Treasurer; Hubert Meredith, for Attorney General; John W. Brooker, 
for Superintendent of Public Instruction; William H. May, for Commissioner of 
Agriculture; and Charles K. O'Connell, for Clerk of the Court of Appeals. 

The Republicans after a spirited race between Judge King Swope, of Lexington, 
and Judge John Cooper, of Somerset, again nominated Judge Swope as their guberna- 
torial standard-bearer. Nominated with him were: Jouett Ross Todd, for Lieutenant 
Governor; Kenneth Tuggle, for Attorney General; R. L. Stewart, for Clerk of the 
Court of Appeals; Charles I. Trivette, for Secreary of State; Thomas J. Niceley, for 
Auditor; John S. Petot, for Treasurer; John S. Brown, for Superintendent of Public 
Instruction; and Van Alexander, for Commissioner of Agriculture. 

The Democrats were pleased to stand upon their record of achievement in both the 
state and nation, pointing with pride to the success of the Chandler administration 
in reorganization of the state government, liquidation of indebtedness, accumulation of 
surplus, old-age benefits, conduct of the penal and charitable institutions and, par- 
ticularly to the multiplicity of New Deal reforms. They reminded again the voters of 
the depression begun during Herbert Hoover's administration and indicted the Re- 
publican party for both its incipiency and its continuance. 


The Republicans, on the other hand, charged their opponents with inefficiency, 
bossism, graft, favoritism and mounting taxes. Judge Swope made a vigorous, vitriolic 
campaign, but all to no avail. The New Deal had almost completely gained the labor 
and the Negro vote, without a good part of which — barring wholesale Democrat dis- 
affection — the Republicans could not hope to win; moreover, the farmers were sticking 
with the Democrats. 

The vote was: Johnson, 460,834; Swope, 354,704 — a majority of 106,130 votes for 
Mr. Johnson — a majority seldom, if ever, precedented in races for state office in 

Governor Johnson could do little more than carry forward reforms which had al- 
ready begun. He hoped to improve the penal and welfare institutions, conduct an 
efficient business-like administration, and build up the surplus. He seemed determined 
apparently at all costs to be niggardly in spending. Though a cultured, pleasant gentle- 
man, he did not possess the warmth, geniality and approachability Mr. Chandler 
possessed as governor, which, though nothing to his discredit, probably gave many an 
adverse impression. Unfortunately, his determination to be parsimonious with the 
public funds was an admirable resolve which came at the wrong time. Costs of living 
were rapidly mounting, prices of materials were skyrocketing (the Second World War 
was on) , which caused state employees, wards and teachers to suffer acutely. Spending 
lavishly probably would have been quite in order; yet only a trickle came out. The 
welfare institutions and public education were soon in a sad plight — and little help 
was forthcoming. 

Mr. Johnson too was unfortunate enough to inherit the sins of a long-time incumbent 
political machine, the accumulated short-comings of which, though not of his making, 
were nevertheless charged to him. Soon it was whispered that Clifford E. Smith, a 
Frankfort attorney, was profiting greatly through favoritism. Mr. Johnson possessed 
also an attorney general who was a free lance individualist, cantankerous, with a positive 
mania for muck-raking. No less more vitriolic but more of a genius at magnifying 
errors into public scandals and coloring personalities to angel white or satanic red was 
the Courier-Journal's columnist, J. Howard Henderson, who did with words what 
Nast had done with cartoons during the 1870s and 1880s. Scandal after scandal, real 
or imagined, developed. All the while the old needy, the wards and the teachers were 
suffering; education was breaking down; the people, stirred by the war, were becoming 
more and more restive. Governor Johnson conducted the office with dignity and firm- 
ness. Yet, the public tide was sweeping away from the state Democrats. Even a large 
section of the Democrats had become disaffected. They were preparing to punish the 
organization for its accumulated sins. The Republicans, breathing the sweet odor of 
victory from afar began scrambling for position. 

Though the candidates of the two parties are more or less picked by the organiza- 
tions, a primary is held, in order to carry cut the letter of the law and give the people 
the impression of their sovereignty. The Republican primary in the year 1943 was 
merely a nominal affair with no contests. However, the race for the gubernatorial 
nomination in the Democrat party became serious, with the former and popular Farm 
Bureau Federation district head, Ben Kilgore, challenging the organization-picked 
candidate, J. Lyter Donaldson, an able and tireless public servant. Though Mr. Donald- 
son won out, Mr. Kilgore ran a strong race, and it appears that most of the disaffected 
Democrats did not return to the fold that year. 

The Republicans selected these candidates: Judge Simeon S. Willis, for Governor; 
Kenneth H. Tuggle, for Lieutenant Governor; Mary Landis Cave, for Secretary of 
State; Eldon S. Dummitt, for Attorney General; Charles I. Ross, for Auditor; Thomas 
W. Vinson, for Treasurer; John Fred Williams, for State Superintendent of Public 


Instruction; Elliott Robertson, for Commissioner of Agriculture; and E. E. Hughes, 
for Clerk of the Court of Appeals. 

The Democrats nominated: J. Lyter Donaldson, for Governor; William H. May, 
for Lieutenant Governor; Charles K. O'Connell, for Secretary of State; Ernest E. 
Shannon, for Auditor; Holman R. Wilson, for Treasurer; A. E. Funk, for Attorney 
General; George L. Evans, for Superintendent of Public Instruction; Tom Phipps, for 
Commissioner of Agriculture; Brooks L. Hargrove, for Clerk of the Court of Ap- 

They, after promising to "clean out the gang," repeal the income tax, appropriate 
increased funds for education and more benevolent attention to the pensioners and 
wards and returning soldiers, as well as the Negroes, set forth a "Bill of Particulars" 
so scathing that it is here quoted in full from their hand-bill: 

"Bill of Particulars 

"The Johnson-Donaldson political crowd promised Kentucky honest, honorable, effi- 
cient management. 

"But once safely in office, it: — 

"Gave no relief to burdened taxpayers though state income was far more than 
enough to meet expenses. 

"Strengthened by devious political practices a machine that already had the people 
by the throat. 

"Put and kept on the payroll men who by later acknowledgment didn't do one lick 
of work for the state. 

"Engaged in purchasing practices that its own personally selected committee found 
loose, preferential and wasteful. 

"Tried to put through a laundry-equipment deal that would have cost the taxpayers 
needless thousands of dollars and were kept from doing so only by courageous action 
on the part of the attorney general. 

"Attempted to keep on collecting tolls after the bridge at Covington had paid for 
itself and again were prevented from doing so by action of the attorney general. 

"Farmed out back-tax collections, at a fabulous commission, to Politician-Lawyer 
Clifford Smith, alias "The Brain." 

"Faced an injunction, obtained by the attorney general against Johnson and Donald- 
son, forbidding the assessment of state employees for campaign-fund purposes. 

"Denied, through Spokesmen Johnson and Donaldson, the receipt of $22,000 in 
illegal campaign funds, only to be forced to a confession by the actual evidence. 

"Appointed as finance manager for the Donaldson campaign a notorious lobbyist 
for big and special interests, thus giving the lie to its own promises of reform. 

"It's high time for a change!" 

Mr. Donaldson came out with a sensible, sane platform of economy, efficiency and 
support of the Roosevelt administration. He did not believe that the state budget 
could stand the loss of revenues brought in by the state income tax and therefore 
stated that he opposed its repeal. He wished very earnestly to be governor and 
probably would have made an efficient one, but he had too great a load to carry. 
Moreover, Judge Willis, a fine, impressive-looking man physically — a six-footer with 
a shock of gray hair and a twinkle in his eyes — proved to be a very popular and con- 
vincing campaigner, inspiring confidence everywhere he spoke. Even the old-time 
Democratic spell-binders, rabble-rousers and stem-winders could not stem the tide. 
Willis and the entire Republican ticket (with the exception of Mary Landis Cave for 
Secretary of State, beaten by the very popular and versatile Charley O'Connell) were 
elected by more than 5,000 majority. 



The Republicans were ushered in auspiciously. Both the Courier- Journal and 
the independent Democrats — even the vitrolic, truculent and predatory Howard 
Henderson — were inclined to wish well Governor Willis. Yet, he lost the support 
of all these, together with many Republican politicians, within a short time. Several 
factors are responsible for this rapid decline: (1) A chastened and contrite Democracy, 
ashamed of its disaffection and resolved to stick next time. (2) the Governor's failure 
to act quickly with a clear-cut decisive program in dealing with the Legislature early 
in the session. (3) The fact that the Governor, who had promised repeal of the in- 
come tax, was forced to back-track on his campaign promise. (4) The fact that 
though promises were kept in appropriations for education, the teachers and education, 
because of war-time conditions and an ancient and settled backwardness and con- 
servatism on the part of the generality of Kentuckians in matters pertaining to educa- 
tion, were little better off — actually worse off by comparison with all the other forty- 
seven states of the Union. (5) The welfare and penal institutions, because of war-time 
prices and shortage of able personnel were soon in trouble. (6) Governor Willis does 
not appear to like politicians and does not "play-ball" with them, it is said. Actually 
Governor Willis is a very attractive man whose honesty and sincerity can not be 
doubted. Yet, he is judicially-minded, which makes for conservatism and slowness — 
often being injurious to the executive. War-time conditions too have deprived every 
department of the full and efficient personnel needed for successful administration. 
Most of the Democrats held over (and the number is large) know departmental work 
better than most of the new Republicans. 

It is quite obvious that Kentucky ranking at the bottom among the states of the 
Union in welfare, education, antiquity of transportation laws, governmental organiza- 
tion, and many other things, needs reform. It appears quite clear that the entire people 
should go in for a vast and compelling crusade for general improvement and uplift. 
This should present a very challenging appeal to both parties and leaders. What the 
Republican party and /or Governor Willis will do are not yet known. As Senator 
Chandler seems upon the point of resigning his seat at this time (April 27, 1945) to 
accept the position of "Czar" of baseball, made vacant by the death of the colorful 
Judge Kenesaw Mountain Landis, many political speculators are of the opinion that 
Governor Willis will resign and that Lieutenant Governor Tuggle, becoming governor, 
will appoint Governor Willis to Chandler's vacated seat in the United States Senate. 

As time advances, the records clearly reveal that Governor Willis is sincerely desirous 
of planning improvement and advancement to the state. He has appointed several non- 
partisan committees, particularly the Post War Planning Council, which are undertaking 
to make a fair estimate of Kentucky's needs, as well as suggesting means of achievement. 
Since the end of the War, many signs indicate beginning action for the state's improve- 
ment. The Department of Education has announced a broad program of expansion, 
improvement and advancement; the Department of Conservation, guided by the enlight- 
ened policies of Federal agencies, has announced a forward looking program of soil 
improvement and preservation, forest improvement and preservation, and a fine program 
of recreation, embracing many sections of the state. The Welfare Department has also 
recently announced an incipient building program and adoption of improved methods 
in connection with the many institutions under its control and supervision. Barring a 
legislative session in 1946 controlled by parsimony and partisanism, the people of Ken- 
tucky may well look forward to the beginning of an era of advancement and prosperity 
in the state. 



An account of Daniel Boone's captivity as related by Nathan Boone, youngest son 
of Daniel, to Lyman Draper. 

The same evening occurred a dispute arose — probably in council as to whether the 
prisoners ears should be trimmed — i.e. to split the rim of the ear fully two inches in 
length in which when healed to hang bobs, &c. The two French officers got into a 
warm dispute about it, one proposing and favoring the measure & trying to persuade 
the Indians to adopt it — the other opposing; they finally drew their swords on each 
other, & Black Fish & other influential Indians interfered & prevented bloodshed. 
Boone asked Brubey, what this was about, & he told him. This Col. N. Boone thinks 
must have been the only thing this project of trimming of the ears — that Jackson 
alludes to, when he represents a council held to determine the fate of the prisoners. 
That possibly there may have been a council held, & Col. Boone may have in it spoken 
in behalf of the prisoners & demanded the fulfillment of the stipulations & that Jackson 
misunderstood the point discussed. 

Thinks the return march of the Indians to the Shawanoe towns, was one of severity 
& want but no distinct recollection except that some of the Indians had their ears 
frozen; — has heard his father speak, when in want of food, of having eaten slippery 
elm bark (rather loosening) and oak ooze by chewing tanbark (stringent) mutually 
to counteract any bad effects — & also knows Indians have what they call black drink 
made into a soup with weeds, — (what it is made of not known) which they take when 
they have overloaded their stomachs at a dog-feast, when they have tried to see who 
could eat the most, & wish to vomit; but cannot fix either of such resorts as having 
occurred on this march. Their route, or of crossing the Ohio not known. Recollects 
of some carrying kettles — no particular incidents connected with them remembered. 

Nothing particularly recollected as occurring at the Indian town — Black Fish & 
other Indians took Boone to Detroit. Gov. Hamilton offered to ransom him, but 
Black Fish would not part with him (probably retaining him, as I think, to carry along 
on the intended expedition against Boonesboro, to make use of him in effecting the 
peaceable surrender of the fort & people, according to Boone's promise made, in 
durance ?, when first captured — as Santa Anna acknowledged the Independence of 

At the first arrival of Black Fish, Hamilton learning the name & character of Boone 
as the principal prisoner, sent for him — wishing to keep & entertain him that night, 
& return him next morning. The Gov. wished to gain intelligence, — & had Boone in 
his room; & enquired if he had heard anything of Burgoyne's army? Yes, says Boone, 
it was well known in Ky. as a fact before I was taken, that Burgoyne & his whole 
army had surrendered to Gen. Gates. Gov. Hamilton then called to his private secre- 
tary, John Hay, in an adjoining room, saying — "Hay, the report of Burgoyne's disaster 
I fear is true; Capt. Boone says it was well known in Ky. before he was taken. Feel- 
ing convinced of it, Hamilton requested Boone not to mention it to the Indians, as it 
would do no good. You are too late, Governor, I have already told them of it," 
The Governor then desired that Boone would endeavor to speak slightly of the affair, 


as if it were mere vague report, & was unworthy of belief, — or that he had jokingly 
spoken of it. No recollection about any other conversation. 

Finding Boone could not be redeemed, the Governor gave orders to the King's com- 
missary to furnish Cap't Boone with a horse, saddle, bridle & blanket and also with 
a quantity of Indian silver trinkets to use among the Indians as currency. The horse 
furnished was a poney. Col. N. Boone thinks it very likely Col. D. Boone used some 
policy with Hamilton; but no knowledge of exhibiting his Dunmore commission. 

Returning from Detroit, Black Fish went down the Lake, & up Huron River, to 
visit the Mingoes, & other Indian towns — & fell upon the heads of Scioto & down it, 
visiting other Indian towns — giving them all notice to assemble for the grand expedition 
against Ky. 

The first of the Salt boiler captives who escaped & got in to the settlement, was 
Andrew Johnson. While a prisoner he made the Indians fully think he was a fool; 
would set him shooting a gun — he would be afraid of the gun & when he would shoot 
he would dodge his head back, & make awkard & bad shots — even missing a large 
tree when near a mark. Feigned fear to leave camp alone. The Indians would make 
much sport of him; & being small in size, gave him the name of pe-cu-la, or the Little 
Duck.* He was really an admirable woodman, & took an early occasion to run off, 
which he effected without difficulty as he was deemed by the Indians too foolish to 
know enough to attempt to escape — or if he attempted, to succeed in it, & hence was 
not watched as were the others. Johnson soon reached Boonesboro — & piloted a small 
party to the Indian country near Chillicothe & attacked several sugar camps all together 
adjoining each other & defeated the Indians there, perhaps killing one or more — & 
then returned safely back to Boonesboro (See Whitley's M. Co. narrative) . (This is 
doubtless the affair meant in Col. A. Campbell's letter, July 31, 78, that "A Captain 
& 11 men from Ky. went within 5 miles of Chillicothe lately undiscovered & returned 
safe." (possibly Capt. Smith & John Martins trip?) Undiscovered until they got 
within 5 miles of Chillicothe & attacked the sugar camps, as I suppose: No knowl- 
edge what subsequently became of Johnson when Black Fish & Boone returned from 
Detroit. Black Fish asked Boone who he thought it could possibly be that had done 
this bold act — as the Indians thought none of the Kentuckians knew the locality of 
the Indian towns & geography of the Indian country. Boone replied, more to annoy 
the Indians than really thinking it was so, that it was Pe-cu-la. No, says, Black Fish, 
it could not have been him — he was a fool & could not have reached Ky. He was no 
fool, but a man of good sense, & a fine woodsman, said Boone. Then why did you 
not tell me so before enquired Black Fish? "Because," Boone, you never asked me. 
'You had him herein for a laughing stock." Boone learned upon his return to Boones- 
boro that Johnson was the one who incited 6C piloted this little expedition. It gave the 
Indians much concern, as unimportant as it was, it being the very first enterprise of 
the Kentuckians against their towns; & was the first proof to them that the captivity 
of the large party of salt boilers was in a fair way to result as disastrously to the 
Indians as advantageously to the whites. 

Sam'l Brooks & James Calloway attempted to run off from the Detroit region, in 
canoe down Detroit river — in a fog — as it cleared off, they found themselves in the 
very midst of an Indian town on the bank of the stream, & were retaken — made to 
run the gauntlet, where were squaws & children & youngsters, who are always more 
unmerciful to one running the gauntlet than the men are, & both passed through a 
severe ordeal & Brooks particularly, who, when struck, would stop & strike the Indians 
in return, & during the race got his arm broke. They were put in confinement & were 
overheard planning another attempt to escape. Brooks had to talk loud, as Calloway 


was hard of hearing — & their design thwarted. Brooks died in captivity — & Col. D'l 
Boone used to say, that probably Brooks would have survived & returned, but for his 
irascible conduct & getting himself constantly embroiled in difficulties. Not recollected 
how James Calloway got away (Mrs. N. Boone don't recollect about his refusing to 
carry the salt kettle) . He settled in Missouri, in Howard Co. — probably children 
living — one, Stephen, in Platte or Buchanan Co. Jame Calloway has been dead 15 or 
20 years — Came to Mo. several years after the Bocnes, was brother of Flanders & 

Jesse Cofer, another of the captives subsequently returned — married a daughter of 
Sam'l Boone (brother of D'l Boone) settled & died in Ky. probably Clark Co. 

Nathaniel Bullock (not Nathan Bullitt as Kenton has it) was the name, as Col. N. 
Boone has often heard it: Don't know what became of him. 

Mr. & Col. N. Boone relate — that Black Fish sent Boone to fall a tree, & had him 
cut notches in it, holding something like a quart, in which to salt the horses. Boone 
got his hands blistered — & went & showed them to Black Fish (into whose family 
Boone was adopted — but the particulars of which are not remembered by either Col. 
N. or Mrs. Boone — but both are positive it was into Black Fish's family he was 
adopted) — says "see — you are making a slave of me — you don't treat me like a son; 
men warriors & hunters dont perform such menial services; in Ky. I had servants to 
do such work." Black Fish said it was true — & he need not work. Both Black Fish 
& his squaw treated him very kindly — seemed to think much of them: They had two 
children — girls, both small, names Pom-me-pe-sy & Pim-ne-pe-sy, the former some four 
or five years old, ill tempered & hateful; the youngest a mere child, perhaps a year old, 
a kind temper, & Boone used to nurse it frequently, & with his silver trinket currency, 
would buy maple sugar & give it to the children, who would smilingly call it 'molas. 
To show old Black Fish's kindness, as well as to show an Indian's idea of taste, Col. 
D. Boone used to say?, many a lump of sugar old Black Fish (some 50 years old, 
perhaps not quite so much) would suck awhile in his mouth, take it out & give it to 
his son Boone, — whom he always addressed as "my son." The name given him by 
Black Fish signified "The Big Turtle" (in Indian, as Moses Boone recollected, Shel- 
tow-y) . 

In Spring as the grass was getting up nicely, Boone asked Black Fish for permission 
to hopple & turn out his poney in the prairie? "Yes, after a little," replied the Chief. 
In half an hour after, he came to Boone, told him he could go & turn out his horse. 
Boone went, & soon discovered several Indians secreted flat in the old grass & dry 
weeds & brushes, with their guns — plainly enough placed there by Black Fish's orders 
to watch the prisoner & see if he evinced any disposition to run away. Boone pre- 
tended not to have seen them, turned out his poney & went to whistling as unconcernedly 
as if nothing had happened. He was thus watched two or three time, & finally was 
suffered to go at liberty. He might have effected his escape much sooner than he 
did, but as he had learned of the large Boonesborough expedition, he delayed till he 
could learn more definitely concerning it & the time of its marching — once his poney 
was missing — someone had taken it off, & he told Black Fish, who made reply that he 
thought he was out in the range — reckoned he would come back again. 

Indians thus borrow & use, without asking the owner, very frequently; & will not 
tell of each other thus trangressing. Boone knew full well his poney had gone in the 
same way, & only feared lest he should not be brought back in time to aid him in his 
premeditated escape. After three or four weeks, Black Fish came & notified Boone 
that his poney had got back. Boone forms ? he had been badly used, & his back was 


very sore; but good care & attention soon restored him again. Nothing was further 
said about this Indian borrowing. 

Sometimes to while away time, Boone would go out into the field & volunteer to 
aid his Indian Mother in hoeing the corn; Black Fish seeing which would say, "My 
son, you need not work, Your Mother can easily raise enough for us all." Black Fish 
would sometimes smooth over the dirt on the ground & mark out the geography of 
the country, apparently to amuse Boone. 

Wm. Hancock, who was a poor woodman, & discontented with his captivity & moody 
(as he afterwards used to say) did'nt see how Boone could be whistling and contented 
among the dirty Indians, when he was so melancholy. 

The "worst act the Indians ever did 'Boone used to say," was their taking the salt 
boilers, & learning ? them the way to to their towns & the geography of the Indian 
country — & that they it resulted in a real good to the Kentuckians, though at first 
they deemed it so great a disaster" — In shooting at a mark, he would purposely suffer 
the Indians to beat him, that they might not be jealous, was permitted to hunt alone. 

At length Black Fish & wife & a party went to the Scioto Licks & Salt Works — 
made some salt there a few days. It was probably at the Point Creek town Jimmy 
Rogers lived — a white man prisoner, who never abandoned the Shawanoes &C finally 
moved with the portion that went to Mo. & raised an Indian family, some of his 
children were educated — Got Boone to exercise his skill in gun making to stock a 
gun for him, which he did. An Indian also got him to stock a rifle barrel — Boone 
took it with him & did it in a rough substantial manner while at the Salt Licks. When 
previously out a hunting he had saved & secreted a few charges of powder & ball for 
the intended escape. Col. N. Boone thinks it was the second day on the way to Chilli- 
cothe from the Salt Licks (near night as Mrs. Col. N. Boone well recollects hearing 
Col. D'l Boone say) the Indians scared up a block of turkies, & chased some distance 
after them, & lighted in trees & while busily engaged in shooting them — all the 
Indians (number not recollected) had left the horses, Boone & the squaws & children 
— when Boone concluded he would start for Ky., as the Indian army was then assemb- 
ling — & cut the ropes & threw off the load of brass kettles — when his Indian mother 
discovering, asked him what he was going to do? He said he was going to see his 
wife. She said he must not do so, for Black Fish would be angry. He mounted his 
poney dC laid on whip, when the squaws raised a loud hallooing, to give the alarm. He 
was soon beyond hearing. Jimmy Rogers said (Whom Col. D'l Boone visited as well 
as the Shawanoes of Mo., who first lived at Owen's Station, 12 mi. nearly west of St. 
Louis, & afterwards onto the creek called the Burbees, which runs into the Merrimack 
river within three miles of where a village of Union now is. This was not the clan near 
New Madrid, unless these Mo. over emigrated from there. The remant of this band 
went finally, after several removes to Kansas River) when Boone escaped he was at 
first greatly afraid he had carried the gun he had stocked for him — but found it. 
That the Indians followed Boone's trail some distance & returned, saying he would 
get lost. But Rogers said he knew "better — that he was sure Boone would go as straight 
as a leather string home." 

Boone rode hard that evening & all night till about ten o'clock next morning, when 
the poney gave out. He had stopped but a few moments, when the creatures legs 
became so stiff he could scarcely move them: Took off the saddle, bridle & saddle 
blanket & hung them up in a tree (not a hollow tree) — & went on afoot as rapidly 
as he could, & that day crossed the Ohio (Col. N. B. thinks his father struck the 
Ohio, a little above Maysville) — tied a couple of dry logs (very likely a standing dry 
sapling, nearly rotted at the roots) tied together with a grapevine — placed gun & 


clothes upon it, & swam over pushing his raft before him. The first night after 
crossing the Ohio, wearied, he ventured to rest, & rapped himself up in his blanket, 
& went to sleep, when he was awakened by something seizing one of his toes (having 
taken off the moccasins, as usual) when he thought the Indians had him again — he 
humped, & judged it was a wolfe or fox, by the noise it made in scampering off. He 
had no more alarms. His feet getting scalded, by heat in walking, he peeled some 
oak bark, jamed ? up & made some ooze, with which he washed his feet, & proceeded 
the last day, somewhere not long after passing the Blue Licks, he killed a buffalo 
with his new gun, cooked 6C ate a delicious meal, cut out the tongue & took it along 
to present to his son Daniel whom he hoped to have found at Boonesboro. 



John Brown was perhaps the most notable proponent of separation and statehood. 
For this role he was preeminently equipped: distinguished family connections, out- 
standing military and civil achievements, superb educational training, affable disposition 
and pleasing manner. Brown was studying at Princeton when the British Army 
forced that college to close; he then enlisted in the Continental Army; soon became 
an officer under LaFayette. Before the close of the War, he entered William and 
Mary College, completing his course, then studied law in the office of Thomas Jefferson. 

In 1783 came to Kentucky to practice law, settling at Danville, then the center of 
the culture, society and politics of the District. In Danville he made friends quickly, 
gained a lucrative legal practice, established an enviable reputation. The keenly in- 
telligent French trader, Bartholomew Tardiveau, who arrived in Danville in May, 1789, 
in a letter to his friend, St. John de Crevecoeur, French consul at New York, called 
attention to Brown's prominence: "I find that he is held in great esteem. People em- 
ployed him with confidence in his capacity as a lawyer before his journey to New York 
but his absence has made him lose much of his practice. His friends want him to take 
up a political career, in which they are of the opinion that he will cut a distinguished 
figure. Competent people tell me that in Virginia he is inferior only to Mr. Madison — 
that is all, my dear friend, that I have been able to find about him up to now, and 
that is enough to make his acquaintance valuable." 

Presumably, the people of Kentucky believed that John Brown was the man best 
qualified to secure separation from Virginia and admission to the Union, as well as 
the opening of the Mississippi River, because they sent him to the Virginia Assembly; 
and in turn, for the same purpose, Virginia sent him to the Confederation Congress 
in 1787. 

During his absence from Kentucky, Brown's law practice was handled by his close 
friend, Harry Innes. A letter from Innes to Brown, in New Work, runs: "I do not 
think your business will suffer much i.e., the business now in court . . . you may rely 
upon every exertion of mine to do you and your clients justice. ... I am induced 
to think the court will give you every indulgence. I have publically offered assistance 
to . . . your clients. . . . The idea of your absence hath caused the litigants to desist 
suing even in the supreme court & the business to increase in the County Courts." 

Kentucky elected Mr. Brown as her first representative to the New Congress in 
1788 and again in 1790. He was sent as her first senator in 1792 and reelected until 
1805 when he refused to run for public office again, refused to accept even high 
presidential appointments. 


John Brown throughout life, was a public-spirited citizen, interested not only in 
politics, but in the commercial, cultural, and social advancement and happiness of his 
adopted state. Politically, he was a disciple of Jefferson. Early a scholar — one of the 
first members of Phi Beta Kappa — he continued a scholar throughout life. And he 
was as elegant physically as mentally. Elegant indeed was he in person, with the 
delicately carved features — the luminous brown eyes, the powdered hair, the fine lace 
stock and the velvet coat. He lived as aristocratically as did a great Virginian planter. 

judge Mcdowell 

Another distinguished leader of the period was Judge Samuel McDowell, who 
presided over all of the conventions save two, over the constitutional convention of 
1792, and was chairman of the joint session of the two houses receiving the newly 
inaugurated Governor Shelby the same year. Judge McDowell was a rugged Scotch 
Presbyterian from the Valley of Virginia — a man of calm dignity and sterling integrity. 
He was virtually indispensible to Kentucky during the critical period. Possessing a fine 
manly physique, a strong, intelligent face, a grave and majestic bearing, Judge McDowell 
was "in every position," writes Thomas Speed, "respected for his ability and reverenced 
for his high personal qualities." 

The people of both Virginia and Kentucky bestowed upon him numerous high 
offices. The governor of Virginia had appointed him one of the three judges of the 
newly established district court of Kentucky in 1783, at which time he removed his 
wife, seven of his sons, and two of his daughters, settling ultimately in Danville. "The 
weight of his character and the soundness of his patriotism," wrote John Mason Brown, 
"had inspired in the statesmen of Virginia a feeling of security as to the moderation 
and justice of the action that might be taken in the deliberative bodies of the District 
of Kentucky and of the certainty that his opinions would greatly influence public con- 
clusions. Some idea of his popularity can be gained by a consideration of election 
returns. For instance, the votes of Mercer County for the convention of May 1788 were 
as follows: Samuel McDowell, 275; John Brown, 240; Harry Innes, 213; John Jouett, 
196; and Christopher Greenup, 125. 

Attesting to his interest in the cultural and social progress of Kentucky was the 
fact that Judge McDowell in December 1786 organized, at his home, the "Political 
Club." This organization, to which many of the prominent lawyers, public officials, 
military and commercial leaders of the district were elected, included on its roster the 
names of Harry Innes, Christopher Greenup, John Brown, Thomas Todd, George Muter, 
and Benjamin Sebastian. Humphrey Marshall, the Federalist leader and historian, had 
been blackballed, and somehow James Wilkinson failed to become a member. "It 
would not have been possible," writes John Mason Brown, "to assemble another body 
within the district equal to these men in accomplishments, experience, and possession of 
public confidence." Judge McDowell showed notable foresight in organizing such a 
club in the new country. 


Judge Harry Innes, one of the most prominent of the state-makers, had also come 
from Virginia. He was of a highly respected family, had been a schoolmate and life- 
long friend of James Madison and had served Virginia with marked success in many 
tasks during the War. He came to Kentucky after having been appointed by the 
Virginia Legislature in 1784 to succeed Walker Daniel, killed by the Indians, as 
attorney general for the Western District. 


Arrived in Kentucky, Judge Innes took up residence in Danville, where he became 
popular and prominent within a short time. He was genial, bright, kindly, impulsive, 
and knightly. The portrait of him by Mathew Jouett, a portrait painted of him in 
middle age, reveals an open, handsome face, that of one who lives well; large, honest 
eyes; straight nose, somewhat pointed; bald from the forehead; good-natured mouth, 
with full lips; chin well formed; neck large and fleshy, with fine white lace stock. But 
he was far from being habitually composed. At times he became quite angry, yet he 
readily forgave; was even willing to forgive Humphrey Marshall, who had spent a life- 
time maligning and attempting to destroy him. 

Judge Innes was preeminently a public-spirited man, interested in civic development 
of all kinds, as is attested by the fact that he was a member of practically every impor- 
tant board and committee for social, educational and commercial promotion. He was 
decidedly a social creature, taking a genuine and lively interest in people; many confided 
in him. Tardeveau, pictured him, on one occasion, as knight-errant of a lady in distress. 
Innes enjoyed many warm friendships, that with John Brown being most notable. 

Judge Innes was selected as a delegate to practically all of the conventions; in these 
he was outstanding. All in all, he probably sought more persistently to secure free 
passage for Kentucky goods down the Mississippi than did any other leader. A com- 
plete summary of his arguments, denying Spanish right to close and setting forth the 
necessity for opening this artery, is found in a letter written to John Brown in December 
1787. "The navigation," he wrote years after to Wilson Cary Nicholas, "was all 
important to us, our every thought bore upon it." 

Judge Innes became disgusted with Congress when he learned, in 1787, that the 
northern states had voted to close the Mississippi in return for commercial benefits to 
the East, and wrote these statements in a letter to John Brown, December 7, 1787. 
"You will discover a sentiment in the address which plainly leads to this point that if 
our application is rejected we shall scarcely trouble Congress with a second deliberation 
on this subject ... If we should be compelled to adopt other measures we shall stand 
justified." This seems to be as far as Judge Innes, and, in fact, Kentucky went 
toward adopting "other measures," in spite of Humphrey Marshall's charges. Spain, 
of course, was eager for Kentucky to secede and join her. She made several overtures 
in dispatches which naturally were sent to the leaders, one of whom was Judge Innes. 
This fact was learned by Humphrey Marshall, who began a persection which lasted 
even after Innes's death. Innes was, in fact, Marshall's chief object of persecution in 
the "Spanish Conspiracy." However, his friends and the public in general remained 
loyal. Even President Washington, apparently unaffected by it, appointed him the 
first Federal judge of Kentucky and Congress refused to bring impeachment charges 
later. Yet Judge Innes was deeply affected personally by the ceaseless and relentless 
persecution, as is revealed in a letter of February 18, 1807, by his friend, Buckner 
Thurston, United States Senator from Kentucky. 

The principles of Innes were clear-cut. Polit'.caliy, he followed the Jefferson school. 
He, along with most of the leaders of Kentucky had opposed the ratification of the 
Federal Constitution, because of fear of losing the Mississippi River to Kentucky trade. 
He also possessed the humanitarian principles of Jefferson; he was one of the few 
members of the constitutional convention of 1792 who favored emancipation of the 

The historian, Richard Collins, closes his sketch of Judge Innes's life with this 
tribute: "He was a polished gentleman in all relations of private and social life ... a 
noble specimen of the old school, in dignified courtesy and varied intelligence. 

14— Vol. n 



Judge George Muter, who came to Kentucky toward the close of the Revolutionary 
War as one of the three judges of the newly established District Court, became one of 
the valuable builders of the commonwealth. He arrived in Danville distinguished with 
military and naval service for Virginia. "His long service as Quarter-Master of 
Virginia during the Revolution had made Judge Muter well-known to all the prominent 
personages of that state," wrote John Mason Brown. 

"He was eminently a connection link between the two peoples," continues Brown, 
"and his patriotism was indisputable." His position as Judge naturally lent prestige 
and made him prominent, but, in addition, Muter possessed a kindly, likeable per- 
sonality, as well as marked ability. Immediately following his arrival he became inter- 
ested in contributing to the safety and development of Kentucky. Together with 
Brown, Innes, McDowell and Logan, he was made a member of practically every im- 
portant public organization and committee. He was a member of all the conventions 
from 1785 to 1790, being chosen president of the last; had, with Harry Innes, been 
appointed by the convention of August, 1785, to carry to the Virginia Legislature the 
petition begging separation; was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1792, as 
well as an elector of that year. In 1785 Judge Muter had become Chief Justice of the 
District Court, sitting in Danville. This office he held until 1792, when he was appointed 
Chief Justice of the recently established Court of Appeals, continuing in that office 
until 1805. 

But, writes John Mason Brown, "he was vacillating as compared with the strong men 
with whom he came in contact, easily influenced, as events proved, and neither wise 
enough to keep counsel nor vigorous enough to permanently command the respect of 
contending parties." 

Judge Muter had begun his Kentucky career in Danville closely allied to the Jeffer- 
sonians — Innes and Brown. However, he had come from the same locality in Virginia 
as had the Marshalls, and, in the hands of Thomas or Humphrey, the poor man was 
like putty. He betrayed a confidence — probably brow-beaten into it — of John Brown to 
Humphrey Marshall, which was of grave import to the public, a breach of ethics which 
Brown apparently considered serious. In this connection, it seems almost incredible that 
Muter could have believed Brown guilty of involvement in a "Spanish Conspiracy" to 
detach Kentucky from the Union. 

Later, Judge Muter concurred in a decision concerning ownership of land which 
greatly incensed the public. However, shortly thereafter, he reversed his position. 
Strangely enough Humphrey Marshall was intensely interested in the case, in fact got 
to the United States Senate because of his militant stand against the first decision, as 
a member of the Legislature. Whether or not Humphrey helped Judge Muter, in this 
instance, to change his mind is not known. This can be said, however: Facing one of 
the overwhelming Marshalls was a trying experience indeed, but being confronted by 
two, and that two, Colonel Thomas and the redoubtable Humphrey, was a cataclysmic 

Never in his life had George Muter husbanded his economic resources, though having 
given without stint his entire energy and time to the public service. In the year 1805, 
superannuated and senile, he was induced by certain influential members of the General 
Assembly to resign from the bench, upon the promise that a pension would be granted. 
The ensuing session granted a pension of $300.00 per annum; however, the session 
following repealed it, thus leaving the helpless old man destitute, alone and without a 
home. The Governer, Christopher Greenup, a friend and associate of many years, 


vetoed the repeal bill, recounting the generous services of the aged jurist to Kentucky 
and charging the Legislators with violation of moral obligation. Governor Greenup's 
strong message was of no avail, however; the niggardly Assembly easily mustered a two- 
thirds majority to pass over the Governor's veto. 

At that point, another old friend and colleague, Judge Thomas Todd, recently 
appointed to the Federal Supreme Bench, took in Judge Muter, sustained and main- 
tained him. 


Isaac Shelby came to Kentucky to live in the year 1783. He was welcomed as 
a hero; he was mourned at death as a hero; and he was no less throughout life. Had 
he received no other appellative than, "Hero of King's Mountain," Isaac Shelby would 
have held a place in American history. But he was hero of many engagements: He was 
quite as gifted in the legislative hall, in the executive chamber, on the business mart 
and on the civic board as on the battle field; one of the most progressive and successful 
industrialists of his day, and, added to these, he was an ideal specimen of the practical 
noble man among men. 

In stature, Governor Shelby was not unlike his Welch ancestry: stocky, thick, powerful 
body, tending toward corpulency in late years; clear blue eyes and sandy hair; com- 
plexion very ruddy from robust out-of-door living. Yet his features were strongly 
marked; a largeness of the eye, an arch of the brow, a ruggedness of visage and a 
quiet strength of countenance, marking him decidedly as Isaac Shelby. 

His body was strong, and his constitution amazingly hardy, capable of enduring 
protracted exertions and extraordinary privations without noticeable fatigue; in fact, his 
powers of endurance were remarkable. 

His qualities of character were conspicuously harmonious with his physical traits: 
mental energy, indomitable courage, unrelenting persistency, unshakable resolution, 
sagacity, loyalty and magnanimity — these, joined with a personality habitually dignified 
yet affable, kind and winning — these, together with an indefinable something called in- 
dividuality were the personal attributes of Isaac Shelby. 

Prominent from his advent, Shelby quickly became a leader in Kentucky: Chairman 
of the convention, in Danville, of militia officers to consider means of protecting the 
District and securing independence from Virginia, November, 1784; member of the con- 
ventions of 1787, 1788 and 1789, and of the Constitutional Convention, of 1792; member 
of the important Kentucky Board of War, together with Charles Scott, John Brown, 
Harry Innes and Benjamin Logan, which was appointed by President Washington in 
1791; trustee of Transylvania Seminary; member of the Kentucky Society for the 
Promotion of Useful Knowledge; hero of the Battle of the Thames. 

In 1817 Governor Shelby was proffered the post of War in the cabinet of President 
Monroe, distinctly an honor, but one, which, because of advanced years, Shelby de- 
clined. Nevertheless, he was Kentucky's representative in 1818 in the convention with 
the Chickasaw Indians, which resulted in the acquisition of the territory known as the 
Jackson Purchase. 

With becoming modesty and magnanimity he steadily disclaimed credit for notable 
services in connection with the battles of King's Mountain and Cowpens, and vital 
services in the War of 1812. With fine magnanimity and loyalty, Governor Shelby 
defended George Rogers Clark, Harry Innes and William Henry Harrison, defended 
them in crises when it seemed that their reputations would be irreparably villified 
and blackened. 


That the leaders of Kentucky selected Isaac Shelby as first governor of Kentucky 
was natural; that he conducted himself in that office with a dignity, sagacity, fore- 
bearance, justice and gentility resembling that of George Washington was not an 
accident; because Isaac Shelby too, possessed elements of greatness. 

The historian, Lewis Collins, wrote: "He was the model of an elevated citizen, whether 
at the plow, in the field, or in the cabinet." 




Fellow citizens of the Senate, and House of Representatives: 

In meeting you again, it is with sincere pleasure I have to congratulate you and our 
constituents on the flattering prospect of our public affairs, the rapid progress of our 
agriculture, commerce and manufactures, and the general improvement of our country. 
We are assembled under a free and happy constitution to consult for the common 
good, to redress grievances, to remedy defects in the existing laws, and to adopt such 
measures as are best calculated to advance the welfare of the commonwealth. Coming 
from every part of the state, you must be better acquainted with the various interests 
of the community, and upon your superior wisdom and information, I chiefly rely for 
a due attention to the wants and concerns of our fellow-citizens. 

Persuant to a resolution of the last legislature, I enclosed to our distinguished fellow- 
citizen James Madison, late president of the United States, their address approbatory 
of his public services, and private worth, and have received his answer in April last, 
which I have now the honor to lay before you. 

Agreeably to another resolution passed at the last session, I opened a correspondence 
with the governors of Ohio and Indiana touching the difficulties experienced by our 
citizens in regaining their slaves who escape into those states, and am happy to inform 
you, that their answers evince a disposition on the part of their respective states to 
remove as far as practicable every cause of complaint, and to maintain with Kentucky 
the most friendly relations. A copy of the correspondence with each state is herewith 

The resolution respecting an armory, I am not yet prepared to comply with, but have 
been endeavouring to collect information, and hope to be able to make a full communi- 
cation on this subject, on some future day of your present session. 

The pecuniary affairs of the penitentiary are, I understand, in a prosperous state, 
but the report of the auditor which will be shortly laid before you, will give a satis- 
factory view of its concerns. There is on hand a considerable quantity of raw materials, 
and manufactured articles. Owing to the tardiness of the sales, the keeper has been 
obliged to advance money for the purchase of materials, for refunding which, immediate 
provisions ought to be made. The present agent with my advice has removed the 
articles manufactured to the neighboring towns to be vended, a measure which promises 
a speedy reimbursement of monies advanced and much advantage to the public. The 
condition of the building demands your particular and immediate attention. It is 
believed to be insecure, and to require repair and enlargement. I submit to your 
serious consideration whether it is just or expedient to sentence offenders to ad- 
ditional confinement who are tempted by the state of the building, and negligence of 
the guards to make their escape. Would it not be better to secure more vigilance on 
the part of the guards, by subjecting them to some punishment or penalty for neglect 


of duty. This institution, which originated in a spirit of philanthrophy, and a liberal, 
and enlightened humanity, ought not to be abandoned, or neglected. It has too long 
received the approbation of not only the wise and benevolent of our own state, but 
of most of our sister states; and must be viewed with a partial and benignant eye, 
wherever the life of rational, immortal man is duly estimated. I trust therefore that 
the legislature will repair, improve, and extend the building, and revise the regulations 
and management of the institution so far as it respects the reformation of offenders, 
one of the leading objects of the system. Some provision ought to be made for 
furnishing them with bibles, and books of morality, and for giving them religious 
and moral instruction. I would also advise that such of those unfortunate victims of 
folly and vice, who learn good trades, and conduct themselves well, should be entitled 
upon their discharge to a small compensation out of the profit of the institution to 
purchase tools, and enable them to commence business. Such a provision will probably 
produce both industry and amendment. But little good is done if the offenders go 
forth into the world unredeemed in any degree from the depravity for which they were 
cut off from their social state. 

I beg leave again to bring into view, the subject of education, one of the first im- 
portance that can engage your attention, whether we regard its influence on human 
happiness or the permanency of our republican system. Colleges, or universities, upon 
a large scale require considerable funds, and cannot be numerous — The Transylvania 
University, which had its origin in the liberality of our parent state, will soon, it is 
believed hold an eminent rank among the institutions of learning in the United States. 
I am not informed whether its funds are adequate or not, but think it would be wise 
in the legislature to extend to this institution every aid necessary to place it on the 
most respectable footing. It is hoped and expected that this university, situated in one 
of the most healthy and delightful parts of the United States, will render it not only 
unnecessary for the youth of our own state to be sent to distant colleges, but invite the 
young men of other states to finish their education here. There are considerations in 
favor of a good system of education, which strongly address themselves to our pride 
as a state. It should be remembered that Kentucky is the first member of the federal 
union that emerged from the western wilderness, and that she now holds a very high 
standing in the national government. And shall it be said that she is unfriendly or 
even indifferent to learning? Let it rather be our boast that Kentucky is as famed 
for science and the arts, as for the valor and patriotism of her citizens. 

To establish a perfect method of education, has long been considered, by the most 
enlightened friends of mankind, the best means of rendering a people free and happy. 
I therefore recommend to you, to arrange and adopt a plan extensive, diffusive, and 
convenient to every portion of the community. I would advise that all the settled parts 
of the state be divided into school districts, equal to five or six miles square, through 
the agency of the county courts, or in some other manner to be prescribed; a school to 
be established in each district free to all poor children, and to be supported, if not en- 
tirely, in part, at the public expense. We have many good schools, but nothing short 
of carrying education to the neighborhood of every man in the state can satisfy the 
just claims of the people, or fulfil the duty of the government. Few people are able 
to board their children from home, and unless schools are established conveniently to 
them, their education will be neglected. The distribution of schools in every neighbor- 
hood, would be attended with many advantages; they will not only improve the mind 
and moral habits of the youth, but will give more permanency, and a more settled 
character to our population. They will diffuse much useful instruction among all classes 
of people, and introduce a taste for learning and information. They will develop the 


mental riches of the commonwealth. The experience of the world has proved, that 
genius is not confined to any particular order of men; but Providence, in bestowing 
her choicest gift, intelligence, as if to mortify the pride and vanity of those, who from 
their birth and fortune would exalt themselves above their fellow men, delights to 
raise up the brightest ornaments of humanity from the most obscure and humble con- 
ditions of life. To instruct and improve the rising generation, is among the first duties 
of every American statesman. The American people in establishing their independence, 
and republican form of government, have done much; but much more remains to be 
done. These states are but recently transplanted from the nursery of freedom, and al- 
though in a thriving and promising condition, they have not acquired such maturity and 
strength, as no longer to need the care and skill of the political husbandman. To give 
success to this experiment of freedom, the youth of our country should be qualified to 
understand and enjoy its blessings. In vain have our ancestors bled; in vain did 
they hazard everything upon the issue of the revolutionary contest; in vain has our 
country been distinguished by the most sublime and elevated patriotism, if the in- 
estimable boon which they achieved is to be lost by a neglect of the means necessary to 
its preservation and progress. While the utility and importance of education is generally 
admitted, yet either because the beneficial effects appear remote or universal, the sub- 
ject does not seem to excite that lively interest and zeal which are usually awakened 
by questions of a local or personal character. When we reflect that this government 
has no need of a standing army to sustain or enforce its authority; but for its efficiency, 
essentially reposes on the patriotism and intelligence of the great body of the people, 
how obvious is the necessity of providing a system of instruction calculated to improve 
the minds and moral habits of the rising generation. 

Although our government, in its form and structure, is a departure from a simple 
democracy, yet it is a government of the people, instituted for their benefit, and 
essentially dependent on their will. It is true that every excitement of popular feeling 
and passion is not to be considered the will of the community; but the deliberate sense 
of the people cannot, ought not to be resisted. The American statesman, who have 
formed our system of government, warned by the fate of the tumultuous democracies 
of antiquity, long since buried beneath the depotism of the old world, have wisely 
constructed the vessel of state so as to prevent its being driven by every popular blast 
from its proper course, by interposing checks and balances, to stay the intemperance 
and rashness of the moment, and to give time for the sober reason of the community to 
be exercised. To protect the weak against the strong, the minority against the majority, 
and to secure all and every one against violence, injustice and oppression, the people in 
their highest sovereign character assembled in convention for that special purpose, have 
by a written constitution established certain rules and principles, and erected barriers 
to restrain and limit their own powers, and the powers of all those appointed under 
its authority; and these rules, principles, and barriers, they have solemnly pledged their 
faith to each other to observe inviolable, until the constitution itself shall be altered or 
abolished. By our constitution, powers of government are confided to the several de- 
partments, or bodies of magistracy, legislative, executive, and judicial, all deriving their 
authority mediately or immediately from the constitution, and intended to check and 
restrain each other from transcending their appropriate limits. Ours is not a simple 
democracy, in which the people exercise, in their own persons, the powers of administra- 
tion; their numbers and dispersed situation render it impracticable; but a representative 
government, in which they have confided to men chosen by themselves, for short and 
limited periods. The senate, by their age, experience, and term of service, is made a 
check on the house of representatives, and the executive on both; the two houses are 


in turn checks upon the executive. The judiciary is in some respects a check upon the 
legislative and executive departments, and yet responsible to them for misconduct. These 
several bodies of magistracy are so many pillars or corner stones of the temple of free- 
dom, the constitutional strength and independence of each one of which are essential 
to its preservation. This is an improvement in the science of government, which 
originated in the most profound wisdom and knowledge of human nature. Every man 
who will examine himself, must confess that he is often led by passion and prejudice 
into errors the most gross and extravagant; we acknowledge too that neighborhoods, 
counties, and nations are liable to err for a moment, from the same cause. If every 
impulse of any community was to be carried into full effect, there would be in such a 
state, neither confidence nor safety. And hence, the security afforded by the checks 
and balances I have mentioned; for which we are chiefly indebted to the wisdom and 
patriotism of the statesmen of our own country. 

The distinguished author of "Notes on the State of Virginia," in speaking on the 
subject near the close of our revolutionary contest, says "that the concentrating all 
the powers of government into the same hands, is precisely the definition of despotic 
government, and that 173 despots would be as oppressive as one. An elective des- 
potism, says this enlightened statesman, was not the government we fought for; but 
one which should not only be founded on free principles, but in which the powers of 
government should be so divided and balanced among several bodies of magistracy, 
as that no one could transcend their limits, without being effectually checked and 
restrained by the other. These checks cannot however operate as restraints upon the 
deliberate sense of the people; they can only produce a pause, and give them time for 
consideration; but if, after these checks have, with firmness, and fidelity, been inter- 
posed according to the spirit of the constitution, the people are still dissatisfied, their 
deliberate will legitimately exercised, must and ought to prevail. Fortunately for 
our republic there is reason to hope, that a little time will generally be sufficient to 
correct the errors to which we are liable. When we reflect how much the very existence 
of our government depends on the virtue and intelligence of the people, and for how 
many ages the friends of freedom, and human happiness have been struggling to devise 
some form of government alike secure against tyranny and anarchy, how indispensable 
is it to diffuse information, and qualify those who are to succeed us, to understand the 
plan and principles of government, furnished us by our revolutionary sages. Without 
intelligence the people never can be safe against the delusions to which they are exposed 
from the violence of party spirit, and the arts and intrigues of designing ambition. 
Deeming this subject of deep interest, in every respect in which it can be presented, I 
would suggest the propriety of appropriating a share of the dividends on bank stock, 
with such taxes as may be imposed on banks and corporations, with the lands stricken 
off to the state and forfeited, together with such as may be escheated to the common- 
wealth, to raise and constitute a school fund. There is reason to believe that a large 
quantity of land, the property of the commonwealth, is now held by individuals, or 
unsettled: I would therefore again recommend a revision of the law of escheats, and 
the appointment of escheators. It is probable that in some instances land liable to 
escheat is held by innocent purchasers: in such cases it would be equitable to release 
the right of the state upon reasonable terms. 

A state library, at the seat of government, would be very useful and convenient. 
The members of the legislature, public officers and judges, who attend the courts 
held at Frankfort, ought not to be entirely dependent on the private libraries of 
gentlemen of the bar, and other citizens. The surplus reports of the decisions of the 
court of appeals belonging to the commonwealth might be sold or exchanged for 


books. This fund with a small annual appropriation would probably be sufficient. 

I regret the necessity of once more pressing on your attention the anti-republican 
and highly criminal practice of selling offices, which is becoming too common and 
indeed fashionable. Shall the public offices in the republic of Kentucky be an article 
of sale in the market, or the reward of qualifications and integrity? This is the 
question to be decided. If this practice is sanctioned or even winked at, it will prove 
that while we profess, that the road to public station, is open to all, the poor as well 
as the rich, that they are in fact confined exclusively to the latter. The prevalence of 
such practices, especially if countenanced, is evidence of the decline, if not of the 
state, of the republican purity of the government. I therefore recommend a revision 
of the laws against selling offices, and the enaction of severe penalities, and effectual 
provisions to suppress this pernicious and illicit traffic. 

The use of steam boats, in our larger rivers, seems likely to give a new spring to 
the agriculture and commerce of the western country, and it is believed great advantages 
would be derived from the use of them on our smaller streams, if some practicable 
plan could be adopted to remove obstructions, and improve them. Whether this should 
be done at the public expense, or by inducements held out to private individuals or 
companies to undertake it, I submit to your better judgment. When it is considered 
that most of our fertile lands are distant from the Ohio, and that we are dependent on 
our smaller rivers for the transportation of the greater part of our surplus productions 
to market, the improvement of their navigation seems to demand the serious consideration 
and attention of the legislature. The state of our public roads, so important in facili- 
tating communication between different parts of the country, and carrying our produce 
to market, merits your notice. Experience has proved our plan for improving and 
keeping them in repair to be radically wrong. I would suggest the expediency of keeping 
them in repair by levy for the purpose, allowing each individual to pay in work on the 
road for which he may be taxed. This mode has succeeded well in other states where 
it has been tried. Of the provisions necessary, and proper on this subject, you will 

I take the liberty to mention for your consideration, the expediency of taking some 
immediate step, in cooperation with the general government, to extinguish the Indian 
title to that part of our territory lying west of the Tennessee River. This tract of 
country is very valuable, and important in a commercial view, and its settlement would 
add much to the wealth, strength, and population of the state. 

I felicitate you and my fellow citizens generally on the harmony of opinion that 
seems to pervade our nation. In the language of President Monroe, discord does not 
belong to our system of equal rights, and equal justice. Every honest and liberal man 
must rejoice at the prospect of a political jubilee, in a deliverance from the despotism 
of party names and feuds, which have so long distracted the public councils, and poisoned 
social intercourse. "United we stand, divided we fall" was the motto of our ancestors, 
who achieved our glorious revolution. Let us remember that ours is the only republic 
on the globe, and that a union among ourselves is necessary to insure success to our 
system. Let us therefore obliterate party spirit and unite our efforts to give strength, 
and maturity to our republican institutions. That we should occasionally divide on 
important questions, which frequently occur, is to be expected. Collisions of opinion 
is often useful in eliciting truth, by able discussions to which it gives rise. The American 
people were nearly equally divided on the question of adopting or rejecting the federal 
constitution; but this difference of opinion was not made a ground for eternal pros- 
cription or party division. Some difference of opinion occurred with regard to the 
national bank, the navy, and many other questions which have since arisen. In the 


progress of this government, new and important measures often produce an honest 
difference of opinion, which ought to be tolerated with the most charitable indulgence. 
Most of these subjects have had their day, and if we take a retrospect of the history 
of parties, and public men, in the United States, and test them by public sentiments 
as now settled, all will be found to have been partly right, and partly wrong. None 
can claim an exemption from error. And shall rational men, citizens of a free state, 
be divided by the mere magic of unmeaning names and terms? A party organized under 
any particular name merely for party or personal objects is dangerous in our republic, 
and its spirit is despotism. In order to preserve the accountability of public men, a 
fundamental principle of a free government, it is necessary that the people should be 
in a situation to pass an impartial judgment upon public measures, and the conduct of 
public men. Influenced by considerations of this nature, and a spirit of conciliation, 
I have to assure you of my cordial cooperation, in all measures calculated to promote 
the happiness, and prosperity of our common country. 

In closing my communication, I invite you to join me, in returning thanks to the 
Author of all good, for the abundant crops, peace and happiness with which our state 
and nation are blessed; and let us implore Him to extend to His kind and protecting 
care to our southern brethren now struggling for freedom and independence. As re- 
publicans we cannot be indifferent to their cause. That they ought to be independent 
of the powers of Europe, nature herself has decreed. From the school of freedom 
which we have established, there is reason to hope they will learn to institute republican 
forms of government; and although it may not be necessary or expedient for us to 
participate in their contests, let us beseech the same kind Providence that watched over 
us in times of difficulty and trial, to crown their efforts with success. 

Frankfort, December 2, 1817. 
Niles' Register, Vol. XIII, pp. 386-389, February 7, 1818. 



Common Schools 

Mr. Taylor, from the committee on education, made the following report, which, on 
his motion, was referred to the committee of the whole, and ordered to be printed. 

Article ____ 

Sec. 1. "The diffusion of knowledge and learning among men being essential to 
the preservation of liberty and free government, and the promotion of human virtue 
and happiness, it shall be the duty of the general assembly to establish, within ____ years 
next after the adoption of this constitution, and forever thereafter keep in existence, 
an efficient system of common schools throughout this commonwealth, which shall be 
equally open to all the white children thereof. 

Sec. 2. The fund called and known as the school fund, consisting of $1,225,768.42, 
secured by bonds given by the state, and payable to the board of education, and 
$73,500 of stock in the Bank of Kentucky, also the sum of $51,223.29, being the 
balance of interest on the school fund for the year 1848, over and above the charges 
against that interest for said year; all of which said sums of money and stock, and 
the interest and dividends accruing thereon and therefrom, be, and the same is hereby, 


set apart, dedicated, declared to be, and shall remain, a perpetual fund; the principal 
of which shall never be diminished by legislative appropriation or enactment. The in- 
terest thereof, together with any other fund that may arise by taxation, heretofore or 
hereafter imposed by the general assembly in aid of common schools, shall be inviolably 
applied and devoted to the creation, support, and encouragement thereof in this common- 
wealth, for the equal benefit of all the children therein, whose instruction shall be pro- 
vided for by law; and no law shall be made authorizing said fund, or any part thereof, 
to be diverted to any other use or purpose whatsoever, than that to which the same is 
herein before dedicated. 

Sec. 3. The interest arising from the fund in the second section of this article men- 
tioned, as also any sum which may have arisen, or may hereafter arise from taxation 
imposed from the purposes aforesaid or otherwise, shall, in any system of common 
schools which the general assembly may establish, be distributed among the several 
counties, in proportion to the number of children therein. 

Sec. 4. It shall be the duty of the general assembly to provide for the investment 
of the sum of $51,223.29, in the second section of this article mentioned, in some safe 
and profitable manner, the interest upon which shall be applied as in said second sec- 
tion directed. 

Sec. 5. Whenever, for the period of one year, there shall remain unused of the fund 
set apart and made applicable by the second section of this article to the establishment 
and support of common schools, the sum of ten thousand dollars, it shall be the duty 
of the governor to fund the same, which shall constitute a portion of the permanent 
fund for the support of common schools; the interest arising thereon only to be ap- 
plied in aid thereof, as in the second section of this article mentioned: Provided, 
That if any county have failed to organize common schools therein for five years, it 
may, at any time after an organization, draw whatever sum then be due to it, provided 
the same has not been funded as herein directed. 

Sec. 6. The general assembly shall provide the ways and means for the prompt 
payment and safe custody of the interest now due, or which may hereafter accrue 
upon the bonds given by the state, and payable to the board of education. 

Sec. 7. There shall be elected, by the qualified electors in this commonwealth, a 
superintendent of public instruction, who shall, hold his office for __ years, and whose 
duties and salary shall be prescribed and fixed by law." 

* * * 

Mr. Hardin: "I did expect to have heard from the chairman of the committee, (Mr. 
Taylor,) some explanation of this system of common schools, and it may be that he 
designs to give us one yet. I am as much a friend to the diffusion of education, and 
perhaps, according to my means, have done as much towards that end, as any man in 
the state; not only in educating those I feel bound from nature to educate — my own 
children — but others. Yet I am unwilling to have any provision of this kind adopted 
in the constitution. We have now packed it very heavy, and I do not believe it will 
carry this additional load; particularly after what we did a few moments since, in 
relation these commissioners to revise the laws. . . . 

I desire to offer, for the consideration of the convention, a few facts and figures, 
in explanation of my course upon this subject. When the United States distributed 
to Kentucky her proportion of the surplus revenue, amounting to $1,433,757.39, Ken- 
tucky pledged herself, that she would set apart $850,000 of that money for common 
school purposes. The school fund, as a fund, never had an existence, except in that 
mere pledge of the state to herself; there never was a dollar appropriated to tha 


common school fund, except in this instance of $850,000. That money we borrowed 
— we call it borrowing — for thirty-five years. 

To raise the amount this section proposed would require a tax of near three cents. 
Now, has there been any vote in the state upon this additional tax? I know of none; 
and for my own part, I should prefer this matter should be left open to legislation. 
It is not worth while for the convention to do all the legislation of the country right 
at once. Let us leave some little for the legislature to do. Are you afraid of the 
legislature? Surely not. If it is necessary, they will do it — if not, they will do as 
much as is convenient. ... 

On the three cents proposed to be levied, we would pay perhaps $1,500 or $2,000; 
and yet we have never had a free school, nor will we ever have one in Nelson county; 
and I will challenge any county in the state, to produce an equal population, with 
only equal means, that expends more money on colleges and schools of various kinds, 
that we do in Nelson county. 

I have no opinion of free schools any how — none in the world. They are generally 
under the management of a miserable set of humbug teachers at best. . . . 

a. The worst taught child in the world, is he who is taught by a miserable country 
school master; and I will appeal to the experience of every man here who ever went to 
those schools, to say how hard it is, to get clear of the habits of incorrect reading and 
pronouncing, they have contracted, at these country schools. For myself, I will say, 
it cost me nearly as much labor as the study of the legal profession itself. 

Now, Kentucky embraces over 40,500 square miles, and free schools cannot educate 
scholars, upon a larger theatre than nine square miles; and if we scatter them all over 
the state fairly, it would require a number of schools beyond what the means of the 
state, after paying the expenses of government, could provide. Not less than 4,500 
free schools would be required; or if we do not do that, the result will be, that the 
poor and thinly peopled counties, although taxed for, would not have the benefit of 
those free schools, that will be the result. I would not send a child to a free school, 
and would rather pay for his education myself. 

This thing will be manifestly unjust in its operations upon the country, as compared 
with the towns and cities, on the Ohio border particularly. It is manifestly unjust as 
to a large portion of the people of Kentucky, in a religious point of view. There is 
Catholic population of perhaps sixty thousand in Kentucky. We know that they de- 
vote more money, time, and energy, to the education of their children, than any other 
religious denomination in the state; and I say it, because coming from a protestant, I 
hope the admission will be taken as true. Do you believe that they will ever have the 
management of our free school system? Do you believe that they will ever send their 
children to a free school? No, never, never. I talked to the leading Catholics, and 
they protested against it. And yet, some sixty thousand people are to be taxed for free 
schools, to which they will never send a child. 

Will the members of this convention, by the adoption of this report, fix its pro- 
visions upon the people as long as this constitution shall last? You are to pay the in- 
terest on the several sums amounting to something like $74,000 or $76,000, for all time 
to come, if you do that. Then no matter how unpopular or how objectionable it may be 
to the people, they cannot get rid of it without calling another convention. I beg of 
the convention to bear this in mind, and not put it in the constitution. Leave it open 
to the legislature. In the name of God, are we to leave nothing to the legislature? . . . 

Leave them a little to do — let them decide what shall hereafter be done as to these 
free schools. I had far rather that this tax of three cents should be appropriated to 


the endowment of colleges and academies, for the education of young men capable of 
teaching, than see it thrown away, as is here proposed. 

I am confident that the country will not approve of the system. It may be an ad- 
vantage to the towns, but it will be a great burden on the country, to which they should 
not be asked in justice to yield. The towns should remember, as the old saying goes 
among the women, "if, when you go to market you expect to get meat, you must ex- 
pect to get bones also"; and they must expect to get their share of inconveniences as 
well as advantages, by living in town. I hope, therefore, we shall not adopt this report." 

*»» ifc ^ 

Mr. Gholson: "I am as much in favor of common school education as any gentleman 
of this floor, but it is well known that we have no school fund, unless we take it out of 
the pockets of the people. If we put into this constitution the provision now before 
us, the money will have to be raised by additional taxation; and to this I cannot consent. 

On the subject of education, it cannot surely be that this convention will tax the 
people against their will. Let us pass it by, and leave it to the people's representatives." 

* * * 

Mr. Proctor: "Sir, while we are making a constitution that confers on the people 
the power of choosing all the officers of the government, both civil and political, how 
important is it that we should also extend to them, as far as we can, the means by 
which they may inform themselves as to the nature and responsibilities of those high 
trusts thus confided to their charge. Much, Mr. President, has been said upon the 
floor of this convention about the capacity of the people of Kentucky for self-govern- 
ment; and while I believe that the people of Kentucky will compare with any upon 
the globe for virtue, patriotism, and hospitality; and that they are perhaps, possessed 
of more native genius, and fertility of intellect than any people who have ever lived 
in any age or clime; yet, sir, the fact is not to be disguised, that there are a large 
number of persons who are both ignorant and uneducated, and subject to be controlled 
by the vicious and unprincipled. It appears by the males and females over the age of 
five and under twenty years of age, 233,710 persons. Of this number, there were in 
colleges and universities 1,419; in academies and grammar schools 4,906; in common 
schools 24,641; making a total of 30,966, leaving over 200,000 children between the 
ages of five and twenty not in school. And most deplorable of all, Mr. President, is 
the fact, that there was at the same period of time in this proud old commonwealth of 
ours, of which we boast so much, over forty thousand free white citizens over the age 
of twenty years, who could neither read nor write; a fact that is not very flattering to 
our vanity as Kentuckians. 

If it is right that the people be educated — if it is right that the fund which the 
people of the state have so generously voted to tax themselves with, for the purposes 
of sustaining a system of common schools, should be sacredly applied to that purpose 
— if sir, it is right that the money which was set apart to the state of Kentucky — by 
the general government, and which was originally intended for the purposes of educa- 
tion, should be applied to that purpose alone — why I ask, should we leave the matter 
to the future control and management of the legislature? If the thing is right, why 
should we not take the responsibility and act upon it? Why leave to others to do that 
which we are required to do ourselves? Why put off the good work, a work in which 
our children and our children's children are most deeply and most vitally interested. 
Mr. President, there is no doubt this day — many a "mute Milton" in the mountains of 
Kentucky, the energies and powers of whose mind have been repressed and checked 
by "chill, penury, and want," yes sir, minds which if early cultivated, might have 


"commanded the applause of listening senates" and who might have raised themselves 
above the common level of mankind and have achieved honor for themselves and glory 
for their country. But from the situation in which they have been placed, the grandeur 
of nature has availed them nothing, and their mountain homes, which under the proper 
state of intellectual improvement might have echoed the song of the poet, or the elo- 
quence of the orator, has remained as a sterile and uncultivated waste. 

Mr. President, I have thought it due to myself, and to those whom I represent, to 
say this much. And sir, whatever may be the action of this convention, I shall console 
myself by the reflection that in my humble efforts, in behalf of a system of common 
schools, to the best of my ability, I have discharged my duty, to myself, my consti- 
tuents and posterity." 

;|; % %. 

Mr. C. A. Wickliffe: "What has become of the school fund since that time, I do 
not know. But I am opposed to adopting as a part of the constitution, this common 
school system, sometimes called the free school system. I use the term common, as 
opposed to individual or private schools. 

If we have a school fund secured, and set apart by the legislature of the country, 
I want to leave that fund to the disposition of the legislature for educational purposes." 

* * * 

Mr. Taylor: "The gentleman from Nelson (Mr. Hardin,) propounded to us a 
singular question, one which I dare answer, and which I will make the record before 
my answer. Said he, are you afraid to trust the legislature? — I am. He asked it 
with great emphasis and confidence — I answer it in the same spirit — I am afraid to trust 
the legislature; and the reasons for that distrust, I will give, drawn from legislative 
records on this subject. . . . 

In the year 1836 there had accumulated in the treasury of the United States about 
twenty-eight millions of dollars beyond the demands against it, the most of which had 
arisen from the sales of the public lands, the common property of the people. Con- 
gress determined that large amount of surplus revenue should not lay there idle 
and unproductive; nay, sir, fearing perhaps that it might be devoted to bad and sinister 
purposes, passed an act ordering it to be distributed among the several states in the 
ration of their representation in that body, and thus, sir, the most singular spectacle 
was exhibited to the world, of a government making among the governed, a parental 
distribution of twenty-eight millions of dollars which had accumulated in its coffers, a 
spectacle never before seen, and which I fear will never be seen again, at once the 
noblest and most cheering commentary upon free government, and the integrity and 
justice of its administration. 

Kentucky accepted her share upon the condition imposed by congress; and upon the 
23rd day of February, 1837, passed an act in which I find the following section: 

"Be it further enacted, That the profits arising from one million dollars of the surplus 
revenue of the United States, deposited and to be deposited with the state by virtue 
of the act of congress of the 11th of June 1836, be and is hereby set apart and forever 
dedicated to founding and sustaining a general system of public instruction in this 



Sir, to what nobler purpose could such a fund have been dedicated. The legislature 
of Kentucky felt then as we now feel; being the just and proper reflex of public senti- 
ment, what did the representatives of the people do? They set apart one million dollars 
and forever dedicated it to a general system of public instruction. . . . 


Well, sir what has become of this fund and of its accumulations? Permit me to 
read from the report of the superintendent of public instruction: 

"In the midst of such circumstances as these, the state of Kentucky found herself 
embarked in an extensive system of internal improvements, designed to develop her 
resources and increase the general wealth. The funds necessary to carry on her exten- 
sive operations, were raised by the public credit, exhibited in the form of state bonds, 
which were issued and sold to a large amount; and in order to sustain the credit of these 
bonds, and provide the means for the regular payment of interest accruing on them, 
and the final discharge of the bonds themselves, a sinking fund was created, and a 
large portion of the proceeds of the taxes, annually handed over to the commissioner 
of that fund. The bonds held by the board of education represented $850,000, which 
the state having first consecrated to the cause of education, subsequently used in prose- 
cuting its plans of internal improvement, the board of education stood, in regard to 
the bonds it thus held, precisely in the relation of any other fair holder of these internal 
improvement bonds; unless, indeed, the peculiar nature and origin of the school fund, 
thus invested, should have given a peculiar sacredness to the debt thus held by that 
board. Yet, it is most painful to be obliged to state, that the legislature of the state, 
for the year 1844-45, took a view of this matter so entirely different, that by the 4th 
section of the act, approved February 10, 1845 — chapter 264, of the laws of that session 
— it required all the state bonds by the governor of the commonwealth, and to be, by 
him, burn in the presence of the high officers of state. As if to mock the great cause 
which had thus been betrayed, the act proceeded to declare, that lists should be made 
out of the evidences of debt thus burnt, and that these lists, though deprived by the 
act itself of all value in the way of delivery, transfer, or assignment, and practically 
robbed of all advantage, thenceforth, from the sinking fund, which had been created 
to sustain and finally discharge just such bonds, should, nevertheless, be held and taken, 
as in the place of the bonds that had been burnt, and be as sacred as they had been. 
Practically, that is, sacred enough to be burnt themselves, whenever the exigences of all 
public credit might seem to render such a proceeding desirable against the defenceless 

So sir, we see this fund was first dedicated to the improvement of the head and 
heart, the morals and the intellect of the country, to the noblest of all improvements — 
to the accumulation of that wealth "which taketh no wings and flyeth not away" — of 
which no adverse fortune can ever deprive us, and against which no commission of bank- 
ruptcy can ever issue. "Who so knoweth the things of a man, pave the spirit of the 
man that is in him?" The legislature have not spread on the record the reasons which 
induced them to order those bonds to be burnt. They were afraid, I infer, that they 
would be put in market. They directed them to be listed, and if the auditor's office 
should be burned, the tangible evidences of this large debt to the children of the state 
would be gone; there are no bonds as I understand in existence. Has the interest on 
this eight hundred and fifty thousand dollars been paid, and kept ready (to use the 
language of the act of 1837) for abstraction? No sir. On the 20th day of December, 
1848, a bond for $308,768.42, being the arrears of interest due upon said $850,000, 
was executed by the state. There is also $51,223.29 of interest due for the year 1848. 
So it will be seen that the interest has not been paid; and this large interest bond of 
$308,768.42 is payable at the pleasure of the legislature. Should not, I ask, the people 
be justly jealous of the legislature? Have they not a right to be so on this subject; 
and being so, I as one of the friends of education, am for placing in the constitution 
which we are now forming a clause, dedicating this great fund to this still greater 


cause. It is the honor enough to be a delegate on this floor; but it is a still higher 
honor to have been instrumental in securing this fund to the glorious cause of education. 
Mr. President, I threaten no gentleman on this floor with his constituents — I point 
no one to the reckoning which will be made with him in reference to the custody and 
use of this great fund. Home, sir; 'tis the most beautiful and fascinating word in the 
English language, doubtless on account of its associations — grouping within its circle, 
wife, children, and friends. I dare any man here to go home and look the mother of 
his children in the face, and tell her, who is the partner of his joys, his troubles, and 
anxieties, that he opposed the constitutional devotion and security of this money for 
the education of her children. I want every mother to know that if the father of her 
children shall be taken away, that there is a fund set apart by the constitution of her 
country, for their education — that though they are indeed orphans, yet their moral and 
intellectual culture has been provided for by the state, whose rulers they are to in a 
few short years. Yes, gentlemen, when you shall return home, and sit down at your 
own firesides, rendered festive by your presence, and secure and happy by your presence, 
when your children — the buds and blossoms along the pathway of human life — shall be 
throwing their little arms around your neck, and telling you, in their artless simplicity, 
the little domestic incidents that have occurred in your absence, can you, in such an 
hour, tell the wife and mother that you have had an opportunity of providing a system 
of schools for them, and have not done it? Will you throw over this sunshine of the 
heart the pall of neglected and violated social obligation and duty, by your failure to 
protect and secure this fund from legislative rapacity and duplicity?" 

Mr. Root: "Here are assembled a hundred wise men, not of the east, but of the 
west, engaged in a work which is to affect the destinies, for good or evil, of the people 
of this commonwealth, perhaps for a century to come. They have the great public 
interests in their hands. Will they let the opportunity pass of acting in accordance 
with it? Will they do it? Is there a man here who is prepared to do it? I believe 
that the people are prepared for a general system of education. I believe, according 
to the report of the honorable chairman of the committee on education, we ought to 
dedicate that entire fund to the founding of a system of general education. I think 
the people will concur in the adoption of that measure, and I believe that every man 
who votes for it will be hailed by his constituents as a benefactor of his race. 

Here we have a learned body of men, understanding the great interests of the 

commonwealth; now strike for the interest of your constituents, and my word for it, 

if you do die politically in the attempt to do the people good, your praises will be 

echoed, and your names eternized, when a new generation shall arise and call you 


* * * 

Mr. Bowling: "The fund called and known as the school fund, consists of $1,- 
225,768.42, secured by bonds given by the state, and payable to the board of educa- 
tion; $72,500 of stock in the Bank of Kentucky, and $51,223.29, balance of interest 
of the school fund for the year 1848, making, in the aggregate, the sum $1,350,491.71. 
The interest upon this fund, on which the state pays five per cent, amounting to 
$67,524.58, when added to the two cent tax voted by the state upon each $100 worth 
of taxable property, which amounts to $56,000, would constitute an annual school 
revenue of $125,524.58. This sum when divided among 192,999 children, the total 
number of the commonwealth, would give to each per annum, 64 cents only. At first 
blush it would appear that a sum so inconsiderable was too small to lay even the 


corner stone of this benign system. Yet a further enquiry will demonstrate its suf- 
ficiency to perpetuate an efficient system of free schools in every commonwealth, for 
nearly five months in every year. Allowing an area of six miles square to a school 
district, it would require, in the whole state, twelve hundred and fifty teachers; whose 
services at $20 per month, (and that amount, when it was known to be certain, at 
the end of the session, would procure good ones,) for five months, would amount to 
$125,000 — a sum only $1,475.42 over and above the annual school revenue — so that 
if the state were to seal hermetrically, her coffers to the cries of her children for 
mental bread and light which shineth in darkness, the system of free schools would 
find an efficient basis in the national donation, and the charity voted by the people, 
if once this holy fund was secured against the fingers of a time-serving legislature. 

It is my honest conviction that the people desire that a system of free schools should 
be fixed in the constitution. It has been the fashion of gentlemen in this hall to vol- 
unteer prognoses as to what would gain votes for the new constitution, or militate 
against its reception by the people. But, sir, let these hundred chosen delegates go 
home and tell the anxious thousands that will greet their return, that a part of our 
labors here, insures to the descendants of this land of heroes and of song, the keys 
to the temple of knowledge. That henceforth, under the new organization, schools 
are to spring up in every neighborhood, and to be as free as the gush of waters from 
the mountain rock. In the beautiful language of my friend from Mason, (Mr. Taylor,) 
— who is indeed imbued with the spirit of the beautiful — that they will arise like fire- 
flies at summer sunset, giving life and hope to each other — light to the young, hope to 
the middle-aged, and consolation to the old. 

Tell them that the mountains and the valleys and the plains of this heavenly heri- 
tage are to be studded with school houses, which like the temples of the living God, 
are to be free to all, without money and without price. Tell the children of the poor 
and unfortunate that hope heretofore, that mystic shadow of good, which receded 
as they advanced, and whose home was fabled terminus of the rainbow has been 
made to receive substantive proportions and to become a smiling reality. 

Tell them that fountains of living water have been opened up, in which the budding 
desire for knowledge may lave its thirst, and where all are invited to come and par- 
take freely. Let this be told there sir, and a voice redolent of thanksgiving and bene- 
diction will go up from half a million of the best of our people, to the God of the 
Widow and the fatherless." 

-fc *r t» 

Mr. C. A. Wickliffe: "I subscribe in the main to all that has been said, or can be 
said, in favor of the necessity and the importance of such a duty." 

* * * 

Mr. T. J. Hood: "But as a last argument by the learned gentleman from Nelson, 
(Mr. Hardin,) against any constitutional provision, securing and establishing the school 
fund heretofore set apart, we are met with the startling annunciation that there is no 
school fund; that as most it is but a debt which the state owes to herself, and which 
she may at any time cancel; that the money has all been expended, and so, in truth, 
and in fact, there is no school fund. That is, when the argument is analyzed and 
translated into plain English, (about which we have heard so much to-day,) we are to 
be told that the dedication of $850,000, some years ago, to common school purposes, 
and its subsequent investment in state bonds, bearing interest, so that the fund might 
become productive, and the schools sustained, without trenching upon or destroying 
the principle, was all a splendid farce, and to amuse and delude the people — while the 


money was being sunk in the bottoms of your rivers, and spread along your roads in 
various works of internal improvement; and now, sir, when the play is through, and 
the money all gone, the delusion is to be brushed away, and the eyes of the people to 
be opened to the fact that there is no school fund. This is a system of spacious reasoning 
which, I trust, the great state of Kentucky will not subscribe to. Sir, those bonds were 
executed in good faith, and the honor and credit of the state were pledged to their 
payment, and to the payment of the interest upon them. The character of every citizen 
is, to some extent, identified with the honor and good faith of the state, and Kentucky 
will not, in my humble opinion, be true to herself and her past distinguished reputa- 
tion, if she does not fully redeem the pledge given by these bonds to the poor children 
of her citizens. She must either pay those bonds or repudiate them. There is no other 
alternative. If she should choose the latter, then I confess the rising generation will 
be without a remedy. But what becomes of the fair fame of this good old common- 
wealth? Sir, Kentucky will not repudiate those bonds or any other honest debts she 

has ever contracted." 

^ >^ >s< 

Mr. C. A. Wickliffe entered into some further explanations, and then withdrew his 
amendment (with which Mr. Barlow's also fell,) and submitted a modified amendment, 
as follows: 

"The capital of the fund, called and known as the common school fund, consisting 
of $1,225,768.42, for which bonds have been executed by the state to the board of 
education, and $73,500 of stock in the Bank of Kentucky; also the sum of $51,223.29, 
balance of interest on the school fund for 1848, unexpended; together with any sum 
which may hereafter be raised in the state, by taxation or otherwise, for purposes of 
education, shall be held inviolate, for the purpose of sustaining a system of common 
schools; the interest and dividends of said fund, together with any sum which may be 
produced by taxation, may be appropriated in aid of common schools, but for no other 
purpose. The general assembly shall invest said $51,223.29 in some safe and profitable 
manner, and any portion of the interest and dividends of said school fund, which may 
not be needed in sustaining common schools, shall be invested in like manner. The 
general assembly shall make provision, by law, for the payment of interest of said school 
fund: Provided, that each county shall be entitled to their proportion of the income 
of said fund, and if not called for school purposes, it shall be reinvested for the benefit 
of each county, from time to time." 

Mr. Turner moved the previous question, and the main question was ordered to 
be now put. 

The amendment of the gentleman from Nelson was then adopted. 

15— Vol. II 




Isaac Shelby, June 4, 1792. 
James Garrard, June 1, 1796. 
James Garrard, June 2, 1800. 
Christopher Greenup, Sept. 5, 1804. 
Charles Scott, Sept., 1808. 
Isaac Shelby, Sept., 1812. 
George Madison (a), Sept., 1816. 
Gabriel Slaughter (b), Oct. 21, 1816. 
John Adair, Sept., 1820. 
Joseph Desha, Sept., 1824. 
Thomas Metcalfe, Sept., 1828. 
John Breathitt (a), Sept., 1832. 
James T. Morehead (c), Feb. 25, 1834. 
James Clark (a), Aug. 30, 1836. 
Charles A. Wickliffe (d), Aug. 27, 1838. 
Robert P. Letcher, Sept., 1840. 
William Owsley, Sept., 1844. 
John J. Crittenden (e), Sept., 1848. 
John L. Helm, July 1, 1850. 
Lazarus W. Powell, Sept., 1851-55. 
Charles S. Morehead, Sept., 1855-59. 
Beriah Magoffin, Sept., 1859-62. 
James F. Robinson, Sept., 1862-63. 
Thomas E. Bramlette, Sept., 1863-67. 
John L. Helm (a), Sept., (5d) 1867. 
John W. Stevenson (g), Sept., 1867-71. 
Preston H. Leslie (h), Sept., 1871-75. 
James B. McCreary, Sept., 1875-79. 
Luke P. Blackburn, Sept., 1879-83. 

J. Proctor Knott, Sept., 1883-87. 

Simon B. Buckner, Sept., 1887-91. 

John Young Brown, Sept., 1891-95. 

William O. Bradley, Dec, 1895-99. 

William S. Taylor (i), Dec, 1899; Jan. 31, 

William Goebel (j), Jan 31, 1900; Feb. 3, 

J. C. W. Beckham, Feb. 3, 1900; Dec, 1903. 
J. C. W. Beckham, Dec 8, 1903; Dec, 1907. 
Augustus E. Willson, Dec. 10, 1907; Dec, 

James B. McCreary, Dec. 12, 191 1, to Dec, 

Augustus O. Stanley, Dec. 7, 191 5, to May, 

James D. Black, May 19, 1919, to Dec. 9, 

Edwin P. Morrow, Dec. 9, 191 9, to Dec, 

W. J. Fields, Dec. n, 1923, to Dec, 1927. 
Flem D. Sampson, 1927-1931. 
Ruby Laffoon, 1931-1935. 
A. B. Chandler (f), 1935-1939. 
Keen Johnson (k), Oct. 9, 1939-Dec. 12, 

Keen Johnson, Dec, 1939-1943. 
S. S. Willis, Dec. 7, 1943-47. 

(a) Died in office. 

(b) The fifth Lieutenant-Governor. Gabriel Slaughter became Governor October 21, 1816, 
upon the death of Governor George Madison and did not then preside as Speaker of the 
Senate. He had been the third Lieutenant-Governor and presided over the Senate for four 

(c) James T. Morehead, the ninth Lieutenant-Governor, became Governor, February 22, 
1834, after the death of Governor John Breathitt. 

(d) The tenth Lieutenant-Governor, Charles A. Wickliffe, became Governor, October 5, 
1836, upon the death of Governor James Clark. 

(e) Governor John J. Crittenden resigned July 31, 1850, to become U. S. Attorney-General, 
and Lieutenant-Governor John L. Helm became Governor. 

(f) Resigned to become U. S. Senator, October 9, 1939. 

(g) John W. Stevenson, eighteenth Lieutenant-Governor, became Governor upon the death 
of Governor John L. Helm, September 8, 1867, and never presided over the Senate. 

(h) Governor John W. Stevenson resigned February 13, 1871, having been elected to the 
U. S. Senate, and Preston H. Leslie became Governor. 

(i) William Goebel contested the seat of William S. Taylor, and was awarded the certifi- 
cate on January 31, 1900, by vote of both Houses of the Legislature. 

(j) William Goebel was shot from the executive building by an assassin, while walking 
to the legislative building on January 30, 1900, dying on February 3, 1900. He was declared 
elected on January 31, 1900, and was sworn in as Governor. Upon GoebePs death, J. C. W. 
Beckham, who was declared elected Lieutenant-Governor with William Goebel, became Gov- 
ernor. He was elected Governor at the November election, 1900, to fill out the unexpired 
term ending the first Tuesday after the November election, 1903. 

(k) Became Governor October 9, 1939, when Chandler resigned. 




*Alexander Scott Bullitt, 1 800-1 804. 
John Caldwell, 1 804-1 808. 
Gabriel Slaughter, 1808-1812. 
Richard Hickman, 1812-1816. 
Gabriel Slaughter, 1816-1816. 

(Gov. Madison dying, Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor Slaughter became Governor, October 
21, 1816). 

William T. Barry, 1 820-1 824. 
Robert B. McAfee, 1 824-1 828. 
John Breathitt, 1828-1832. 
James T. Morehead, 1832-1834. 

(Gov. Breathitt dying in office, Lieut.- 
Gov. James T. Morehead became Governor, 
February 21, 1834). 
Charles A. Wickliffe, 1836-1839. 

(Governor James Clark dying, Charles A. 
Wickliffe became Governor, October 5, 1839). 
Manlius V. Thomson, 1 840-1 844. 
Archibald Dixon, 1 844-1 848. 
John L. Helm, 1848-1851. 
John B. Thompson, 1851-1855. 
James G. Hardy, 1 855-1 859. 
Linn Boyd, 1 859-1 859. 

(Died December 17, 1859). 
James F. Robinson, President pro tern of 

Senate, 1862-1863. 
Richard T. Jacob, 1863-1867. 
John W. Stevenson, 1867-1867. 

(Gov. Helm died September 6, 1867, and 

Lieut.-Gov. Stevenson became Governor.) 

Preston H. Leslie, President pro tern of Sen- 
ate, 1868-1871. 

John G. Carlisle, 1871-1875. 

John C. Underwood, 1 875-1 879. 

James E. Cantrill, 1 879-1883. 

James R. Hindman, 1 883-1 887. 

James W. Bryan, 1887-1891. 

M. C. Alford, 1891-1895. 

W. J. Worthington, 1895-1899. 

John Marshall, 1899-1900. 

J. C. W. Beckham, Jan. 31, 1900-Feb. 3, 1900. 

L. H. Carter, President pro tern of Senate, 

W. P. Thorne, 1 903-1 907. 

W. H. Cox, 1907-1911. 

E. J. McDermott, 1911-1915. 

James D. Black, 1915-1919. 

Charles M. Harriss, President pro tern of 
Senate, May 19, 1919, to Dec. 9, 1919. 

S. Thruston Ballard, 1913-1923. 

H. H. Denhardt, 1923-1927. 

James Breathitt, Jr., 1927-1931. 

A. B. Chandler, Dec, 1931-1935- 

Keen Johnson, 1935-1939. 

Rodes K. Myers, 1 939-1 943. 

Kenneth H. Tuggle, 1943-. 

*Lieutenant-Governor not provided for in Constitution until 1800. 


James Brown, 1792-1796. 

Harry Toulmin, 1796-1804. 

John Rowan, 1 804-1 808. 

Jesse Bledsoe, 1808-1812. 

Martin D. Hardin, 1812-1816. 

Charles S. Todd, (Sept.-Oct.) , 1816-. 

John Pope, 181 6-1 81 9. 

Oliver G. Waggoner, 181 9-1 820. 

Joseph Cabel Breckinridge, 1 820-1 823. 

Thomas B. Monroe, 1 823-1 824. 

William T. Barry, 1824-1825. 

James C. Pickett, 1 825-1 828. 

George Robertson, (Sept.-Dec.) , 1828- 

Thomas T. Crittenden, 1 828-1 832. 

John F. McCurdy, (Mar.-Sept.) , 1832- 

Lewis Sanders, Jr., 1832-1834. 

John J. Crittenden, 1 834-1 835. 

William Owsley, 1 83 5-1 836. 

Austin P. Cox, (Feb.-Aug.), 1836-. 

James M. Bullock, 1 836-1 840. 

James Hardin, 1 840-1 844. 

Benjamin Hardin, 1 844-1 846. 

George B. Kinkead, 1 846-1 847. 

William D. Reed, 1847-1848. 

John W. Finnell, 1848-1851. 

David Meriwether, 1851-1852. 

James P. Metcalfe, 1852-1854. 

Grant Green, t 854-1 855. 

Mason Brown, 1 855-1859. 

Thomas B. Monroe, Jr., 1859-1861. 

Nathaniel Gaither, Jr., 1861-1862. 

D. C. Wickliffe, 1862-1863. 

E. L. Van Winkle, 1863-1866. 
John S. Van Winkle, 1866-1867. 
Sam B. Churchill, 1867-1871. 
Andrew 7 J. James, 1871-1872. 
George W. Craddock, 1 872-1 875. 
J. Stoddard Johnson, 1 875-1 879. 
Sam B. Churchill, 1 879-1 880. 
James W. Blackburn, 1880-1883. 
James A. MacKenzie, 1883-1887. 
George Matt Adams, 1887-1891. 
John W. Headley, 1 891-1896. 
Charles Finley, 1 896-1900. 

Caleb Powers, (Jan. -May), 1900-. 

C. B. Hill, 1900-1904. 

H. V. McChesney, 1 904-1 908. 

Ben L. Bruner, 1908-1912. 

Dr. C. F. Crecelius, 1912-1916. 

James P. Lewis, 1916-1920. 

Fred A. Vaughan, 1 920-1 924. 

Mrs. Emma Guy Cromwell, 1924-1928. 

Miss Ella Lewis, 1928-1932. 

Miss Sara W. Marian, 1932-1936. 

Charles D. Arnett, 1936-1940. 

George Glenn Hatcher, 1 940-1 944. 

Charles K. O'Connell, 1944-. 

Under first, second and third Constitutions 
Secretary of State was appointed by Gover- 
nor. Present Constitution provides for elec- 
tion. First elected began office January, 1896. 




Harry Innes, 1792. 
George Muter, 1792. 
Thomas Todd, 1806. 
Felix Grundy, 1807. 
Ninian Edwards, 1808. 
George M. Bibb, 1809. 
John Boyle, 1810. 
George M. Bibb, 1827. 
George Robertson, 1829. 
E. M. Ewing, 1843. 
Thomas A. Marshall, 1847. 
James Simpson, 1852. 
Elijah Hise, 1854. 
Thomas A. Marshall, 1856. 
B. Miles Crenshaw, 1857. 
Zachariah Wheat, 1858. 
James Simpson, i860. 
Henry J. Stites, 1862. 
Alvin Duvall, 1864. 
Joshua F. Bullitt, 1865. 
William Simpson, 1866. 
Thomas A. Marshall, 1866. 
Belvard J. Peters, 1868. 
Rufus K. Williams, 1870. 
George Robertson, 1871. 
William S. Pryor, 1872. 
Mordecai R. Hardin, 1874. 
Belvard J. Peters, 1876. 
William Lindsay, 1878. 
William S. Pryor, 1880. 
M. H. Cofer, 1881. 
Joseph H. Lewis, 1882. 
Thomas F. Hargis, 1884. 
Thomas H. Hines, 1885. 
Woodford W. Longmoor, 1888. 
Joseph H. Lewis, 1887. 
William H. Holt, 1888. 

Caswell Bennett, 1893. 
William S. Pryor, 1894. 
I. M. Quigley, 1894. 
William S. Pryor, 1895. 
J. H. Lewis, 1897. 
J. H. Hazelrigg, 1899. 
T. H. Paynter, 1901. 
B. L. D. Guffy, 1902. 
A. R. Burnam, 1903-4. 
J. P. Hobson, 1904-6. 

E. C. O'Rear, 1907-8. 
W. E. Settle, 1908. 
T. J. Nunn, 1909. 

H. S. Barker, 1910. 
J. P. Hobson, 1912-14. 
Shackelford Miller, 1915-16. 
W. E. Settle, 1917-18. 
John D. Carroll, 1919-20. 
Rollin Hurt, 1920-22. 

F. D. Sampson, 1923-24. 
W. E. Settele, 1925. 
Ernest Clarke, 1926. 
Gus Thomas, 1926. 
William Rogers Clay, 1927. 
D. A. McCandless, 1925-29. 
Gus Thomas, 1929-30-38. 
M. M. Logan, 1931. 
Richard P. Dietzman, 1931-32. 
William H. Rees, 1932-33. 
William Rogers Clay, 1934-36. 
Basil Richardson, 1937. 

Alex L. Ratliff, 1937. 
James W. Stites, 1938. 
Alex L. Ratliff, 1939-40. 
William H. Rees, 1941. 
Weslev Vick Perry, 1942. 
Will Fulton, 1943-44. 


John May, 1785. 
Christopher Greenup, 1785-1796. 
Thomas Todd, 1796-1802. 
Achille Sneed, 1802-1825. 
Francis P. Blair, 1825-29. 
Tacob Swigert, 1 827-1 857. 
Rankin R. Revill, 1858. 
R. R. Boiling, 1859. 
Leslie Combs, 1860-64. 
Alvin Duvall, 1865-71. 
Thomas C. Jones, 1872-79. 
Thomas J. Henry, 1880-87. 
Woodford W. Longmoor, 1888. 

A. Addams, 1889-98. 

Samuel J. Shackelford, 1898-1903. 

J. Morgan Chinn, 1 904-1 908. 

Napier Adams, 1908-1912. 

Robert L. Greene, 1912-1916. 

Rodman W. Keenon, 191 6-1 920. 

Roy B. Speck, 1 920-1 924. 

John A. Goodman, 1924-1928. 

W. B. O'Connell, 1928-1932. 

Frank Owens, 1932-1936. 

W. B. O'Connell, 1936. 

Charles K. O'Connell, 1936-1944. 

E. E. Hughes, 1944-. 


(Appointed by the Governor) 

George Nichola-s, June 15, 1792-Dec. 7, 

William Murray, Dec. 7, 1792-Dec. 19, 1793. 
John Breckinridge, Dec. 19, 1793-Nov. 3, 

James Blair, Nov. 30, 1797-Sept. 13, 1820. 
Joseph M. White, Oct. 26, 1820-Nov. 27, 

Ben Hardin, Nov. 27, 1820-June 18, 1821. 

Solomon P. Sharp, June 18, 1821-July 2, 

Frederick W. S. Grayson, July 2, 1825-Dec. 

21, 1825. 
J. W. Denny, Dec. 21, 1825-Mar. 14, 1832. 
Charles S. Morehead, Mar. 14, 1832-Dec. 6, 

Owen G. Cates, Dec. 6, 1838-Jan. 17, 1849. 

M. C. Johnson, Jan. 17, 1849- , 1849. 

James Harlan, , 1849- , 1851 



(Elected by Vote of the People) 

James Harlan, 1851-1859. 
Andrew J. James, 1 859-1 861. 
John M. Harlan, 1861-1865. 
John Rodman, 1865-1875. 
Thomas Moss, 1 875-1 879. 
P. Watt Hardin, 1879-1889. 
W. J. Hendricks, 1889-1896. 
W. S. Taylor, 1 896-1 900. 
R. J. Breckinridge, 1 900-1 902. 
C. J. Pratt, 1 902-1 904. 
N. B. Hays, 1 904-1 908. 
James Breathitt, 1908-1912. 

James Garnett, 1912-1916. 
M. M. Logan, 1916-1917. 
Charles H. Morris, 1917-1920. 
Charles I. Dawson, 1920-1923. 
T. B. McGregor, 1923. 
Frank E. Daugherty, 1924-1928. 
T. W. Cammack, 1928-1932. 
Bailey P. Wooton, 1932-1936. 
B. M. Vincent, 1936-1937. 
Hubert Meredith, 1937-1944. 
Eldon S. Dummit, 1944-. 


William McDowell, 1792. 

George Madison, 1796. 

John Madison, 181 6. 

Peter Clay, 1820. 

Ben Selby, 1820. 

Thomas S. Page, 1834. 

H. Q. Bradley, 1846. 

John B. Temple, 1848. 

James A. Barbour, 1850. 

Thomas S. Page, 1851. 

Thomas S. Page, 1855. 

Grant Green, 1859. 

W. T. Samuels, 1863. 

D. Howard Smith, 1867. 

D. Howard Smith, 1871. 

Fayette Hewitt, 1879. 

Fayette Hewitt, 1883. 

Fayette Hewitt (resigned), 1887. 

L. C. Norman (appointed), 1887. 

L. C. Norman, 1889. 
Sam H. Stone, 1896. 
John S. Sweeney, 1900. 

(Served Jan. to June 13 seat contested.) 
Gus G. Coulter (seated), 1900. 
S. W. Hager, 1904. 
Frank P. James, 1908. 
H. M. Bosworth, 1912. 
Robert L. Greene (resigned), 1916. 
T. M. Jones (appointed), 1919. 
John J. Craig, 1920. 
William H. Shanks, 1924. 
Clell Coleman, 1928. 
J. Dan Talbott, 1932. 
E. E. Shannon, 1936. 
David A. Logan, 1940. 
Bert L. Sparks, 1943. 
Charles I. Ross, 1944. 


John Logan, 1792-1807. 

David Logan, 1 807-1 808. 

John P. Thomas, 1 808-1 81 8. 

Sam South, 1818-1825. 

James Davidson, 1825-1849. 

Richard Wintersmith, 1 849-1 857. 

James Garrard, 1857-1865. 

Mason Brown, 1865-1867. 

James W. Tate, 1867-1888. 

Stephen Sharpe (appointed), 1888-1890. 

H. S. Hale, 1890-1895. 

George W. Long, 1 895-1900. 

Walter R. Day (unseated — contest), 1900-. 

S. W. Hager (seated), 1900-1904. 

H. M. Bosworth, 1 904-1 908. 

E. Farley, 1908-1912. 
Thomas S. Rhea, 1912-1916. 
Sherman Goodpaster, 191 6-1 920. 
James A. Wallace, 1920-1924. 
E. B. Dishman, 1924-1928. 
Emma Guy Cromwell, 1928-1932. 
Elam Huddleston, 1932-1936. 
John E. Buckingham, 1936-1940. 
Ernest E. Shannon, 1940-1944. 
Thomas W. Vinson, 1944-. 

First and second Constitution 1792, salary 
$333-33* J 799» $600.00. Treasurer and Audi- 
tor elected by legislature. Third, 1851, 
elected by people, salary $933.75. Fourth, 
elected by people, salary $3,600.00. 


John Brown, 1 792-1 805. 

John Edwards, 1792-1795. 

Humphrey Marshall, 1795-1801. 

John Breckinridge, 1 801-1805. 

John Adair, 1805-1806. 

John Buckner Thurston, 1 805-1 809. 

Henry Clay, 1 806-1 807. 

Henry Clay, 1 809-1 811. 

Henry Clay, 1831-1842. 

Henry Clay, 1 849-1 850. 

John Pope, 1807 to 181 3. 

George M. Bibb, 1811 to 1814. 
George M. Bibb, 1 829-1 835. 
Jesse Bledsoe, 1813 to 1815. 
George Walker, 1814 to 181 5. 
William T. Barry, 181 5 to 181 6. 
Tsham Talbot, 1815 to 1819. 
Isham Talbot, 1820 to 1825. 
Martin D. Hardin, 1816 to 1817. 
John J. Crittenden, 1817 to 181 9. 
John J. Crittenden, 1835 to 1841. 
John J. Crittenden, 1842 to 1848. 



John J. Crittenden, 1855 to 1861. 
William Logan, 1819 to 1820. 
R. M. Johnson, 1820 to 1829. 
John Rowan, 1825 to 1831. 
James T. Morehead, 1841 to 1847. 
Joseph R. Underwood, 1847 to 1853. 
Thomas Metcalfe, 1848 to 1849. 
David Meriwether, 1852 to 1853. 
Archibald Dixon, 1852 to 1855. 
John B. Thompson, 1853 to 1859. 
Lazarus W. Powell, 1859 to 1865. 
John C. Breckinridge, 1861. 
Garrett Daviss, 1861 to 1872. 
James Guthrie, 1865 to 1868. 
T. C. McCreary, 1868 to 1871. 
T. C. McCreary, 1873 to 1879. 
John W. Stevenson, 1871 to 1877. 
Willis B. Machen, 1873 to 1875. 
James B. Beck, 1877 to 1890. 
John S. Williams, 1879 to 1885. 
J. C. S. Blackburn, 1886 to 1897. 

*John Griffin Carlisle, 1890 to 1893. 

William Lindsay, 1893 to 1895. 

William Lindsay, 1895 to 1901. 

W. J. Deboe, 1897 to 1903. 

J. C. S. Blackburn, 1901 to 1907. 

James B. McCreary, 1903 to 1909. 

Thomas H. Paynter, 1907 to 1913. 

W. O. Bradley, 1909 to 1915. 

Ollie M. James, 1913 to 1918. 

J. N. Camden, 1915. 

J. C. W. Beckham, 191 5 to 1921. 

George Martin, 191 8. 

A. O. Stanley, 1919 to 1924. 

Richard P. Ernst, 1921 to 1926. 

Fred M. Sackett, 1925 to 1930. 

Alben W. Barkley, 1927 to 1944. 

John M. Robsion, 1930. 

Ben Williamson, 1930 to 1931. 

M. M. Logan, 1931 to 1939. 

Albert Benjamin Chandler, 1939-. 

Alben W. Barkley, 1944-. 

*Resigned to accept appointment as Secretary of the Treasury of the United states, March, 1893. 


Robert Breckinridge, 1792-1795. 

Edmund Bullock, 1796-1798. 

John Breckinridge, 1799-1801. 

John Adair, 1802-1803. 

William Logan, 1 804-1 806. 

Henry Clay, 1807. 

William Logan, 1 808-1 809. 

John Simpson, 1810-1811. 

Joseph H. Hawkins, 1812-1813. 

William T. Barry, 1814. 

John J. Crittenden, 1815-1816. 

Joseph C. Breckinridge, 1817-1818. 

Martin D. Hardin, 1819. 

George C. Simpson, 1 820-1 821. 

Rich C. Anderson, 1822. 

George Robertson, 1823, 1825, 1826. 

Robert J. Wood, 1824. 

John Speed Smith, 1827. 

Tunstall Quarles, 1828. 

John J. Crittenden, 1829-1832. 

Rich B. New, 1833. 

Charles A. Wickliffe, 1834. 

J. L. Helm, 1835, 1836, 1839, 1842-1843. 

Robert P. Letcher, 1 837-1 838. 

C. S. Morehead, 1840, 1841, 1844. 

Joseph R. Underwood, 1845. 

Leslie Combs, 1846. 

James F. Buckner, 1847. 

Gwyn Page, 1848. 

Thomas W. Riley, 1849. 

George W. Johnson, 1850. 

George Robertson, 1851. 

Charles G. Wintersmith, 1853. 

John B. Huston, 1855. 

Daniel P. White, 1857. 

David Meriwether, 1859. 

Richard A. Buckner, Jr., 1861. 

Harrison Taylor, 1 863-1 867. 
John T. Bunch, 1867-1871. 
James B. McCreary, 1871-1875. 
William J. Stone, 1 875-1 877. 
Edward W. Turner, 1 877-1 879. 
Joseph M. Bigger, 1 879-1881. 
William C. Owens, 1881-1883. 
Charles Offutt, 1883-1884. 
Charles OfFutt, 1885-1887. 
Ben Johnson, 1 887-1 889. 
Harvey Myers, 1 889-1 891. 
William M. Moore, 1891-1893. 

A. J. Carroll, 1893-1895. 
Charles Blanford, 1896-1898. 
J. C. W. Beckham, 1 898-1 900. 
South Trimble, 1 900-1 902. 
Gerald T. Finn, 1 902-1 904. 
Eli H. Brown, Jr., 1 904-1 906. 
Henry R. Lawrence, 1906-1908. 
W. J. Gooch, 1908-1910. 
George Wilson, 1910-1912. 
Claude B. Terrell, 1912-1915. 
H. C. Duffy, 1916-1917. 
Robert C. Crowe, 191 8-1 91 9. 

J. F. Bosworth, 1 920-1 922. 
J. H. Thompson, 1922-1924. 
S. W. Adams, 1924-1926. 
G. L. Drury, 1926-1928. 
John S. Milliken, 1928-1930. 
John S. Milliken, 1930-1932. 
John Young Brown, 1932. 
Frank Lebus, 1933. 
Woodfin Rogers, 1934. 
John Kirtley, 1 936-1938. 

B. F. Shields, 1940. 
Stanley S. Dickson, 1942. 
Harry L. Waterfield, 1944. 




When Made and From What Counties 

Adair, 1801, Green, 400. 

Allen, 1815, Barren, Warren, 394. 

Anderson, 1827, Franklin, Mercer, Washing- 
ton, 201. 

Ballard, 1842, Hickman, McCracken, 252. 

Barren, 1798, Green, Warren, 485. 

Bath, 1 81 1, Montgomery, 270. 

Bell, 1867, Harlan, Knox, 384. 

Boone, 1798, Campbell, 254. 

Bourbon, 1785, Fayette, 304. 

Boyd, i860, Carter, Greenup, Lawrence, 159. 

Boyle, 1842, Lincoln, Mercer, 186. 

Bracken, 1796, Campbell, Mason, 204. 

Breathitt, 1839, Clay, Estill, Perry, 483. 

Breckinridge, 1799, Hardin, 568. 

Bullitt, 1796, Jefferson, Nelson, 308. 

Butler, 1 810, Logan, Ohio, 417. 

Caldwell, 1809, Livingston, 322. 

Calloway, 1821, Hickman, 412. 

Campbell, 1794, Harrison, Mason, Scott, 145. 

Carlisle, 1886, Ballard, 198. 

Carroll, 1838, Gallatin, Henry, Trimble, 132. 

Carter, 1838, Greenup, Lawrence, 413. 

Casey, 1806, Lincoln, 379. 

Christian, 1796, Logan, 725. 

Clark, 1792, Fayette, Bourbon, 265. 

Clay, 1806, Floyd, Knox, Madison, 478. 

Clinton, 1836, Cumberland, Wayne, 233. 

Crittenden, 1842, Livingston, 394. 

Cumberland, 1798, Green, 387. 

Daviess, 1815, Ohio, 478. 

Edmonson, 1825, Grayson, Hart, Warren, 

Elliott, 1869, Carter, Lawrence, Morgan, 263. 

Estill, 1808, Clark, Madison, 254. 

Fayette, 1780, Kentucky, 269. 

Fleming, 1798, Mason, 325. 

Floyd, 1799, Fleming, Mason, Montgomery, 

Franklin, 1794, Mercer, Shelby, Woodford, 

Fulton, 1845, Hickman, 193. 
Gallatin, 1798, Franklin, Shelby, 109. 
Garrard, 1796, Lincoln, Madison, Mercer, 

Grant, 1820, Pendleton, 264. 
Graves, 1821, Hickman, 551. 
Grayson, 1810, Hardin, Ohio, 497. 
Green, 1792, Lincoln, Nelson, 279. 
Greenup, 1803, Mason, 346. 
Hancock, 1829, Breckinridge, Daviess, Ohio, 

Hardin, 1792, Nelson, 606. 
Harlan, 1819, Floyd, Knox. 478. 
Harrison, 1793, Bourbon, Scott, 311. 
Hart, 1819, Hardin, Barren, 430. 
Henderson, 1798, Christian, 435. 
Henry, 1798, Shelby, 303. 
Hickman, 1821, Caldwell, Livingston, 225. 
Hopkins, 1806, Henderson, 546. 
Jackson, 1858, Clay, Estill, Laurel, Madison, 

Owsley, Rockcastle, 333. 
Jefferson, 1780, Kentucky, 387. 
Jessamine, 1798, Fayette, 172. 

Johnson, 1843, Floyd, Lawrence, Morgan, 268. 

Kenton, 1840, Campbell, 163. 

Knox, 1799, Lincoln, 356. 

Knott, 1884, Floyd, Letcher, 348. 

Larue, 1843, Hardin, 288. 

Laurel, 1825, Clay, Knox, Rockcastle, Whit- 
ley, 447. 

Lawrence, 1821, Floyd, Greenup, 422. 

Lee, 1870, Breathitt, Estill, Owsley, Wolfe, 

Leslie, 1878, Clay, Harlan, Perry, 373. 

Letcher, 1842, Harlan, Perry, 355. 

Lewis, 1806, Mason, 491. 

Lincoln, 1780, Kentucky, 338. 

Livingston, 1798, Christian, 392. 

Logan, 1792, Lincoln, 643. 

Lyon, 1854, Caldwell, 277. 

Madison, 1785, Lincoln, 446. 

Magoffin, i860, Floyd, Johnson, Morgan, 302. 

Marion, 1834, Washington, 345. 

Marshall, 1842, Calloway, 327. 

Martin, 1870, Floyd, Johnson, Lawrence, 
Pike, 227. 

Mason, 1788, Bourbon, 227. 

McCracken, 1824, Hickman, 239. 

McCreary, 191 2, Pulaski, Wayne, Whitley, 

McLean, 1854, Daviess, Muhlenberg, Ohio, 

Meade, 1823, Breckinridge, Hardin, 301. 

Menifee, 1869, Bath, Montgomery, Morgan, 

Powell, Wolfe, 203. 
Mercer, 1785, Lincoln, 253. 
Metcalfe, i860, Adair, Barren, Cumberland, 

Green, Monroe, 303. 
Monroe, 1820, Barren, Cumberland, 441. 
Montgomery, 1796, Clark, 198. 
Morgan, 1822, Bath, Floyd, 365. 
Muhlenberg, 1798, Christian, Logan, 472. 
Nelson, 1784, Jefferson, 411. 
Nicholas, 1799, Bourbon, Mason, 208. 
Ohio, 1798, Hardin, 584. 

Oldham, 1823, Henry, Jefferson, Shelby, 180. 
Owen, 1 81 9, Franklin, Gallatin, Scott, 367. 
Owsley, 1843, Breathitt, Clay, Estill, 216. 
Pendleton, 1798, Bracken, Campbell, 279. 
Perry, 1820, Clay, Floyd, 335. 
Pike, 1 821, Floyd, 779. 

Powell, 1852, Clark, Estill, Montgomery, 181. 
Pulaski, 1798, Green, Lincoln, 628. 
Robertson, 1867, Bracken, Harrison, Mason, 

Nicholas, 109. 
Rockcastle, 1810, Knox, Lincoln, Madison, 

Pulaski, 310. 
Rowan, 1856, Fleming, Morgan, 272. 
Russell, 1825, Adair, Cumberland, Wayne, 

Scott, 1792, Woodford, 289. 
Shelby, 1792, Jefferson, 427. 
Simpson, 1819, Logan, Warren, Allen, 246. 
Spencer, 1824, Bullitt, Nelson, Shelby, 186. 
Taylor, 1848, Green, 279. 
Todd, 1 819, Christian, Logan, 367. 
Trigg, 1820, Caldwell, Christian, 428. 



Trimble, 1837, Gallatin, Henry, Oldham, 

, 154. 
Union, 1811, Henderson, 325. 

Warren, 1796, Logan, 530. 

Washington, 1792, Nelson, 299. 

Wayne, 1800, Cumberland, Pulaski, 478. 

Webster, i860, Henderson, Hopkins, Union, 

Whitley, 181 8, Knox, 442. 
Wolfe, i860, Breathitt, Morgan, Owsley, 

Powell, 230. 
Woodford, 1788, Fayette, 195. 

*County area, square miles after counties from which formed. 
State area 40,598 square miles. 



First, 1790, 73,677. 
Second, 1800, 220,955. 
Third, 1810, 406,511. 
Fourth, 1820, 564,135. 
Fifth, 1830, 687,917. 
Sixth, 1840, 779,828. 
Seventh, 1850, 982,405. 
Eighth, i860, 1,155,684. 

Ninth, 1870, 1,321,011. 
Tenth, 1880, 1,648,690. 
Eleventh, 1890, 1,858, 635. 
Twelfth, 1900, 2,147, 174. 
Thirteenth, 1910, 2,289,905. 
Fourteenth, 1920, 2,416,630. 
Fifteenth, 1930, 2,614,589. 
Sixteenth, 1940, 2,845,627. 


The Court of Appeals shall consist of seven Judges, to be elected for districts, 
and the State is divided into seven districts for said purpose, as follows: 

1. Ballard, Carlisle, Hickman, Fulton, Graves, McCracken, Calloway, Marshall, 
Livingston, Lyon, Trigg, Caldwell, Crittenden, Union, Webster, Hopkins, Muhlen- 
berg and Christian. Judge Gus Thomas. 

2. Henderson, McLean, Daviess, Hancock, Breckinridge, Ohio, Grayson, Butler, 
Edmonson, Warren, Allen, Simpson, Logan, Todd, Monroe and Meade. Judge Porter 

3. Hardin, Bullitt, Nelson, Washington, Marion, Spencer, Larue, Hart, Green, Tay- 
lor, Adair, Metcalfe, Barren, Clinton, Wayne, Russell, Casey, Shelby, Oldham, Ander- 
son, Pulaski, McCreary and Cumberland. Judge Clyde B. Latimer. 

4. Jefferson. Judge Henry J. Tilford. 

5. Henry, Trimble, Carroll, Gallatin, Owen, Scott, Franklin, Bourbon, Fayette, 
Woodford, Garrard, Boyle, Jessamine, Madison, Mercer, Lincoln, Rockcastle and Jack- 
son. Judge James W. Cammack. 

6. Boone, Campbell, Kenton, Grant, Harrison, Pendleton, Bracken, Robertson, 
Nicholas, Mason, Fleming, Lewis, Greenup, Carter, Rowan, Bath and Elliott. Judge 
William H. Rees. 

7. Clark, Montgomery, Powell, Menifee, Bell, Harlan, Leslie, Lee, Breathitt, Perry, 
Letcher, Knott, Pike, Floyd, Magoffin, Wolfe, Morgan, Lawrence, Boyd, Johnson, Mar- 
tin, Owsley, Laurel, Clay, Knox, Whitley, Estill and McCreary. Judge E. Poe Harris. 

Terms: Eight years. Salary, $5,000. Each judge serves as chief justice the last two 
years of his term. 

Commissioners of Appeals: Osso W. Stanley, Charles H. Morris, Campbell Van- 
sant, W. V. Perry. 



Lucile Tobin, Secretary 

John F. Dugan, Rate Clerk 

(Oct, 1932) 

First District — Counties of Meade, Hardin, Larue, Hart, Metcalfe, Barren, Monroe, 
Allen, Simpson, Warren, Edmonson, Grayson, Breckinridge, Hancock, Ohio, Butler, 
Logan, Todd, Muhlenberg, McLean, Daviess, Henderson, Webster, Hopkins, Christian, 
Trigg, Caldwell, Lyon, Crittenden, Union, Livingston, Marshall, Calloway, Graves, 
McCracken, Ballard, Hickman, Fulton, Carlisle, Cumberland, Adair, Green. Jack E. 
Fisher (D). 

Second District — Counties of Gallatin, Owen, Scott, Fayette, Jessamine, Madison, 
Clark, Bourbon, Russell, Casey, Lincoln, Garrard, Boyle, Mercer, Anderson, Woodford, 
Franklin, Henry, Oldham, Carroll, Trimble, Grant, Boone, Jefferson, Shelby, Spencer, 
Bullitt, Nelson, Washington, Marion, Taylor, Montgomery, Harrison, Wayne. Frank 
L. McCarthy (D) . 

Third District — Counties of Kenton, Estill, Jackson, Laurel, Rockcastle, Knox, Har- 
lan, Bell, Leslie, Perry, Letcher, Floyd, Pike, Martin, Johnson, Breathitt, Clay, Owsley, 
Lee, Powell, Bath, Nicholas, Fleming, Robertson, Pendleton, Bracken, Campbell, Lewis, 
Mason. Greenup, Rowan, Carter, Elliott, Boyd, Lawrence, Morgan, Magoffin, Wolfe, 
Menifee, Knott, Clinton, Whitley, Pulaski, McCreary. Clay M. Bishop (R), Man- 


(Act 1932) 

First District — Counties of Ballard, Caldwell, Calloway, Carlisle, Lyon, Crittenden, 
Fulton, Graves, Hickman, Livingston, Marshall, McCracken, Trigg, Christian, N. J. 
Gregory, (D), May field. 

Second District — Counties of Daviess, Henderson, Hopkins, McLean, Union, Web- 
ster, Ohio, Butler, Edmonson, Warren, Simpson, Logan, Todd, Muhlenberg, Allen. 
B. M. Vincent, (D) , Brownsville. 

Third District — County of Jefferson. Emmett O'Neal, (D) , Louisville. 

Fourth District — Counties of Bullitt, Green, Hardin, Grayson, Breckinridge, Hart, 
Larue, Marion, Meade, Nelson, Taylor, Washington, Spencer, Anderson, Adair, Met- 
calfe, Barren, Hancock, and Shelby. Chester O. Carrier, (R) , Leitchfield. 

Fifth District — Boone, Campbell, Carroll, Gallatin, Grant, Kenton, Pendleton, 
Trimble, Oldham. Brent Spence, (D) , Fort Thomas. 

Sixth District — Bourbon, Clark, Estill, Fayette, Franklin, Henry, Lee, Owen, Scott, 
Woodford, Jessamine, Madison, Garrard, Mercer, Lincoln, Boyle, Casey. Virgil 
Chapman, (D) , Paris. 

Seventh District — Counties of Floyd, Knott, Letcher, Martin, Magoffin, Johnson, 
Pike and Perry. A. J. May, (D) , Prestonsburg. 

Eighth District — Counties of Bracken, Bath, Boyd, Breathitt, Carter, Elliott, Flem- 
ing, Lawrence, Greenup, Harrison, Lewis, Mason, Menifee, Morgan, Nicholas, Powell, 
Robertson, Rowan, Wolfe, Montgomery. Joe B. Bates, (D) , Greenup. 

Ninth District — Counties of Harlan, Leslie, Jackson, Owsley, Clay, Knox, Whit- 
ley, Bell, McCreary, Wayne, Russell, Clinton, Cumberland, Monroe, Laurel, Rock- 
castle, Pulaski. John M. Robison, (R) , Barbourville. 



1. Judge — J. C. Speight, Mayneld, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — Flavious B. Mar- 
tin, Mayneld, Ky. 

2. Judge — Joe L. Price, Paducah, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — Holland G. Bryan, 
Paducah, Ky. 

3. Judge — Ira D. Smith, Hopkinsville, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — John T. King, 
Cadiz, Ky. 

4. Judge — H. F. S. Bailey, Madisonville, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — Alvin Lisen- 
by, Princeton, Ky. 

5. Judge — M. L. Blackwell, Dixon, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — George S. Clay, 
Henderson, Ky. 

6. Judge — Sidney B. Neal, Owensboro, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — H. A. Burk- 
head, Owensboro, Ky. 

7. Judge — E. J. Fults, Russellville, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — H. G. Davis, 
Elkton, Ky. 

8. Judge — Robert M. Coleman, Bowling Green, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney- 4 
Frank Denton, Bowling Green, Ky. 

9. Judge — George K. Holbert, Elizabethtown, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — Mil- 
ton Whitworth, Brandenburg, Ky. 

10. Judge — L. B. Handley, Hodgenville, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — M. O. 
Scott, Edmonton, Ky. 

11. Judge — W. H. Spragens, Lebanon, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — J. R. Sanders, 
Campbellsville, Ky. 

12. Judge — Charles C. Marshall, Shelbyville, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — H. 
B. Kingsolving, Shelbyville, Ky. 

13. Judge — Kendrick S. Alcorn, Stanford, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — Sanders 
E. Clay, Danville, Ky. 

14. Judge — W. B. Ardery, Paris, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — James P. Hanra- 
han, Frankfort, Ky. 

15. Judge — Ward Yager, Warsaw, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — R. L. Vincent, 
Williamstown, Ky. 

16. Judge — Rodney G. Bryson, Common Law Division, Covington, Ky. Judge — 
Joseph P. Goodenough, Criminal Law Division, Covington, Ky. Commonwealth At- 
torney — Ulie J. Howard, Covington, Ky. 

17. Judge — Ray L. Murphy, Newport, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — Lawrence J. 
Diskin, Newport, Ky. 

18. Judge — James C. Dedman, Cynthiana, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — Albert H. 
Barker, Cynthiana, Ky. 

19. Judge — Charles D. Newell, Maysville, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — M. Har- 
gett, Maysville, Ky. 

20. Judge — Harvey Parker, Jr., Vanceburg, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — Roy 
Wilhoit, Vanceburg, Ky. 

21. Judge — W. Bridges White, Mt. Sterling, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — Reid 
J. Prewitt, Mt. Sterling, Ky. 

22. Judge — Chester D. Adams, Lexington, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — James 
Park, Lexington, Ky. 

23. Judge — Charles L. Seale, Booneville, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — W. L. 
Kash, Ravenna, Ky. 


24. Judge — James Franklin Bailey, Paintsville, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — J. 
B. Clark, Inez, Ky. 

25. Judge — William J. Baxter, Nicholasville, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — John 
Noland, Richmond, Ky. 

26. Judge — James S. Forester, Harlan, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — Astor Hogg, 
Harlan, Ky. 

27. Judge — Franklin P. Stivers, Manchester, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — Wil- 
liam Rice, Manchester, Ky. 

28. Judge — J. S. Sandusky, Somerset, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — J. M. Ken- 
nedy, Monticello, Ky. 

29. J. C. Carter, Tompkinsville, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — J. C. Carter, Jr., 
Tompkinsville, Ky. 

30. Judge Chancery, 1st Division — Churchill Humphrey. Judge Chancery Branch, 
2nd Division — Gilbert Burnett. Judge Common Pleas, 1st Division — Joseph J. Han- 
cock. Judge Common Pleas, 2nd Division — Burrell H. Farnsley. Judge Common 
Pleas, 3rd Division — William H. Field. Judge Common Pleas, 4th Division — Eugene 
Hubbard. Judge Criminal Branch — Loraine Mix. Commonwealth Attorney — Merit 

31. Judge — Henry C. Stephens, Jr., Prestonsburg, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — 
John Allen, Prestonsburg, Ky. 

32. Judge — Watt M. Prichard, Ashland, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — Thomas 
Burchett, Ashland, Ky. 

33. Judge — Roy Helm, Hazard, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — Billie Dixon, Woo- 
ton, Ky. 

34. Judge — Flem D. Sampson, Barbourville, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — J. C. 
Bird, Williamsburg, Ky. 

35. Judge — R. Monroe Fields, Whitesburg, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — Joel 
Edison Childers, Coal Run, Ky. 

36. Judge — Chester A. Bach, Jackson, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — Earl R. 
Cooper, Salyersville, Ky. 

37. Judge — Roscoe C. Littleton, Grayson, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — J. Blaine 
Nickell, West Liberty, Ky. 

38. Judge — Clarence Bartlett, Hartford, Ky. Commonwealth Attorney — A. J. 
Bratcher, Morgantown, Ky. 


District Judge — H. Church Ford, Georgetown. Secretary — Miss Genevieve New- 
man, Post Office Building, Lexington. 

Circuit Court Judges — Elwood Hamilton, Louisville; Xen. Hicks, Knoxville, Tenn.; 
Charles C. Simons, Detroit, Mich.; Florence E. Allen, Cleveland, Ohio; John D. Mar- 
tin, Memphis, Tenn.; Thomas F. McAllister, Grand Rapids, Mich. 

Circuit Court Clerk — J. W. Menzies, U. S. Circuit Court of Appeals, Cincinnati, 

U. S. Attorney — John T. Metcalf, Official Residence, Lexington, Ky. 

U. S. Attorney, First Assistant — Claude P. Stephens, Official Residence, Lexington, 


U. S. Attorney, Second Assistant — Ben Kessinger, Official Residence, Lexington, Ky. 

Clerks — Helena G. Liston, Lexington; Mrs. John C. Billingsby, Lexington; Francis 
G. Price, Lexington. 

U. S. Marshal — J. M. Moore, Pikeville, Official Residence, Lexington, Ky. 

Chief Deputy — R. A. Gayle, Official Residence, Lexington, Ky. 

Deputies — R. B. Basson, Lexington; Andrew Combs, Jackson; Neal Guilfoyle, Mt. 
Sterling; Steve Hensley, London; W. M. Jones, Harlan; John McKenzie, West Liberty; 
M. G. Magann, Catlettsburg; S. S. Porter, Lexington; Monroe Thompson, Waynes- 

U. S. District Court Clerk — A. B. Rouse, Lexington. Deputy — L. K. Jones, Lexing- 
ton. Clerks — Mrs. Florence Durham, Julia Bodkin, Lucile Reekers, Lexington. 


Frankfort — Carolyn A. Mathews. Jackson — Josephine Bach. Covington — Mrs. Mary 
McAfee. Richmond — Katherine Head. London — H. M. Pennigton. Catlettsburg — 
Augustus G. Rogers. Pikeville — M. D. Keesee. 

U. S. Judge — Roving — Mac Swinford, Cynthiana. Davis McGarvey, Secretary. 

U. S. Probation and Parole — M. E. Staley, Lexington; Russell R. Field, Catletts- 
burg; E. D. Pollitte, Harlan. Clerks — Mrs. Alice R. Witherspoon, Lexington. 

U. S. Commissioners, Eastern District — Murray L. Brown, London. 



Jaokson — S. J. Cockrell. Covington — William O. Ware. Pikeville — Kenneth A. 
Howe. Catlettsburg — Harry F. Price. Danville — Robert Emmett Puryear. 



District Judge — Shackelford Miller, Jr. Judge's Secretary — Miss Maja Eudaley. 

District Attorney — Eli H. Brown, III. Assistant District Attorneys — J. D. Inman, 
Malcolm P. Wallace, David C. Walls. Special Assistant District Attorneys — Mar- 
shall P. Eldred, Arnold J. Lemaire, Benjamin M. Strother. 

Clerks to District Attorney — Miss Ida Robinson, Mrs. Hazel Chandler, Miss Mary 
Rainforth, Miss Alice Spahn, Miss Olive Yeats, Miss Merle Gillespie, Miss Marilyn 
Hurst, Miss Virginia Davis, Mrs. Olive Rice, Miss Ruth Bunch, Miss Martha Fulton. 

Clerk of the Court — W. T. Beckham, Louisville. Deputy Clerks — Mrs. Hazel 
Kresin, Miss Sue G. Connaughton, Miss Bernice Cundiff, Miss Mary Frances Hogan, 
Mrs. Irene F. Chapman, Louisville; Claude H. Bennett, Paducah; Mrs. Lois M. Har- 
ris, Bowling Green; Mrs. Ethel Stuart Brown, Owensboro. 

U. S. Commissioners — Ray H. Kirchdorfer, Louisville; Colby Cowherd, Greensburg; 
Charles R. Bell, Bowling Green; Delma L. Mauzy, Leitchneld; Dan S. Arnold, Bards- 
town; Joseph E. Walters, Owensboro; L. B. Weir, Madisonville; A. E. Boyd, Paducah. 

Collector Internal Revenue — Seldon R. Glenn, Louisville. 

U. S. Marshal — L. E. Cranor, Louisville. 

Referees in Bankruptcy — Hite H. Huffaker, Louisville; Emmett P. Hatter, Frank- 
lin-. Be n D. Ringo, Owensboro, E. Palmer James, Paducah. 



B.A., MA., M.D., D.S, D.P.H., LL.D., F.A.C.S., FA.P.HA. 

August 21, 1872 August 7, 1943 

A he consensus of public opinion accords the memory of Dr. 
Arthur Thomas McCormack, Commissioner of Health of the State of Kentucky, 
a prominent position in the medical profession and in the public life of Kentucky. 
He was born on a farm near Howard's Mill, which subsequently became Howards- 
town, now known as Stiles, in Nelson County, Kentucky, on the twenty-first day 
of August, 1872, and died in Louisville, Kentucky, on August 7, 1943. He was 
the only child of Dr. Joseph Nathaniel McCormack and Corinne (Crenshaw) 
McCormack. The father, also a native of Nelson County, born on November 
9, 1847, was a physician, having been educated at Miami Medical College, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, for that profession. He engaged in the practice of medicine for 
many years, first from his home at Howard's Mill and in the surrounding neigh- 
borhoods, traveling by horse-back or buggy. In 1875, he moved to Bowling 
Green, Kentucky, where, until 1918, he continued his practice which extended 
through several counties. In 1878, he was made State Health Officer and Secre- 
tary of the State Board of Health and continued in that position for 34 years, 
or until 1912, when, retaining only the position as Director of the Bureau of 
Sanitation, he retired and was succeeded by his son, Dr. A. T. McCormack. 
Dr. J. N. McCormack served as President of the Kentucky State Medical Asso- 
ciation during 1884. He was appointed Chairman of the Committee on Re- 
organization of the American Medical Association in 1899, and was one of the 
three men who wrote its constitution and by-laws, from which have been for- 
mulated the constitutions of all the State and County Medical Societies. During 
his active life he visited all the State Medical Associations and most of the three 
thousand county medical societies in the United States. He wrote extensively 
for medical journals and delivered many public addresses on the subject of medical 
organization and public health. In 1914, he was elected a member of the State 
Legislature. During the last few years of his life he was the Director of the 
Bureau of County Health Work. His professional career was one of continuous 
advancement in which he did much for the general public in upholding the 
standards of professional medical service. He died on May 4, 1922. His wife, 
the former Corinne Crenshaw, was a daughter of Reverend Littleberry Porter 
Crenshaw, a Methodist minister, and Edmonia (Martin) Crenshaw, a descendant 
of Dr. Thomas Walker the first white man to build a house in Kentucky. Her 

16— Vol. II 


uncle, Mills Crenshaw, was at one time Chief Justice of the Kentucky Court of 
Appeals. Mrs. McCormack died in April, 1932, in Louisville. 

Dr. Joseph Nathaniel McCormack was honored by a bronze tablet in the Dr. 
J. N. McCormack Building at 620 South Third Street, Louisville, Kentucky, which 
was dedicated October 4, 1938, as the new home of the Kentucky State Board of 
Health and the Kentucky State Medical Association, following the flood of 1937. 
This tablet bears a bust of this eminent practitioner in bas-relief with the following 




He was a Pioneer in the Twilight Zone of Medicine Who Lighted the 

Candle of Public Health. This Flickering Flame Grew Until It Shed 

Its Beams Around the World. May This Fire Burn on and on Until 

Mankind Is Freed From All Preventable Diseases. 

October 4, 1938. 

At the dedication of this building, Governor Albert B. Chandler delivered an 
address in honor of Dr. McCormack, outlining his services to mankind and em- 
phasizing particularly his untiring work in the rebuilding of the public institutions 
of his native state and his services as a legislator and in other capacities. 

Arthur Thomas McCormack, whose name introduces this record, was born into 
public health service and grew up in that atmosphere as evidenced by a letter 
signed by his mother in which she says: "From the age of four years, when he 
helped seal and stamp the envelopes for his father's letters (which she, incidentally, 
had written for him!), Dr. Arthur McCormack has taken an active part in the 
family's public health service for the state." He was educated in the public 
schools of Bowling Green and in Ogden College, of that city, which conferred 
upon him the degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1892. After a year in the Univer- 
sity of Virginia, he enrolled in the Medical Department of Columbia University, 
New York, and was awarded his M.D. degree in 1896. He served an interneship 
at Patterson General Hospital, Patterson, New Jersey. Bethel College conferred 
upon him the honorary degree of Master of Arts in 1900 and the Detroit College 
of Medicine and Surgery conferred the honorary degree of Doctor of Public 
Health in 1925, while from Berea College he received the honorary degree of 
Doctor of Science in 1926, and from Transylvania College the LL.D. degree in 

Immediately following his graduation from medical school, Dr. Arthur began 
the practice of medicine in full partnership with his father at his home in Bowling 
Green, Kentucky. From 1897 until 1900, he served, also, as County Health Officer 
of Warren County. In 1898, he was appointed Assistant State Health Officer, 

■■-.... :..■' 


and served as such until he was appointed State Health Officer upon the retirement 
of his father in 1912. In 1910, at Bowling Green, he opened, and for two years 
conducted the first hospital in Warren County. Throughout his professional 
career he was a close student of all subjects bearing upon the practice of medicine 
and surgery and so broadened his knowledge and developed an efficiency that 
brought him international recognition as well as wide acclaim in Kentucky and 
throughout the nation. His genial cordiality won him countless friends and he 
attained a place of acknowledged leadership in the medical profession. He be- 
came Secretary of the Kentucky State Medical Association in 1907 and was made 
a Delegate from his State Association to the American Medical Association in 
1910, both of which positions he held until his death. He was one of the 
Founders of the American College of Surgeons of which he was a Fellow at the 
time of his death. 

In 1924, he was President of the Conference of State and Provincial Health 
Authorities of North America, and he was a member of the Executive Committee 
and Chairman of the Committee of Federal Relations from that year until his 
death. His father was one of the Founders and the first President of this organ- 
ization, holding the office for six years, and thus, as in the choice of a profession, 
Dr. Arthur followed in the footsteps of his father. During the administration 
of Governor J. C. W. Beckham, he was Surgeon General of Kentucky, and he 
and his father were the attending physicians to Governor William Goebel when 
the latter fell before the attack of an assassin. 

In 1903, Dr. Arthur McCormack had charge of the medical service of the 
National Guard Camps at Paducah and Henderson and later was placed in com- 
plete command of these camps. He was a member of the Medical Reserve Corps 
of the Army of the United States from its founding in 1911, commissioned a 
First Lieutenant, January 16, 1915, and was in active service during World War I. 
Commissioned a Major in the United States Army, April 11, 1917, following the 
outbreak of World War I, Dr. McCormack served at Camp Zachary Taylor. 
He organized Base Hospital No. 59, composed entirely of Kentuckians. While 
awaiting embarkation at New York, Surgeon General William Crawford Gorgas 
learned of the order and immediately recalled Dr. McCormack, then one of the 
few men trained in public health, assigning him to the Panama Canal Zone where 
General Gorgas, himself, had served with notable success until recalled to Wash- 
ington to act as Surgeon General during the War. In Panama, Dr. McCormack 
completed the construction of the Ancon Hospital at Balboa Heights and carried 
to a successful conclusion the work inaugurated by his illustrious predecessor. 
While stationed in the Canal Zone, an outbreak of cerebro-spinal meningitis on 
board the Japanese Steamship ANYO MARU occurred. Taking immediate 
personal charge of the situation, Dr. McCormack successfully confined the disease 
to the ship and in recognition of his service, was decorated by the Mikado of 
Japan and presented with a yellow jacket as evidence of the decoration. In 
recognition of his services in the Canal Zone and because of his wide experience 
and National reputation in the field of public health service, a field understood 
by few men in those days, he was made a member of the National Health Council 
and a member of the Gorgas Memorial. Dr. McCormack returned to the United 


States early in February, 1919, receiving his honorable discharge at Camp Zachary 
Taylor, February 11, 1919, having advanced from the rank of First Lieutenant 
when war was declared to that of Lieutenant Colonel, and was placed on the 
reserve list with the rank of Colonel. 

With the outbreak of World War II, he was eager to take his place in service 
again and volunteered his services, in any way that he could be used, to the War 
Department. When he found that his age and physical condition disqualified 
him for active service in the Army, he resigned his commission — with deep regret 
and much reluctance — in order that some younger man might be promoted. From 
the War Department, he accepted an appointment as State Chairman for Procure- 
ment and Assignment for Physicians. Unmindful of his own personal welfare, 
overburdened with many additional responsibilities in his office, due to the war, 
he pursued this work energetically, day and night, doubtless hastening his untimely 
death, but, nevertheless, placing Kentucky among the first of the States to furnish 
their full quota of physicians to the armed forces. Many of his colleagues ex- 
pressed the belief that Dr. McCormack was just as much a War Casualty as any 
soldier on the field of battle. 

Every medical Act in the Kentucky Statutes was written by either Dr. Mc- 
Cormack or his father. Many of these laws have been copied and embodied in 
the laws of other states. In 1908, the first full-time County Health Department 
in the United States was organized in Jefferson County, Kentucky, under the admin- 
istration of his father and Kentucky now has more full-time county health organiza- 
tions than any other state in the entire country. The Kentucky Health Department 
is second to none and was completely developed by the medical profession of Ken- 
tucky through the McCormacks — father and son. This direct continuity of supervision 
has resulted in building a very efficient department free from political interference. 
Dr. A. T. McCormack held membership and various offices in the Warren 
County and in the Jefferson County (Kentucky) Medical Societies; the Kentucky 
State Medical Association; the American Medical Association, in which he served 
on several Committees and to which he served as State Delegate; the Southern 
Medical Association, which he served in many capacities, as President during 
1939-1940; the American Public Health Association, of which he was a Fellow 
and served as President, 1937-1938. He was a member of the American Child 
Health Association; a member of the Medical Veterans of the World War, serv- 
ing as Secretary, then as President; a member of the Military Surgeons; a member 
of the American Legion; a member of the National Tuberculosis Association; a 
member of the American Social Hygiene Association; a member of the Conference 
of State and Provincial Health Authorities of North America, which he served 
as President in 1924. He was a Consultant for the United States Childrens Bureau 
and a Collaborating Epidemiologist of the United States Public Health Service, 
both organizations making frequent calls upon his time and energy. 

Dr. McCormack left his profession a rich legacy in the publication of many 
editorials and articles drawn from his intimate knowledge and broad experience. 
He founded the Kentucky Medical Journal in 1901 and edited it until the time 
of his death. In 1920, he published "A Course in Physical Education for the 


Common Schools of Kentucky." A partial list of his writings include: : *The 
Threat of National Inefficiency From Ill-Health," which was the Mary Scott 
Newbold Lecture delivered before the College of Physicians in Philadelphia, March 
29, 1927, and published in the "Transactions of the College of Physicians"; "The 
Federal Security Program and the Congress," published in the Kentucky Medical 
Journal, April, 1935, and copied in the Congressional Record; "Public Health, 
The Basic Factor of Social Security," the Presidential Address delivered before 
the American Public Health Association, October 7, 1937, New York, and 
published in the American Journal of Public Health, November, 1937. Reprints 
of this address were widely distributed and continue to receive attention and 
accord; "The Great Physician," was the title of his Presidential Address delivered 
before the Southern Medical Association, November 11, 1940, in Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, published in the Southern Medical Journal, January, 1941, and widely 
distributed as reprints. 

During the Flood of 1937, Dr. McCormack exercised remarkable capacity in 
generalship when Good Neighbors from all over the country rushed to Kentucky's 
aid. Immediately, he ordered the staff of the State Department of Health, and 
the personnel of all the County Health Departments not affected by the Flood, 
into emergency service. These workers were detailed to the stricken areas and 
formed the nuclei of leadership for all other agencies — State, Federal, Volunteer — 
serving in the local area. To these groups, Dr. McCormack dispatched with haste 
the in-rushing volunteers from the eleven State Health Departments; detachments 
of the State and National Guards; detachments of the United States Army, Navy, 
Coast Guard, Public Health Service, Food Administration, and other govern- 
mental agencies; the American Red Cross and many private agencies and uncounted 
private individuals. With amazing foreknowledge, keen understanding, and alert 
definiteness, Dr. McCormack advised, by telephone, with Acting-Governor Keen 
Johnson, in many emergency situations. When reports came through that " — the 
water is rising higher and higher in the cells and prisoners, trapped like rats, are 
about to drown," Dr. McCormack urged the immediate exacuation of the old 
Penitentiary, known, also, as the Reformatory. No action had been taken when 
Governor A. B. Chandler returned from vacation. Conditions grew worse, mo- 
mentarily. Then, Dr. McCormack used his authority as State Health Commis- 
sioner, responsible for the life and health of the citizens of Kentucky (See Carroll's 
Statutes, Sec. 2057: Sec. 2049) and declared the Penitentiary at Frankfort a public 
nuisance and, by telephone and by telegraph, ordered Governor Chandler to evacu- 
ate and abandon this reformatory and remove the prisoners, at once, to a safe 
place. Radio announcers were soon reporting this order over the air. Through 
cooperation with forces of the United States Army, quartered at Fort Thomas, 
the 2,906 prisoners were removed to the grounds of the State Institute for the 
Feeble Minded, on the hill above, and sheltered in tents, constant guard main- 
tained. Later, as a necessary protection of life when the crest of the Flood moved 
south, the entire population of the city of Paducah (approximately 30,000) was 
evacuated by order of the State Board of Health, called by Dr. McCormack in 


an emergency session. This order was effectively carried out by the local (Mc- 
Cracken) County Health Department, Dr. Russell Teague, County Health Officer, 
assisted by detachments of the National Guard and detachments from the United 
States Army, Coast Guard, and other governmental agencies. 

Early in the Flood period, Governor Chandler, realizing the seriousness of the 
situation, actual and potential, appointed Dr. A. T. McCormack the Director of 
Flood Relief for the state and placed at his disposal the agencies and resources 
of the Commonwealth for use as his judgment might dictate. Included were the 
Kentucky National Guard, under immediate command of Adjutant General G. 
L. McClain, and the State Highway Patrol. No wiser selection could possibly 
have been made. Under Dr. McCormack's masterly direction, flood relief and 
health work were so co-ordinated, so energized, and so prosecuted as to produce 
maximum results. Forced by the flooding of the State Department of Health 
Building to establish emergency headquarters in the Brown Hotel, for the first 
four days in his private apartment, and afterwards in Parlors A, B and C, he 
and his staff, together with representatives of the United States Public Health 
Service and other outside agencies from neighboring and distant states, worked 
day and night, directing relief and health forces in the flooded area, and this 
under conditions which would have been nerve-racking even in normal times. To 
Dr. McCormack, more than to any other person, is due Kentucky's emergence, 
epidemic free, from the worst disaster in its history with such relatively small loss 
of life from accidents and disease. 

Dr. Arthur T. McCormack was married December 15, 1897, to Miss Mary 
Moore Tyler, daughter of John D. and Lizzie McAfee (Moore) Tyler of Hop- 
kinsville, Kentucky, and they became the parents of four children: Joseph Na- 
thaniel, deceased; Lucy Norton, deceased; Arthur Thomas, deceased; and Mary 
Tyler McCormack. Mary Tyler became the wife of William Nelson Wilbur 
of Warrenton, Virginia, and the mother of two daughters, Mary Tyler Mc- 
Cormack Wilbur and Jane Forbes Wilbur. On October 16, 1924, Dr. McCormack 
married Mrs. Jane Teare Dahlman, daughter of Alfred Daniel Teare and Lenora 
Christina (Kelly) Teare, of Berlin, New Hampshire. 

A member of the Presbyterian Church, a Democrat — in every sense of the word 
— a member of The Filson Club, the Pendennis Club — both of Louisville; a mem- 
ber of the Cosmos Club, Washington, D. C, Dr. McCormack's interests were 
of wide scope and importance as is shown in his connection with the Louisville 
Board of Trade, the American Legion; Rotary International, the Farm Bureau, 
and the Kentucky Conference of Social Workers. The latter, he served as Presi- 
dent in 1925-1926. He was a 32nd degree Mason, being a member of Louisville 
Lodge No. 400 F. & A. M.; DeMolay Commandery, No. 12; Knights Templar; 
the Consistory and Kosair Temple of the Mystic Shrine. He was ever actuated 
by high ideals and a broad vision that led to the recognition and the utilization 
of opportunity for the benefit of humanity and for its advancement. Justly 
accounted one of the most eminent of Kentucky's medical profession, he made 
valuable contributions to the welfare, development and improvement of the state 
in all his activities — a truly constructive citizen. 




'cion of one of America's most prominent families, Peter Arrell 
Brown Widener, of Fayette county, is among that group of men who have been 
lured to Kentucky by their love of horses and their desire to be located in the 
home of the Thoroughbred, the Blue Grass. Internationally known patron of 
the arts, sportsman and turfman, Mr. Widener is the owner of "Elmendorf", 
which ranks at the top of the fine breeding farms in Kentucky, and the Widener 
colors are familiar to every race goer in America. 

P. A. B. Widener is the son of the late Joseph Early Widener, who passed 
away December 15, 1943. Joseph E. Widener was a resident of the city of 
brotherly love, and it was from him that his son inherited his love for the arts 
and racing. Joseph E. Widener was for many years a leader in racing circles 
in America, the British Isles, and on the continent of Europe. During his life- 
time he accumulated one of the Nation's largest private collections of art and this 
collection is now housed in the National Gallery in Philadelphia. His remains 
are interred in the family mauseleum at Laurel Hill in Philadelphia. Mr. P. A. 
B. Widener's mother was the former Ella Holmes Pancoast of Philadelphia, 
who departed this life on May 4, 1929. 

The birth of P. A. B. Widener occurred at Longbranch, New Jersey, on June 
25, 1895. He was educated in private schools, attending Chestnut Hill Academy 
in Philadelphia and St. Marks School at Southboro', Massachusetts. He later 
became a student at Harvard University. At Harvard he participated in all 
scholastic activities and was President of the French Club. Mr. Widener answered 
the call to colors during the first month of World War I. In April of 1917 he 
entered the United States Army, and as a member of the sanitary corps was 
stationed at Mackey Base Hospital Unit where he was commissioned a first 
lieutenant. He saw foreign service in France being stationed at Chaumont. 

Mr. Widener was married to Miss Gertrude Douglas of Albany, New York, 
on November 24, 1924. Mrs. Widener is the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Curtis 
Noble Douglas of Albany and a niece of the late Governor Dix of New Jersey. 
Mr. and Mrs. Widener are the parents of a son and a daughter: Peter Arrell 
Brown Widener, Jr., was born August 12, 1925, and is now serving in the army 
of the United States;, and Ella Ann Widener, born June 14, 1927, is now a 
student at Miss Shipley's School at Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania. 

The position that Mr. Widener holds in the racing and sporting circles of 
America is best shown by his active participation in its many organizations that 
have for their purpose the promotion and promulgation of the highest standards 
of competition. He is a member of the board of directors of the Westchester 
Racing Association, the New York Jockey Club and the Keeneland Racing 
Association. He is listed on the membership rolls of the Racquet Club of New 
York, the Racquet Club of Philadelphia, the Westminster Kennel Club, the 
Thoroughbred Club of America, and the Benjamin Franklin Club of Phila- 
delphia. Along lines more philanthropic in nature, he is a member of the board 
of directors of the Southeastern Chapter of the American Red Cross. Mrs. 
Widener gives freely of her time and ability to all constructive women's work. 

?. Ykt+,u- 


She devotes much of her effort to the Stage Doer Canteen and to other war 
work. Both Mr. and Mrs. Widener are communicants of the Episcopal Church. 
"Elmendorf Farm" is a two thousand acre tract of land on the Paris Pike that 
was formerly a portion of the J. B. A. Haggin estate. It was acquired by Mr. 
Haggin from Daniel Swigert. On an elevation overlooking Elk Horn stood 
one of the finest residences in Kentucky and also included in its acreage is land 
formerly owned by Carter Harrison and Colonel Russell, soldiers in the Revo- 
lutionary War. "Elmendorf Farm" became one of the most noted estates in 
America and the horses from its stables have raced on every prominent course 
and are known throughout the United States and England. The Manor house 
was dismantled in 1921. Under the ownership of Mr. Widener new luster has 
been added and changes have been made, to cooperate with the war effort. 
During these war years when "food fights for freedom" a large portion of the 
acreage of "Elmendorf" has been placed under cultivation to produce the crops 
of grain that the nation needs. 

Mr. Widener's sister, Josephine Pancoast Widener, became the wife of Axel 
Wickfeld and now makes her home in Palm Beach, Florida. Mr. Wickfeld 
is a member of the United States diplomatic service. In addition to their home 
at "Elmendorf," Mr. and Mrs. Widener also maintain a home at the Barckley 
Hotel in Philadelphia, but more and more they are extending their yearly periods 
of residence in Kentucky. 


ii long line of ancestors notable in the making of America, es- 
tablished for the Wood family traditions of eminence in lines of private enter- 
prise and in public service. The present representative of that family, William 
Clark Hewitt Wood, Jr., is a descendant of British forefathers from England, 
Ireland, Scotland and Wales, who emigrated to America in the early 17th cen- 
tury settling in Virginia. From King and Queen, King George, Albermarle and 
other counties, they came to Central Kentucky, in the 18th century. In Fayette, 
Woodford, Scott and Bourbon Counties they were large landowners, business and 
professional men. 

William Clark Hewitt Wood, Jr., now lives at "Bryant Station," Lexington, a 
part of the present family estate, the whole of which he manages and operates. 
It is one of Kentucky's historic places, the site of the noted Stockade and spring 
and has been in the family over one hundred years. The remainder of the present 
family estate is located in Fayette, Woodford, Scott and Bourbon Counties. 

William Clark Hewitt Wood, Sr., is the son of Thomas Corbin and Betsy 
Clark Wood, of Woodford County. Thomas Corbin Wood being one of Cen- 
tral Kentucky's largest landowners, and also a banker. His enterprises in later 
years were carried on by his son William Wood, Sr. 

Mrs. Wood, the mother of William Clark Hewitt Wood, Jr., was the former 
Miss Elizabeth Hughes. Her father was Captain Theodore F. Hughes, and 
her mother, Pattie Dedman Hughes, both of Woodford County. Notable in 


the line of Mrs. Wood's ancestors was her grandfather, Robert Dedman, also 
one of Woodford County's largest landowners and a distiller. 

Mr. and Mrs. William Clark Hewitt Wood, Sr. are the parents of two chil- 
dren: William Clark Hewitt Wood, Jr., the immediate subject of this review, 
and his sister, the former Elizabeth Clark Wood, who is now the wife of Charles 
Hallam Mahoney, and they are the parents of one son, Michael Fall Mahoney. 

William Clark Hewitt Wood, Jr., was born at his ancestral home at "Bryan 
Station," Fayette County, Kentucky, on August 13, 1909. In his youth he at- 
tended Hamilton, Collier School, Massie School for boys, graduated from Co- 
lumbia Military Academy, and later attended Transylvania University and Uni- 
versity of Kentucky. 

Mr. Wood was married to Miss Ruth Anthony Jarmer, in 1936. She is the 
daughter of Johanna and Emil Jarmer, of Graz, Austria, whose ancestors were 
prominent Viennese merchants, musicians and professional men. They are the par- 
ents of three sons, who will carry on the Wood name and traditions. The sons are 
Thomas Clark Wood, born July 25, 1937; Robert Kay Wood, born June 15, 1939, 
and William Jarmer Wood, born May 14, 1943. Through colonial ancestry, Mr. 
Wood is a member of the Sons of The Revolution. Mrs. Wood is an active 
volunteer worker in the many efforts of the Junior League of Lexington. Both 
Mr. and Mrs. Wood are members of Christ Church, Lexington, Kentucky. 

From the foregoing record, it is seen that this family is one of the oldest in 
the State, and William Clark Hewitt Wood, Jr., is maintaining all the traditions 
that have come to him, and is extending his influence into new fields, the main- 
tenance of which will become the responsibilities of his sons. 


J. he Pendennis Club of Louisville grew out of a desire of a num- 
ber of friends to have a place in which to meet and spend a social hour together 

This group was composed of business and professional men who had been 
meeting each Saturday night in the homes of the respective members. When it 
was agreed that the group should form a club, a preliminary meeting was called 
at the office of Mr. Thomas Todd, then assistant City Engineer of Louisville, 
in the City Hall on June 28, 1881. It was agreed that additional members were 
to be recruited and that when the group numbered thirty-five, the club would be 
formally organized. 

Quarters were rented over a grocery located on the corner of Fourth and 
Walnut Streets. The first meeting was held on July 9, 1881 and Mr. Wilson 
T. Todd was elected president. Mr. Todd refused to accept the office except 
temporarily but agreed to serve until a permanent set of officers was elected. A 
meeting was called for August 10, 1881 at which time the permanent organiza- 
tion was perfected and Major J. M. Wright was elected president. 

At that time, the group adopted the name Pendennis Club. The name was 
taken from the Thackeray characters, Major and Arthur Pendennis. 


The Pendennis Club grew very rapidly and was never in financial difficulties 
since its founders were careful to see that it operated within its income, which at 
the start was limited. The growth of the club was so rapid that its original 
quarters were found to be inadequate. Many worthy citizens and potentially 
good members had to be refused membership only because the quarters were so 
limited. It was, therefore, determined that the club should purchase the Belknap 
home which stood on Walnut Street next to the present Stewart Dry Goods 
Company. The purchase was completed and the club moved into its new home 
in August, 1883. Many people prominent in the affairs of the nation were 
entertained and regaled at dinners given there. 

In 1916 younger blood was taken into the club when the Tavern Club was 
merged with the Pendennis Club. The new members were promised a new club 
house and in 1927 the present site of the club was purchased and a beautiful 
limestone and brick building was erected on Walnut Street between Second and 
Third, covering a large part of that block. The club numbers among its mem- 
bers the very cream of the business and professional men of Louisville. 



ne morning in 1941 the Courier-Journal announced that "Hen- 
ning Chambers, a tireless, quiet man, who made himself one of the most in- 
fluential in Louisville, died at 11:30 A. M., Friday in St. Joseph Infirmary, 
where he had been under treatment for a heart attack since Wednesday." This 
announcement created the same feeling of lost leadership among business and 
financial executives in Louisville as did announcement of the passing of the 
elder Morgan in New York. Mr. Chambers' sagacity, wisdom, integrity and 
civic loyalty had gone far toward keeping Louisville's business and banking con- 
dition on an even keel for well nigh a generation. His strong hand kept the 
ship in her course, even during the storm of depression when all seemed lost 
everywhere, and Louisville came through without the plethora of crashes, sorrow 
and suffering which had wrecked the financial ships of other cities. 

Henning Chambers was born in Louisville, February 24, 1873. His parents, 
whose old home was at Fourth and Ormsby, Henry Chambers and Ann Weis- 
singer, both born in Kentucky, were descended from old and gentle families 
which have taken a prominent part in the building and development of Ken- 
tucky and Louisville. He was educated in the public schools of Louisville, having 
attended Male High School, which has not only been rated as one of the finest 
secondary institutions in the nation since the time of the War between the States 
but until after 1900 offered college training. Fond of sports from boyhood, 
Mr. Chambers, after leaving school, continued tennis and swimming, becoming 
more interested in hunting as he became older. 

As was true of so many bright ambitious boys of that period Mr. Chambers 
was eager to enter the business world as early as possible. Upon leaving Male 
High School at seventeen, therefore, he went to work for the old Fidelity Trust 
Company, at Fifth and Main Streets (Louisville) . Later he joined his cousin, 
already prominent in financial circles, Sam C. Henning, in the S. C. Henning 



Company, investment brokers. Tall and spare, with rugged features, serious 
expression, and a quiet sense of humor, he soon became a familiar figure among 
the city's banking and brokerage personages, and as time passed he gained the 
reputation for meticulous attention to business details and for unflinching in- 
tegrity. While building his career on banking and brokerage, Mr. Chambers kept 
alive an early interest in farming. Prior to his marriage more than twenty years 
ago, he had lived on a farm behind Iroquois Park and in later years gained re- 
laxation and pleasure at "playing," more or less, at farming on his River Road 
estate. Though always a quiet man — often sitting through an entire meeting of 
a board of directors without scarcely an audible sound — and shunning public at- 
tention, Mr. Chambers' influence in the business affairs of Louisville was as great 
as that of any leader in the city during his time. Conspicuous instances of his 
ability and influence was the effecting of the consolidation of the old Columbia 
Trust Company with the Fidelity Trust Company, forming the Fidelity and 
Columbia Trust Company; and the Citizens National and Union National Bank, 
forming the Citizens-Union National Bank. These consolidations made two of 
the strongest trust and banking institutions in the South, institutions so sound 
that today they seem impregnable. Following the death of his cousin, Sam C. 
Henning, he organized the New York Stock Exchange brokerage firm of Henning 
Chambers and Company, which he conducted until 1939, when it was merged 
with W. L. Lyons and Company. 

Though quiet and modest, disliking the "limelight" Mr. Chambers was never- 
theless an aggressive, public-spirited man of vision and progress, visualizing and 
striving to build a city of real metropolitan arrangements, edifices and practices. 
He was interested in long-term municipal planning, seeking to develop real estate 
along Fourth Street and to build a downtown "loop" with traffic running in Third 
and out Fifth streets. In addition to these projects, he strove actively for the 
consolidation of the various commercial and trade boards or chambers of the 
city, believing that such a merger would help to make Louisville a better business 
city, as well as a finer larger municipality. In this connection he hoped to see 
merged the Board of Trade, the Louisville Industrial Foundation, the Retail Mer- 
chants Association and the Louisville Convention and Publicity League. Though 
unsuccessful in realizing this dream, he was still hopeful at the time of his death 
that the project would be achieved ultimately. Another public service which he 
vicariously rendered the community was a prominent part in the obtaining of 
Camp Taylor for Louisville. He figured prominently also in the sale of the 
Axton-Fisher Tobacco Company, reported to have been one of the biggest financial 
transactions in recent years. One of the most altruistic services of his life was 
made possible by his wizardous insight into and superb knowledge of business 
conditions and his sympathy for his fellow men, particularly fellow Kentuckians. 
This service was given immediately preceding the stockmarket crash of 1929. 
Realizing that the crash was coming, had to come, he sent agents throughout the 
state, advising brokerage clients to use caution. Some reflected, heeded and put 
their "house in order" (and later how grateful were they and their families for 
the timely warning) ; others, seemingly "gone mad" from lavish prosperity through 
plunging, took no heed of the warning, nor apparently of the morrow — and re- 


pented their bad judgment in bankruptcy and suffering. With the house crashed 
about them and financial and business destruction seeming imminent, Mr. Cham- 
bers labored desperately to save something for his friends and fellow townsmen, 
who had apparently lost everything. It was largely through his efforts, working 
day and night, that some order was brought out of the chaos in 1930 following 
the failure of the National Bank of Kentucky, the leading banking institution 
in the South. 

Always a true lover of the turf as a fine sport, Mr. Chambers, in May, 1941, 
was elected secretary and treasurer of the American Turf Association, which con- 
trols Churchill Downs, Lincoln Fields and Latonia. Since the formation of the 
Association, twenty-two years before, he had been a director. Realizing the crass- 
ly commercial tendency, which the "sport of kings" was taking, he, two years 
prior to his death, arranged a trusteeship for the Association, "so that," as he 
put it, "Kentucky's outstanding institution would not fall into the hands of 
'strangers' and there would always be a Derby at Churchill Downs." Perhaps it 
should be mentioned that Mr. Chambers was prominent in making Mammoth 
Cave a National Park; was the organizer of the one-way streets in Louisville; 
and that he worked constantly to have the Municipal Bridge made free of toll. 

In June 1922 Mr. Chambers was married to Mina Ballard Jones, a charming 
daughter of one of Kentucky's oldest and most prominent families. She is the 
daughter of Mr. Charles Thruston and Mina (Breaux) Ballard, the public serv- 
ices of whose ancestors may be read in Kentucky and Southern history as readily 
as in books of genealogy. Mrs. Chambers is a member of the National Society 
of Colonial Dames, and she holds the important office (1943) of chairman of 
the Ways and Means Committee of Kentucky for the American Society for the 
Control of Cancer. Mr. Chambers has two step-children: Warner L. Jones, Jr., 
who has twin daughters; and Mina B. Jones, now Mrs. J. R. Peabody, Jr., who 
has two boys. 

Mr. Chambers, who had a keen appreciation of the social amenities of life, 
maintained membership in a number of clubs, among which were the Pendennis, 
the River Valley and the Louisville Country clubs. In politics he was a Repub- 
lican; in denominational religion, a Unitarian. His hobbies were farming and 
raising and racing thoroughbred horses. He was one of Louisville's most suc- 
cessful business leaders, and he was one of the city's most valuable citizens. Pos- 
sessing as he did untiring energy, wizardous business ability, sterling integrity, a 
progressive, forward-looking spirit, and a deep interest in the welfare of the com- 
munity, Mr. Chambers was one whose passing was a distinct loss to Louisville 
and to Kentucky. 



he present manager of the Pendennis Club is Fred Howard 
Crawford who was born in Ottawa, Ontario, on October 27, 1884, the son of 
Alfred Crawford of Hamilton, Ontario, and Katherine Lenihan of Ottawa. 
Mr. Crawford was educated in the Ottawa grammer schools. He came to the 


United States on July 3, 1903, becoming a citizen by process of naturalization 
in 1905. 

He served an apprenticeship with no pay for three years in the dining room 
of the celebrated old Knickerbocker Hotel in New York under a Mr. Regan, 
after which he went to Syracuse, New York, to work as a bus boy at the Yates 
Hotel. Mr. Crawford was soon promoted from bus boy to captain of the dining 
room but left in 1910 to accept a position as head waiter at the Onondago Hotel 
in Syracuse. After eight years in this position, he was promoted to maitre d'hotel 
and then to catering manager. 

During the first World War, F. H. Crawford worked as a civilian employee 
in a TNT plant in Syracuse. In 1919 he went to the Cleveland Hotel, Cleve- 
land, Ohio, as Maitre d'hotel and then to Cincinnati in 1923 as assistant manager 
of the Cincinnati Club. In only eight months he was promoted to manager, 
remaining in this position until 1928 when he became manager of the Keystone 
Athletic Club, in Pittsburgh. From there he moved to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 
to be manager of the Harrisburger Hotel. 

Mr. Crawford came to Louisville in 1934 as manager of the Seelbach Hotel. 
On June 1, 1934, he was made manager of the Pendennis Club. He is a member 
of the board of directors of the Young Men's Christian Association, the Norton 
Memorial Infirmary and the Canada Dry Bottling Corporation. He is a past 
president and on the national board of the Club Managers' Association of 
America. Mr. Crawford is a Mason and will become Potentate of the Shrine 
in 1944. He belongs to Christ Church Cathedral of the Episcopal Church. 

On June 27, 1905 Mr. Crawford was married to Miss Charlotte May Bruch. 
They have no children and reside in the Cumberland Apartments. 



'uccess and a position of responsibility and influence in the busi- 
ness world were the reward of William Peyton Hall for a life of honesty, courage 
and uprightness. 

Mr. Hall was born at Fairmount, Jefferson County, Kentucky, October 30, 
1875. He was the son of Willis Van Buren Hall, a native of Woodford County, 
Kentucky, and Virginia (Wigginton) Hall, of Cox Creek, Nelson County, 

He secured his early education in private schools and then graduated from 
College in Danville, Indiana. Immediately upon leaving College, Mr. Hall 
obtained a position as a salesman with the W. P. Cole Buggy Company. Follow- 
ing his connection with the Cole Buggy Company Mr. Hall branched out into 
the great field of agriculture. His first occupation being that of a commercial fertil- 
izer salesman where he made contact and friends with the majority of the leading 
farmers and vegetable growers in Jefferson County and adjoining Counties. 
The contacts made and the friendships developed, in this his first effort in the 
field of agriculture proved to be of excellent value to him in later years when he 
entered business for himself. Mr. Hall with his remarkable forethought found 
in his many contacts with farmers and vegetable growers that there were many 


17— Vol. II 


other things that folks connected with the field of agriculture had to buy in 
addition to commercial fertilizer, so he associated himself with the firm of Wood- 
Stubs and Company, located at 219 East Jefferson Street, where he remained 
for a number of years, learning the seed and implement business. 

With remarkable energy and business acumen for a young man and since he 
found the local field in this industry was not crowded he saw the great possibilities 
in establishing a Seed and Implement business for himself. In his first effort he 
was extremely fortunate in associating himself with Mr. E. C. Foltz, who at that 
time was president of the Louisville Fertilizer Company, who proved to be a fine 
friend and excellent business mentor to this young man. In 1903 they together 
established at 241 East Market Street the Southern Seed Company. To the 
surprise of everyone even themselves their business began to grow by leaps and 
bounds and in a short while they were forced to move to larger quarters at 
206-208 East Jefferson Street near the Hay Market. In the year of 1907 be- 
cause of ever increasing business and adding to their line of merchandise ad- 
ditional Tillage Implements and Hay Machinery they were again forced to move, 
this time to 340-342 East Jefferson Street, where they continued to do a flourishing 
business as the Southern Seed Company until 1911, at which time Mr. Hall having 
decided that the time was ripe purchased the interest of Mr. Foltz in the retail 
Seed business and the Implement business and established the Hall Seed Company, 
which exists as a flourishing business to this date. At the time Mr. Hall pur- 
chased the retail business of the Southern Seed Company Mr. Foltz continued 
to operate the Southern Seed Company as a Wholesale Seed Company only. 
A number of years later Mr. Hall purchased the assets and good will of the 
Southern Seed Company which he consolidated with the Hall Seed Company 
and continued as its president until his death. 

In 1926 he and his associate purchased the building at 219-223 East Jefferson 
Street opposite the Hay Market which stand as a Monument to Mr. Hall's un- 
usual business ability and attainment to this date. Mr. Hall never forgot the 
assistance of those who made his success possible and he credited much of his 
success to the friendship and guidance of Mr. Foltz. All those who knew Mr. 
Hall and associated with him remarked on the honesty and forthrightness of 
his business dealings and the charm of his personality. 

Having thrown all of his energy into the business, his only avocation was 
gardening, from which a great deal of pleasure and exercise were derived. Bring- 
ing to his garden his vast knowledge of Seed, Fertilizer and agricultural methods, 
he made it the admiration and envy of all who saw it. 

William P. Hall was a thirty-second degree Mason and a member of the 
Louisville Rotary Club and of the Louisville Board of Trade. He was also a 
charter member of the Deer Park Baptist Church, through which, because of 
his great interest and industry in church matters, he held various offices in the 
Baptist Church, and was one of the outstanding laymen of that religious group. 

In 1901, Mr. Hall married Miss Pearl May Hoke, of Jeffersontown, Ken- 
tucky. She was the daughter of Abraham Hoke, of Jeffersontown, and Sue 
(Cole) Hoke, a native of Bullitt County, Kentucky. No children were born to 
Mr. and Mrs. Hall, but they took Emory Hoke, a nephew of Mrs. Hall, into 


their home and reared him from the age of four to manhood. They sent him to 
college at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where 
he graduated. He is now married and the father of three lovely girls. 

William Peyton Hall died on June 20, 1936, and in his passing the city of 
Louisville lost an astute business man, a good church worker and an excellent 


/\n indomitable will and the ability to turn disaster into success 
has contributed immeasurably to the business career of Archibald Prentice Coch- 
ran, head of the Cochran Foil Company and one of the contributing factors in 
Louisville's rapid climb to a position as one of the most important centers of 
production of war materials in the entire United States. He was born in Louis- 
ville on March 28, 1898, the son of Hey wood Cochran, who> was engaged in 
the manufacture of refrigeration machinery, and Margaret (Lee) Cochran. 
The Cochran, Lee and Bridgeford families, of whom Archibald Prentice Coch- 
ran is a descendant, were all pioneers in the settlement of the city of Louisville 
and in its industrial and business development. 

He secured his early education in the grade schools and high school in Louis- 
ville and, no doubt, received during that time the diminutive nickname "Archie" 
by which he is still familiarly addressed. In 1920, he was graduated from the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology with the degree of Bachelor of Science. 
During his collegiate life, he became a member of Chi Phi fraternity. In May, 
1918, "Archie" Cochran interrupted his pursuit of an education to enlist as an 
air corps cadet in the United States Marine Corps. He was commissioned a 
Second Lieutenant in October, 1918 and was stationed in Boston and then Miami, 
receiving his honorable discharge in January, 1919. 

Mr. Cochran is possessed of great natural mechanical ability in addition to 
his excellent engineering education. He entered the employ of the Reynolds 
Metals Company in 1920 and progressed through increasingly responsible po- 
sitions until he became vice-president in 1934. He served in this capacity until 
the summer of 1939, when he left to organize his own concern, the Cochran Foil 
Company and located it at 1430 South Thirteenth Street in Louisville. He 
engaged in the manufacture of metal foil only until 1941 when a scarcity of 
aluminum forced him to close his plant. His career since that time has been a 
phenomenal one. The Louisville Courier-Journal gave a brief but excellent 
summary of the work of Mr. Cochran and his company in its Sunday Roto- 
Magazine with many pictures of his plant. The news story follows: 
rr Foil, Shells, Fuses and An r E' 

'This is the story of a man whose company, in less than three years, was founded 
and forced to suspend production twice because of priorities, but which came 
back each time stronger than ever and Tuesday will become the fourth war plant 
in Kentucky to rate the Army-Navy "E" citation for excellence in production. 

: *The man is Archie P. Cochran and the company is Cochran Foil Company. 


It's an excellent example of how American manufacturers have converted from 
commercial to government production in an amazingly short time. 

"Organized in the middle of 1939 when Mr. Cochran left another metal com- 
pany after twenty years, Cochran Foil started production of aluminum foil in 
July, 1940. The company hardly had a good start when it was forced to halt 
production early in 1941 because of the scarcity of aluminum for anything but 
Government use. 

"It then became apparent to Mr. Cochran that the company certain to remain 
in business was the company working for the Government. So he stored his foil- 
making machinery away and set out to get a government contract. Finally he 
had a chance to bid on a contract to make 37-mm. shells. At that time his com- 
pany had but twelve workers and one lathe. 

"However, Mr. Cochran's bid was low and he was given a small contract by 
the Ordnance Department, provided he could collect the machinery required for 
the job in a very short time. He was told flatly that it would be almost impossible 
to find machines, but he was able to round up twelve 1902 model screw machines, 
which, when rebuilt, would serve the purpose. 

"Although Cochran Foil was one of the last companies in the country to get a 
contract to make shells, from the start it was among the first in quality of pro- 
duction. All of which warranted an expansion of its contract. That, in turn, 
meant an expansion of facilities and employees. The list of workers rose from 
a dozen to several hundred. The old quarters became too cramped, and the 
company took over an adjoining vacant tobacco warehouse which was remodeled 
into a modern factory. 

"Last July the firm was informed it could use only the steel on hand to pro- 
duce shells. It was then that the company was converted once again, to manu- 
facture of an armor-piercing shell fuse — which it is now making. 

"Strangely, the company merited its *E' for its production shells, although the 
fuse-making also had been worthy of the award. When it was forced to suspend 
shell-making last year, presentation of the award was postponed. Tuesday's 
ceremony will be attended by Gov. Keen Johnson and many high Army, Navy 
and Marine dignitaries. 

"Another unusual thing about the plant is the complete understanding between 
management and labor. There has never been a strike or even a threat, and 
absenteeism is very low. 

*I wish you'd give the credit to the workers,' said Mr. Cochran. ^They're 
the ones who deserve the credit. I wish you'd also particularly mention W. F. 
Wyatt, our plant manager, who was the engineer during our conversions.' 

This story is illustrative not only of his ability as a business man but of his 
power to command the love, respect and loyalty of his employees and associates. 
Since he is still a young man, "Archie" Cochran's friends have little doubt that 
he will become a factor of steadily increasing influence in the business and in- 
dustrial world. He is now also a member of the board of directors of the Brown- 
Forman Distillery Company. 

He has always taken an interest in public affairs and served as a member of 
the Board of Park Commissioners of Louisville in 1931. Active also in the 

H I S T O RY O F K E N T U C KY 813 

community's social life, he is a member of the River Valley, Pendennis, Wynn-Stay 
and Louisville Country Clubs. He is a tennis enthusiast. 

On May 7, 1936, Mr. Cochran married Miss Polly Zimmer of Petersburg, 
Virginia. She is the daughter of Samuel Zimmer, a prominent Petersburg at : 
torney, and Polly (Walker) Zimmer. Mrs. Cochran is a member of the Junior 
League and takes an active part in the work of the Red Cross and Bundles for 
Britain. Mr. and Mrs. Cochran have two children, Polly Walker, seven and one- 
half years old, and Margaret Lee, aged five. They are members of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church and make their home on Upper River Road. 

Archibald P. Cochran's attributes of courage, resourcefulness and ability cannot 
fail to insure his continued success. 



>ons of pioneers often inherit the traits of character that made 
their fathers successful in their task of building a great nation out of a trackless 

The late James Glazebrook, head of a Louisville wholesale grocery firm, was 
the descendant of pioneer stock and brought to his work the same vision, courage 
and tenacity that drove the pioneers ever westward. He was born in Louisville 
on December 30, 1860. His father was Austin Glazebrook, who was born in 
Barren County, Kentucky, March 2, 1820, but moved to Louisville in 1850 and 
founded the firm of Glazebrook and Brother, the partner being his brother, Joseph 
Glazebrook. In 1865 the name of the company was changed to Glazebrook, 
Grinstead and Company. Austin Glazebrook was active in this business until his 
retirement in 1878 at which time he disposed of his interest. He died in Louisville, 
Kentucky, April 30, 1888. Austin Glazebrook was descended from William of 
that family who came to America from England or Wales and became one of 
Kentucky's early settlers. James Glazebrook's mother was Lydia Grinstead, a sister 
of James F. Grinstead, one time Mayor of Louisville. She was born in Glasgow, 
Kentucky, August 10, 1833, and died in Louisville, November 20, 1873. 

James Glazebrook was educated in the public graded and high schools in 
Louisville and then entered his father's business which at that time was known 
as Glazebrook, Grinstead and Company. After a short time in this connection 
he went with the firm of Cowles and Glazebrook. When his brother William 
became of age they entered business together in the firm of Glazebrook and Brother, 
thus reviving the old firm name. This business continued until about 1901. In 
1902, James Glazebrook organized the Glazebrook, Rutherford, Thomas Company 
which lasted just one year. In 1903 he and his brother purchased the controlling 
interest in the Louisville Grocery Company, of which he was made president, and 
continued so until the time of his death. 

This house has always enjoyed a prosperous business and has outgrown its original 
quarters several times. At no time during its history did it prosper more than 
while James Glazebrook was the guiding spirit. His knowledge of the intricate 
details of the business and his unerring business judgment were two very important 


factors, while his reputation for honesty and the strength of his character were 
the means of making thousands of valuable friends and customers for the concern. 

On December 5, 1894, Mr. Glazebrook was united in marriage to Miss Annie 
Ten Broeck Robinson of Louisville, Kentucky. She was the daughter of Charles 
L. Robinson, a native of New York, and Virginia Patton Watkins of Huntsville, 
Alabama. Mr. Robinson had moved from New York to Mississippi, where he 
operated cotton plantations. Mr. and Mrs. Glazebrook were the parents of one 
child, James Robinson Glazebrook, now a mechanical engineer in the automotive 
division of the Johns-Manville Asbestos Company of Manville, New Jersey, with 
main offices in New York City. James Robinson Glazebrook was a cum laude 
graduate of the Louisville Male High School and then attended the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, where he received the Bachelor of Science degree in 
1928 and the Master of Science degree in 1929. He was a member of Phi Gamma 
Delta fraternity. Mr. and Mrs. James Glazebrook were active in the social life 
of the community. Mr. Glazebrook was a prominent clubman and held member- 
ship in the Louisville Country Club, Pendennis Club and Big Spring Golf Club. 
He was very fond of horses and an ardent and accomplished equestrian. He was 
a faithful member and communicant of Calvary Episcopal Church. 

In political matters, James Glazebrook was an adherent of the Republican Party. 
Although he acted according to the dictates of his own conscience and as a result 
of his own thinking, his political leanings were influenced to some extent by his 
father, who, as did his brother, Joseph, freed the slaves he inherited from his 
father's estate as soon as he came into his inheritance. Austin Glazebrook was 
one of the few men in Louisville who cast his ballot for Abraham Lincoln in the 
campaign of 1860 when Lincoln received only one thousand votes in the entire 
state of Kentucky. 

James Glazebrook died December 10, 1937, and is buried in Cave Hill Ceme- 
tery in Louisville, Kentucky. 



ne of the most difficult of all the professions is that whose 
members are those quiet, steadfast men upon whom every one relies in life's 
saddest moments. Louisville's best known representative of the funeral directors' 
profession is William Edward Pearson, president of the second oldest business 
firm in Louisville, L. D. Peason and Son. 

W. E. Pearson is one of two sons born to Edward Clarence Pearson, a native 
of Louisville, and Ella Smith of New Albany, Indiana. He was born in Louisville 
on March 6, 1887, and attended local graded schools, then entering the Kentucky 
Military Institute and later studying at the Spencerian Business College. 

With this fine educational background, he entered his father's business. This 
firm of funeral directors was established in 1848 but had its real beginning in 
1832, when Lorenzo Dow Pearson, grandfather of the subject of this sketch, came 
to Louisville from Shelby County, Kentucky, and opened a cabinet makers shop, 
where he was frequently called upon to make wooden caskets. The business was 
started on Main Street next door to the famous Gait House and later moved to 



a location on Jefferson Street now occupied by the Tyler Building, where it was 
conducted for nearly half a century. In 1898, it was again moved to the corner of 
Third and Chestnut Streets and in 1924 the firm purchased a beautiful mansion 
at 1310 South Third Street and furnished it as the most beautiful funeral home 
in Kentucky. 

Upon the death of Lorenzo Dow Pearson, his son, Edward C. Pearson, became 
head of the company and served as such until his death in 1917. Then his eldest 
son, Edward C. Pearson, Junior, became president and served until his death in 
1938, when William E. Pearson was elevated to the presidency of the concern. 
Thus three generations have contributed to the growth and success of the enter- 
prise and now a fourth generation has been trained in the profession which has 
come to be a tradition in the Pearson family. The present officers, in addition to 
Mr. Pearson, are Paul S. Pearson, Secretary, and Edward C. Pearson, Treasurer. 
The last named is a son of Edward Clarence Pearson, former president, as is 
Scott E. Pearson, also an employee of the firm. 

On September 10, 1908, William E. Pearson was united in marriage with Miss 
Ada Wigginton of Nelson County, Kentucky. They became the parents of three 
children: Clyde A., Paul S., secretary of the firm, and Ella Caroline, now Mrs. 
George Haas of Detroit, Michigan. Mrs. Pearson died in 1921 and on April 
26, 1924, Mr. Pearson married Miss Marion Rau of Louisville. They became the 
parents of one daughter, Martha Louise, who passed away July 25, 1944. 

Mr. Pearson's entire life has been devoted to the development and expansion 
of the company and to the perfection of the company's service to its clients. The 
quiet beauty of a Pearson funeral service is the result of nearly a century of 
painstaking effort to attain perfection in a difficult task. 

Mr. William E. Pearson is also vice-president of the United Casket Company 
and is president of the Funeral Auto Company of which his father was a founder. 

His home is at 1101 Cardinal Drive in Audubon Park and he is a member of 
the Audubon Country Club, where he engages in his favorite recreation, which 
is golf. He is also a member of the Masonic Blue Lodge, Scottish Rite, and 

In the religious side of his life, he subscribes to the beliefs of the Presbyterian 
Church and is a faithful member of the Fourth Avenue Church in Louisville. 
Mr. Pearson's life has been one of service to his fellow men and he exemplifies the 
finest type of business man and funeral director in the country. 



ne of Louisville's newer industries is that which consists of the 
manufacture of ceramic articles. The most important firm concerned in this 
work is the Corhart Refractories Company, Incorporated. The guiding spirit of 
this enterprise is Frederick S. Thompson, an adopted son of the city of Louisville; 
but one who by his qualities of leadership and his warm friendly manners has 
found a place in the hearts of hundreds of people in this city. 

Frederick S. Thompson started life on June 4, 1890, in Wapakoneta, Ohio, 
the son of Charles J. Thompson of Columbus, Ohio, and Cora Craig of Wapa- 
koneta. The elder Thompson was a well known newspaper man and represented 


his district as a member of the Congress of the United States for fourteen years. 
Frederick S. Thompson attended local grade and high schools and then entered 
Defiance College in Defiance, Ohio, from which school he graduated with the 
degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1911. He studied Chemical Engineering at the 
Case School of Applied Science in Cleveland and earned the degree of Bachelor 
of Science in Chemical Engineering in 1913. 

His life in the business and professional world has been one of rapid pro- 
gression through positions of increasing responsibility to the present time. After 
his graduation, he taught school in California for four years, leaving there to 
become Assistant Superintendent of a glass factory operated by the General 
Electric Company in Central Falls, Rhode Island. In 1922, he went to Nela 
Park, Cleveland, Ohio, in the capacity of a development engineer. Here he 
exercised his great ability in the field of ceramics by directing the development of 
refractories. After six years, he left to become sales manager for Corhart Re- 
fractories in Louisville. 

Frederick S. Thompson's executive ability and leadership brought him rapid 
advancement and in 1932 he was promoted to Vice-President and general manager. 
In 1942, his qualifications were again recognized when he was elevated to the 
presidency of the corporation. He still retains his position as general manager and 
has done much to make Corhart Refractories, Incorporated, one of the leaders in 
the field of industrial ceramics manufacturing. He is a member of both the British 
and American Ceramic Societies and is the author of numerous technical articles 
dealing with the ceramic field. 

The Corhart Refractories Company was founded in 1927 and engaged in the 
manufacture of electrically melted and cast refractories. It is the only firm 
known to be performing this particular type of operation which was developed 
by the Corning Glass Works. The corporation was financed by the Corning 
Glass Works and the Hartford Empire Company and derives its name from the 
first syllable of the name of each of these firms (Cor-Hart) . The entire facili- 
ties of the plant, located at Sixteenth and Lee Streets, are used for the manufac- 
ture of articles for the prosecution of the war. It has expanded rapidly under 
the skillful guidance of Frederick S. Thompson and bids fair to become one 
of the city's most valuable industries in the post-war era. 

On August 22, 1914, Mr. Thompson was united in marriage with Miss Norma 
L. Yost, of Virginia, the daughter of E. Yost, a Virginia lumberman, and Caro- 
line (Weimar) Yost, a native of Columbus, Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. Thompson 
are the parents of two daughters, Mrs. Harold L. Russell of Atlanta, Georgia, 
and Mrs. Howard R. Williams. Their home at 2416 Douglas Boulevard is 
maintained in the finest traditions of Kentucky hospitality. The family's church 
membership is carried in the Highland Presbyterian Church. 

Mr. Thompson embraces the political principles of the Republican Party and 
recognizing the value of the social side of life is a member of the Rotary and 
Pendennis Clubs. The fact that he is still a young man gives evidence of the 
likelihood that Frederick S. Thompson will become a still greater influence in 
the business, industrial, social and civic life of his community and will contribute 
still more to the industry which has been so greatly benefited by his work. 




ohn Edward Tarrant is a native of Dyersburg, Tennessee, 
having been born there on November 25, 1898. His father, John Morgan 
Tarrant, now deceased, was president of the First-Citizens National Bank of 
Dyersburg and a director of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. John E. 
Tarrant's mother was Penelope A. (Fumbanks) Tarrant. 

John E. Tarrant obtained his early education in the Dyersburg public schools, 
and upon graduation from high school, he matriculated at the University of 
Virginia, where he received the degree of Bachelor of Science in 1921. He was 
a member of Kappa Sigma fraternity and Phi Beta Kappa, an honorary scholastic 

His college career was interrupted by his enlistment in the United States Army 
during the first World War. He attended the Heavy Artillery Officers' Training 
Camp in Fortress Monroe, Virginia, in 1918. After receiving his honorable 
discharge from the army at the end of the war, he returned to the University of 
Virginia and after graduation attended the Harvard Law School and received 
his Bachelor of Laws degree in 1923. During his stay at Harvard, he was presi- 
dent of the Harvard Legal Aid Bureau and a member of Lincoln's Inn, a legal 
society. He was also a member of the Harvard Students' Advisory Committee. 

He began the practice of law with the firm of Simpson, Thacher and Bartlett 
in New York, New York, in 1922. In 1923, he moved to Louisville and became 
associated with the well known firm of Bruce, Bullitt, Gordon and Laurent. In 
1926, he became a member of the firm of Bruce and Bullitt. In 1940, he became 
a member of the firm of Ogden, Galphin, Tarrant and Street and continues to 
practice as a member of that firm with offices in the Marion E. Taylor Building. 
In 1932, he served as general counsel for the Federal Land Bank of Louisville 
and the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of Louisville. 

Mr. Tarrant is a director of a number of corporations, including The Louis- 
ville Railway Company, Jefferson Island Salt Company, Jefferson Island Salt 
Mining Company, Cochran Foil Company, Consider H. Willett, Incorporated, 
The Radford Company and Canada Dry Bottling Corporation of Louisville. 

He is a member of the American Law Institute, Louisville Bar Association and 
the Kentucky and the American Bar Associations. He is now serving as a trustee 
of the John N. Norton Memorial Infirmary and of the Young Women's Christian 
Association. He serves also as a member of the board of the Mental Hygiene 
Clinic. In 1939, he was chairman of the Mayor's Committee to Recommend 
Methods of Eliminating the Deficit in the City of Louisville Sinking Fund. 

Mr. Tarrant was married to Miss Mary Park Kaye, of Louisville, on May 
26, 1928. They are the parents of three daughters, Mary Kaye Tarrant, Eleanor 
Griffith Tarrant and Penelope Ann Tarrant, and make their home at 485 Light- 
foot Road. 

He is a member of the River Valley Club, Louisville Country Club, Pendennis 
Club, Wynn-Stay Club, the Broad Street Club of New York, the Society of 



the Cincinnati, Society of Colonial Wars and Kentucky Society of the Sons of 
the American Revolution. 

Mr. Tarrant subscribes to the beliefs of the Protestant Episcopal Church. Po- 
litically he adheres to the principles of the Republican Party. 



fONG one of Louisville's prominent citizens, Charles W. Allen 
rose to leadership in the community by earnest work. Contributing to his success 
have been many qualities and elements: sound judgment, executive ability and a 
pleasing personality, which is enhanced by a sense of humor. He is endowed 
with two other qualities, namely the feeling of obligation to public service and a 
spirit of noblesse oblige. His unassuming and modest manner, together with his 
innate kindliness and sincerity, have caused him to be generally liked and perhaps 
imposed upon in the matter of community work. 

Mr. Allen was born in Louisville, Kentucky, March 12, 1877. His father, 
Charles James Fox Allen, a native of Pittsfield, Massachusetts, was sent to Louis- 
ville during the War between the States, as a Major in the Union Army to be 
paymaster for troops in Kentucky and Tennessee. While stationed in Louisville, 
he met and married Caroline, daughter of William B. Belknap, at that time head 
of the Belknap Hardware Company. Following the close of the Civil War, Major 
Allen became associated with the Belknap firm, attaining the office of vice-president. 
He retired at the age of sixty, having worked industriously, accumulated meticu- 
lously and given magnanimously to his community. 

Charles W. is the fourth in a family of five children. After having attended 
both private and public elementary schools he entered the duPont Manual Training 
High School, in Louisville, continuing as a student there for two years. Desiring 
intensive work in Greek and Latin, preparatory to entering Yale University, he 
studied for a time under the superb tutelage of Professor Bernard Flexner, after 
which he entered Yale in 1897. Mr. Allen credits Yale, from which he graduated 
in 1901 with a Bachelor of Arts degree, "with having instilled in him an interest 
in community affairs and a sense of his responsibilities to his community." He 
early put this interest into active service. The year of his graduation, 1901, he 
obtained employment as order boy in the now nationally well known Belknap 
Hardware and Manufacturing Company, already one of the largest establishments 
of its kind in the world. He was advanced from one department to another until 
his training and experience qualified him for the important position of vice- 
president and general manager in charge of personnel and general operatives, 
which was conferred upon him. , 

On the 7th of October, 1902, at West Newton, Massachusetts, he was united 
in matrimony to Miss Emily Lindsay, daughter of Thomas B. Lindsay, a professor 
of Boston University. They are the parents of two sons, Lennox L., a talented 
artist of the Cincinnati School of Art, and Charles W., Jr., now (1945) a Lieu- 
tenant Colonel, United States Army, who had previously attended Rawlings College, 
at Winter Park, Florida, and on February 14, 1942, married Miss Alberta Wood, 
a daughter of Judge and Mrs. Lorenzo K. Wood, of Louisville. 


Mr. Allen's public services have been many and varied. He was a pioneer in 
Louisville's social welfare work, having been associated with the Welfare League, 
which developed into the Community Chest in 1917. He served for eleven years 
on the Executive Committee of the latter organization. Becoming a member of its 
board of trustees, he is now vice-president of the board of the Lincoln Institute, the 
school of higher training for colored students, at Lincoln Ridge, Kentucky. Having 
served as a member of the board of trustees of the Children's Agency, he was 
made its president, a position still held (1941). He is also president of the Amer- 
ican Printing House for the Blind, one of the earliest and most unique and 
humanitarian institutions of its kind in the world. He was selected by Mayor 
Joseph Scholtz as a member of the Personnel Commission, which surveyed and 
attended the city's personnel during that officer's incumbency. He was area co- 
ordinator of the Louisville branch of the Office of Production Management, a 
position to which he was appointed by President Roosevelt, June 1, 1941; this 
work was in the division of contract distribution, to spread defense contracts 
among small business men. He was chairman of the Red Cross War Campaign, 
from November, 1941, to February, 1942. He is now chairman of the Louisville 
Chapter of the American Red Cross. In February, 1942, Mr. Allen was called 
to Washington by Lieutenant General H. H. Arnold to assist in forming a com- 
mittee of five, to serve as civilian aids for the Army Air Forces, the principal duty 
being to select qualified civilians for commissions in that branch whose duties, 
in turn, are in the field of ground administrative work, the purpose being to 
relieve air-trained officers for combat duty. He was also chairman of the advisory 
committee organized by Mr. Charles Reiger, City Commissioner of Welfare. In 
addition, he is a director of the Belknap Hardware and Manufacturing Company 
and the First National Bank, and a past director of the Louisville Trust Company. 

Mr. Allen's social affiliations have been memberships in these organizations: 
the Pendennis Club, the Louisville Country Club, the River Valley Club, the 
Kentucky Club, the Les Cheneaux Club of Michigan, The Filson Club, and a 
charter member of the Big Spring Golf Club. He is a member of the Alpha 
Delta Phi college social fraternity and is a Presbyterian. His recreation is golf. 
Mrs. Allen, it may be added, has long taken a prominent part in the social life of 
the community, being active in the Red Cross — a member of its board of directors 
— active in the Beautification League of Kentucky, as well as in the Liberty Hall 
Association, the latter devoted to the preservation of famous old Liberty Hall, 
in Frankfort, home of John Brown, first United States Senator of Kentucky. 
It may be said of Mr. Allen that he is one of Louisville's prominent citizens who 
can always be counted upon to support and lend his name to all activities de- 
signed for the physical, social and cultural uplift of the city and state. One 
biographer made this very correct estimate of Mr. Allen: "He has gained the 
admiration and warm regard of all with whom he has been associated during his 
lifelong residence in Louisville and has long enjoyed a well-merited reputation 
as a business man of ability and success. Louisville numbers him among her 
prominent and progressive citizens." 




mong the brightest lights in the journalistic circles of his day 
and a well known writer in other fields was Harrison Robertson, one-time editor- 
in-chief of the Louisville Courier- Journal and friend and protege of Henry 

Mr. Robertson was born in Murfreesboro, Tennessee, on January 16, 1856, the 
son of Thomas and Elizabeth (Elliott) Robertson. He received his early educa- 
tion in the Murfreesboro public schools and then attended Union University at 
Murfreesboro, later studying at the University of Virginia. 

The creative urge had struck Harrison Robertson very early in life and he 
engaged in the writing of fiction and poetry during his school days. In 1878, 
he began writing for the Courier- Journal from his home in Murfreesboro and in 
January, 1879, he went to Louisville to devote his full time to newspaper work. 
He first wrote a column entitled "Roundabout" for the editorial page. This 
column first appeared on January 7, 1879. Soon, he became associate editor and 
for more than sixty years he was one of the guiding spirits of this great news- 
paper, serving at various times as columnist, dramatic and literary critic, chief 
editorial writer, managing editor, chief of the editorial staff, general editorial 
manager, and in 1929 was made editor-in-chief. 

His friendship for the famous "Marse" Henry Watterson had a tremendous 
influence on his life and career. Mr. Watterson was one of the few great editors 
whom this country had produced up to the time Harrison Robertson joined his 
staff. The Courier- Journal was one of the oldest and certainly the most widely 
read daily paper in the South. There was no better school in which a young man 
could seek a journalistic education than under the tutelage of Henry Watterson. 
The fact that he was in complete control of the editorial page from the start of 
his employment testifies to the confidence Mr. Watterson had in his ability. 

The respect in which the Courier- Journal editorial page was held all over the 
nation during the sixty years of Mr. Robertson's service is proof that the editorial 
reins had fallen from capable hands into those which were no less capable. Al- 
though they were the dearest of friends, it is unfortunate that Henry Watterson 
and Harrison Robertson were contemporaries. Robertson, had he been the prede- 
cessor of Watterson, might have been just as famous as his friend and chief. 
Henry Watterson had become a legend and his personality dominated his news- 
paper. Mr. Robertson was not a follower of the school of personal journalism 
because he one time said that, if personal journalism were allowed to< continue, 
it would very likely come to be "more personalism than journalism." He, there- 
fore, sublimated his personality and strove for objectivity and truth in journalism. 

He was well aware of the powerful influence which newspapers have on public 
opinion and hence on public action. He took his responsibility as the wielder and 
controllor of that influence very seriously. His penetrating insight into men and 
the motives of men and his objective viewpoint enabled him to maintain an 
intellectual balance. He strove mightily to make the Courier-Journal into what 
he thought a newspaper should be, "the instrument for the promotion of the 
ideas and ideals of the organized forces of its operation." He had a forceful, 


pungent style and, during the years when both he and Henry Watterson were 
engaged in writing editorials, many of his editorials were credited to Mr. Watter- 
son. A later editorialist on the same paper said, "It is difficult to separate Harri- 
son Robertson from the Watterson legend. Mr. Robertson was a vital factor 
in that legend, because he wrote a great number of the editorials which the public 
credited to Marse Henry." Indeed, all of Mr. Watterson's own editorials were 
proofread by him and often changed. 

Despite his belief in the sublimation of an editor's personality to editorial policy, 
Mr. Robertson refused to support a policy in which he personally could not be- 
lieve. He led the Courier- Journal in its first bolt of the Democratic Party when 
he declined to support Bryan and "free silver" in 1896. Mr. Watterson was in 
Europe at the time and the bolt of the Courier- Journal, which had until this 
time been stoutly democratic, caused consternation among the ranks of the party 
over a large area. Mr. Watterson later supported Bryan against the advice of 
Mr. Robertson, who refused to write a line in Bryan's behalf. He held strong 
views about the use of newspapers as "party organs" and maintained his political 
independence throughout his entire life. 

Harrison Robertson looked upon a career in journalism as a grave responsibility 
and his conduct as a newspaper man reflected the acceptance and discharge of that 
responsibility. He had a well developed "social conscience" and his able pen 
was often employed in an eifort to improve social conditions. He lent his in- 
fluence to every noble cause; he saw and led many a crusade for the betterment 
of government and society. He made few public speechs and had no desire to 
be in the public eye. One of his rare addresses was made before the Indiana 
Intercollegiate Press Association in Bloomington, Indiana, on May 7, 1921. At 
that time, he gave public utterance to his principles of journalism: 

: "The power of analyzing the news editorially is a virtue — analyzing it first of 
all impartially, analyzing it lucidly and forcibly, satirically when nothing is so 
telling as satire, humorously when the humor is apt, brilliant when brilliance is 
not strained, and first, last and always, convincingly — with the conviction that 
sincerity and logic compel. 

: *The r nose for news' is a virtue; the ability to present the news effectively is 
a virtue. 

:? The possession of these virtues by any one who is animated by the spirit of 
true journalism marks him as the newspaperman preeminent, whose work is a 
service to the public and an honor to his calling. 

"Minus the spirit, these virtues degenerate into vices — for it is the spirit or 
lack of it in newspaper men that differentiates true journalism from shoddy 
journalism, sordid journalism and yellow journalism. 

"We hear much of the power of the press, but its power of darkness is as 
great as its power of light. 

"Much of our bad journalism is of duller hues than yellow. Its tints are either 
neutral or chameleon. Those who make it would resent being classified as yellow 
journalists, although a composite of the minds of the yellow would measure much 
higher in the scale of mentality. It is the semi-respectable mediocrites in journalism 


more than the perverted geniuses, who are responsible for most of the bad 

Mr. Robertson was a tireless and enthusiastic worker. In addition to his 
managerial duties and the thousands of editorials written by him, he wrote a. 
great deal of verse and fiction. The poetry, in light vein, was written in his youth. 
His novels were widely read. In 1899, he published "If I Were A Man," "Red 
Blood and Blue" in 1900, "The Inlander" in 1901, "The Opponents" in 1902 
and ;r The Pink Typhoon" in 1906. In 1889, Scribners Magazine carried his 
story, "How the Derby Was Won," in its August number. This short story 
received much favorable comment from critics and probably determined his 
course in dropping poetry in favor of fiction. 

Harrison Robertson was married on July 7, 1906, to Marion Morgan Richard- 
son of Louisville. She was the daughter of Samuel Bainbridge and Anna White- 
man (Wood) Richardson. Her mother was the daughter of Benjamin Whiteman 
and Anna Morgan Wood. Mrs. Robertson traces her ancestry in a direct line 
to Charlemagne, Alfred the Great, William the Conqueror and the ancient Kings 
of Scotland. She is a member of many patriotic societies, chief among which are: 
the Society of Descendants of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, the National 
Society of Magna Charta Dames, the Virginia Historical Society, the Plantaganet 
Society, the National Society of Colonial Dames and Sovereign Colonial Society, 
Americans of Royal Descent and a Fellow of The Institute of American Genealogy. 
During the first World War, she served as historian of Jefferson County, Kentucky, 
for the Kentucky Council of Defense. 

Harrison Robertson died in Louisville, Kentucky, on November 11, 1939. He 
watched, recorded and made intelligent comment on public events during more 
than sixty years of our national history, at a time when the nation experienced 
its greatest growth. To local journalism, he contributed dignity, truth and honor; 
from it he took only the satisfaction of a job well done. 



ne of the leading and influential citizens of Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, is Edward J. O'Brien, Jr., born June 15, 1889, in Louisville, Kentucky. He 
is the successful son of a successful father, the latter, Edward J. O'Brien, Sr., a 
native of Louisville, having been born there in 1857, of Irish parentage. At the 
age of fourteen the senior O'Brien entered the tobacco business, joining the 
Pickett Tobacco Warehouse Company, on West Main Street. He married Miss 
Elizabeth Graves, of Marion County (Kentucky) who died in 1937. In 1880 
he established the firm of Edward J. O'Brien and Company, which has continued 
to expand, being now one of the largest tobacco houses in this country. Its 
principal office is located at 815-17 West Main Street, Louisville, Kentucky. 
Edward J. O'Brien and Company are leaf tobacco brokers and dealers. Mr. 
O'Brien, Sr., was an active leader in public affairs, although never having sought 
public office. It has been truthfully said of him that, though he held many 
important positions, it was always a case of the office seeking the man, rather 
than the man seeking the office. He has been called to sit upon many important 

18— Vol. II 



boards and has been elected to many important organizations among which are 
these: Board of Trustees of the Louisville Free Public Library; Chairman of a 
Louisville Draft Board in 1917; and President of the Louisville Tobacco Exchange. 
He died in 1928. 

The subject of this sketch, Edward J. O'Brien, Jr., attended St. Xavier's High 
School in Louisville, from which he graduated in 1905 as salutatorian of his class. 
He entered his father's business June 25, 1905. The junior O'Brien was fortunate 
in having a thorough praccical father who taught his son a complete knowledge 
of the business; caused him to learn everything from janitor's work to administra- 
tion. Gradually assuming the responsibility of the business, he became manager 
following his father's death in 1928. Edward J. O'Brien and Company is a 
partnership completely owned by members of the O'Brien family. The other 
children of Mr. and Mrs. Edward J. O'Brien, Sr., are: Marie, the wife of J. C. 
Michael, Treasurer of the Louisville and Nashville Railway Company; Joseph B. 
and James G., who are associated with Edward J. O'Brien and Company. 

Mr. E. J. O'Brien, Jr., was married September 22, 1915, to Miss Mary Malone, 
daughter of the late John T. Malone and Mary Garcin Malone, both natives of 
Louisville. John T. Malone was Vice-President and Trust Officer of the Fidelity 
and Columbia Trust Company and President of the Merchants Ice Company. 
Mary Garcin Malone is still a resident of Louisville. 

Mr. and Mrs. Edward J. O'Brien, Jr., reside at Newburg Road and Emerson 
Avenue, and are the parents of four children: Martha, born October 31, 1917, who 
is a graduate of the Convent of the Sacred Heart at Noroton, Connecticut, and of 
Finch School in New York. She is a member of the Junior League of Louisville; 
a member of the Motor Corps and is active in the Navy League, American Red 
Cross and U. S. O. Edward J. O'Brien, III, born March 28, 1920, he is a 
graduate of Princeton University and is now a First Lieutenant in the United 
States Army. Robert Graves, born October 10, 1924, a graduate of Canterbury 
School, New Milford, Connecticut, was a student at Princeton University and 
resigned to join the United States Army. Alexander Garcin, born October 2, 
1926, a graduate of Canterbury School, New Milford, Connecticut, and was a 
student at Princeton University until he resigned to join the United States Army. 
Mrs. O'Brien is a graduate of Manhattanville College, New York, and is active in 
the Woman's Club of Louisville and other civic organizations. She is a member of 
the American Red Cross, Nurses Aide and is a gray lady. Mr. and Mrs. O'Brien 
are members of St. Agnes Parish of the Roman Catholic Church. 

Indicative of Mr. O'Brien's versatility, ability, popularity and civic interests 
is the following list of appointments, affiliations and memberships: Member of 
the Board of Governors of the Tobacco Association of the U. S., president of 
it for two terms, and is now a member of its Executive Committee; chairman of 
the advisory committee for Kentucky of the New York World's Fair; chairman 
for Kentucky of the Finnish Relief Fund; Director and past president of the 
Louisville Safety Council; member of the Board of Governors of the Cook 
Benevolent Home; chairman of the Mayor's Traffic Committee; member of the 
Memorial Auditorium Commission; Director of the Louisville Industrial Founda- 
tion; president of St. Agnes Conference, St. Vincent de Paul Society; chairman 


of Local Board No. 86 of Kentucky Selective Service; served four terms as 
president of the Louisville Board of Trade of which he is now vice-president; 
director of Merchants Ice Company; member of the Executive Committee of the 
Leaf Tobacco Exporters Association; president and director of the Burley Leaf 
Tobacco Dealers Association; chairman of the Board of Directors of the Federal 
Reserve Bank of Louisville; chairman of operations of the Louisville Park 
Theatrical Association; member of the Louisville Area Development Association; 
has taken the fourth degree in the Knights of Columbus; a member of the Demo- 
cratic Party; member of the Pendennis Club; the Louisville Country Club; Wynn- 
Stay; "235" Club; Rotary, and is past president of the Rock Creek Riding Club. 
His hobby is horses, which he likes to raise and show. While president of the 
Board of Trade he entertained visiting military observers from South and Central 
America. He was toastmaster at a testimonial dinner given for Senator Alben 
S. Barkley. 

In every relation Mr. O'Brien has stood for the best things in community life, 
and his character and personality have exerted a perceptible influence upon the 
betterment of the entire community. He is a genial man, possessed of strong indi- 
viduality and commands the respect and confidence of all who know him. 




.he late William Walter Gaunt, attorney and insurance executive, 
although an adopted son of Louisville, was one of her best known and best loved 
personalities. He was born in Carrollton, Kentucky, on December 26, 1881. His 
father, John Samuel Gaunt, native of Trimble County, was a prominent member 
of the Carrollton bar, practicing also in Louisville, Kentucky, and Madison, In- 
diana; and his mother, Chella D. (Collins) Gaunt, was also a native of Trimble 
County. Both families had been residents of Kentucky for several generations. 

William Walter Gaunt obtained his elementary education in the public schools 
in Madison, Indiana, and Louisville, also attending Professor Thorpe's School in 
Louisville. He then attended the University of Virginia where he received a 
degree as Bachelor of Arts, also studying law. He completed his law course at 
the University of Louisville and was awarded the degree of Bachelor of Laws. 
Entering the law office of Colonel Thomas Bullitt, he practiced the profession of 
law for three years. 

About 1909, in partnership with Samuel K. Bland, he established the general 
insurance firm of Bland and Gaunt, remaining in the insurance business until 
his death. Although the firm name and partnership was changed from time to 
time, Mr. Gaunt retained control at all times. The business is now operated under 
the firm name of Gaunt, Houston and Fitzhugh but is owned entirely by Mrs. 
Gaunt. The firm handles all types of insurance with the exception of life in- 
surance. Offices of the firm are located at 775 Starks Building and it is staffed 
almost entirely by old employees who demonstrate their loyalty by their stead- 
fast devotion to duty, many of them having been with the firm for several years. 
Mr. Gaunt was actively interested in various insurance associations, among which 
were the Louisville Board of Fire Underwriters and the Kentucky Association of 


Insurance Agents. He was also a member of the Louisville Board of Trade and 
evidenced an interest in all civic affairs and matters affecting the welfare of the 

In his youth, W. W. Gaunt was a well known baseball player. He played 
on the varsity team of the University of Virginia, semi-professional and profes- 
sional teams. He maintained his interest in baseball until his death, attending 
as many games as the demands of his business would permit. At the University 
of Virginia, Mr. Gaunt was a member of Delta Psi fraternity. He loved the 
company and fellowship of his friends and held membership in the Pendennis 
Club, the Louisville Country Club and the River Valley Club. His church mem- 
bership was carried at the Second Presbyterian Church. 

In 1911, William Walter Gaunt was united in marriage with Miss Lucille Hite 
of Louisville. Mrs. Gaunt is the daughter of Louis and Mary (Hopkins) Hite. 
Mr. Hite was connected with the well known firm of W. W. Hite and Company. 
The Gaunts were the parents of two children, W. W. Gaunt, Jr., and Mary 
Gaunt Shaw. W. W. Gaunt, Jr., attended Louisville public schools and gradu- 
ated from Pawling School in Pawling, New York. He entered the firm of Gaunt, 
Houston and Fitzhugh after completing his schooling and took charge of the 
business after his father's death. He was married to Miss Marijane Moore of 
Louisville and has one son, William Walter Gaunt, III. W. W. Gaunt, Jr., is 
now a member of the United States Coast Guard and is serving in the South 
Pacific. Mary Gaunt Shaw is a graduate of the Louisville Collegiate School and 
Sarah Lawrence College in Bronxville, New York. She has one daughter, Robin 

Mr. William W. Gaunt died in Rochester, Minnesota, on February 3, 1938, 
and is mourned by a host of friends. His son took over the reins and ran the firm 
with great success until he answered his country's call to the service when Mrs. 
W. W. Gaunt, Sr., assumed active control of the business. She also gives much 
of her time to relief work and war work. 



he life of Eldred Isaac Rawles has been characterized by his 
ready acceptance of responsibility and the able discharge of any duty he might 
be called upon to perform. 

His father was Forest Rawles, a farmer and native of Dyersburg, Tennessee, 
and his mother was the former Elizabeth Appel, also a native of Tennessee. E. I. 
Rawles was born in Dyersburg on September 28, 1897. He grew up there and 
attended the local graded and high schools. The lessons he learned of the value 
of work and the excellent work habits he formed while helping to do the work 
on his father's farm were to prove invaluable to him in his later life. 

When the United States entered the first World War in April, 1917, he 
enlisted in the United States Marine Corps. While serving as a body guard 
for Mr. and Mrs. Thomas A. Edison, young Rawles attracted the interest of 
Mrs. Edison by his fine military appearance and his courteous manner and devo- 
tion to his duty. Largely through her efforts he was selected as a candidate for 

' ■■■.:.■■..■■■.■' , 

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:SS- 5 



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the first Marine Officers' Training School at Quantico, Virginia. Upon com- 
pletion of his officer's training, Mr. Rawles was given a commission as a Second 
Lieutenant. Afterwards, promoted to First Lieutenant, he went overseas and saw 
active service in France until the Armistice was signed. He was then placed in 
command of the barracks at Brest, France, where millions of dollars worth of 
United States military supplies and equipment were stored. 

Lt. Rawles' platoon was one of three Marine Corps platoons assigned to work 
in cooperation with the British and French in conducting and overseeing the 
elections to be held in all the defeated countries under the plan devised by the 
League of Nations. The failure of the United States Senate to ratify the 
Covenant of the League of Nations made American military forces ineligible to 
participate in the conduct of the elections and the platoon commanded by Lt. 
Rawles was ordered back to the United States. He received his honorable dis- 
charge on December 27, 1919. 

Returning to Dyersburg, Tennessee, he entered the general merchandising busi- 
ness, which he established with funds saved while in the service. After two years, 
E. I. Rawles sold this business and came to Louisville, but soon returned to Dyers- 
burg where he stayed for another year. At the end of that time, he came to 
Louisville again and entered the real estate business, remaining in that field of 
endeavor for ten years. In 1931, he founded the Kentucky Lumber and Wrecking 
Company, which was engaged in the business of wrecking buildings and selling 
the salvaged lumber and building materials. 

Recognizing the need for a progressive and modern lumber company in Louis- 
ville, Mr. Rawles began to increase his stock gradually by buying new materials 
and finally discontinued entirely the wrecking and used lumber business. The 
business is owned outright by him and is known now as the Kentucky Lumber 
Company. It handles a very complete and high quality line of building materials 
with the exception of plumbing and electrical supplies. Sales are made on both 
a wholesale and retail basis and the firm enjoys the confidence and patronage of 
some of Louisville's largest and most reliable building contractors. 

In 1921, E. I. Rawles was united in marriage with Miss Lucille Davis of Dyers- 
burg. They are the parents of two children: Angela Lucille attended the Uni- 
versity of Louisville and in December, 1942, married Dr. John Somme, of Louis- 
ville, who is now a Lieutenant in the United States Army Medical Corps, serving 
in England. Hunt Davis Rawles was a student at Louisville Male High School, 
and is now a student pilot in the United States Army Air Forces in Texas. Mrs. 
Rawles is her husband's principal assistant in the operation of both the business 
and the farm, where they make their home. 

Mr. Rawles purchased the farm, which is located in Crestwood, Kentucky, and 
contains five hundred acres of fine blue grass land, from Judge Charles I. Dawson. 
The farm, formerly known as the Waldeck Farm, has a beautiful stone mansion 
on it where true Kentucky hospitality in the finest tradition is dispensed. It is 
operated as a dairy farm and maintains two beautiful herds of purebred Holstein 
and Guernsey cattle. The farm is his hobby and has proved to be a profitable one. 

Fraternally Mr. Rawles holds membership in the Masonic Lodge and Knights 
Templar and is a Noble of the Mystic Shrine. He is also a member of the 


Kentucky Retail Lumber Dealers Association and the Louisville Optimist Club. 
The family worships at the West Broadway Methodist Church in Louisville. 
His ability to get things done and the honesty and integrity of his business and 
personal dealings have won Mr. Rawles the respect and esteem of all who have 
the pleasure of knowing him. 



entucky is indebted to North Carolina for the Louisville branch 
of the prominent Harris family, whose civic and social activities have added lustre 
to many states of the Union, particularly Virginia, Kentucky and Tennessee. 

Cebern Dodd Harris was born in Raleigh, North Carolina, on September 3, 
1878, a son of John C. L. Harris, native of North Carolina, an attorney who 
spent an active life in the practice of his profession in Raleigh. Among his fore- 
bears are the Logans, a well known family, long residents of North Carolina. 

The mother of Cebern Dodd Harris was Florence Upchurch, also a native of 
Raleigh, member also of one of the prominent old North Carolina families. The 
son of this couple, the subject of this outline, grew up in the city of his birth, and 
began his education in the public and private schools there. After finishing his 
elementary training, he entered upon his college career at the North Carolina 
State College, from which institution he graduated in 1897 with a B.S. degree. 
He then went to Johns Hopkins for one year's work in chemistry. This was 
followed by two years at Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, from which 
institution, in 1902, he received his Master's degree. After leaving Cornell, he 
returned to North Carolina, where he became Assistant State Chemist. His 
tenure there was followed by a three months course of study at Ames Agricultural 
College, Ames, Iowa. 

In December, 1908, Mr. Harris came to Louisville, Kentucky, and became asso- 
ciated with the Strater Brothers Tobacco Company, where he remained for three 
years, until this business was sold out. At that time, in 1911, Cebern Dodd Harris 
purchased an interest in the Ferguson-Scott Insurance Agency. This agency, 
through a series of changes in ownership, became, in July, 1934, C. D. Harris 
and Sons Company located in the Marion E. Taylor Building, Louisville, Ken- 
tucky. This business is a local agency that handles all lines of insurance except 
life, and employs, in all, twenty-five people. 

Anchorage, Kentucky, about twenty miles from Louisville on the L. & N. R. R., 
was chosen by the Harris family as their home. Mr. Harris was one of the 
organizers of the school system at Anchorage, and held the position of Secretary 
and Treasurer of its school board. In addition, another of his services to his 
community was that of member of the Anchorage Town Board. At present, Mr. 
Harris is Vice-President of the Kentucky Crippled Children's Society. He was an 
organizer of the Owl Creek Club, a social body, and has been its active and effi- 
cient president for eleven years. His other club affiliations are many. Their 
variety and renown are complimentary to Mr. Harris. Showing by their separate 
choice of him for important posts in their organizations, the general esteem in 
which he is held. Among his social clubs are Owl Creek of Anchorage, and the 


Pendennis and Louisville Country Club of Louisville, Kentucky. As a college 
student he became a member of Sigma Xi, honorary fraternity, and Kappa Alpha, 
social fraternity. Another in which he maintains membership is the Kiwanis Club 
of Louisville, he having served at one time as its President. He also was an 
International Trustee for the Kiwanis for one year. Attesting his keen ability 
was his appointment as President of the Louisville Home Federal Savings and 
Loan Association. The Louisville Board of Underwriters lists him as Past 
President. For several years he was a member of the Louisville Foundation. At 
present he is Secretary of the Louisville Rehabilitation Council. An Episcopalian, 
he is a member of, and former vestryman of the Anchorage Episcopal Church. 

In December, 1908, Mr. Harris was married to Augusta Strater Willey, the 
daughter of Theodore and Elizabeth (Strater) Willey. Mrs. Harris was Presi- 
dent of the Parent-Teacher Association of Anchorage. Her death occurred in 
August, 1940. Two sons were born to the union: The eldest, Cebern Dodd 
Harris, Jr., is associated with his father in the firm which carries their name. He 
is married to the former Nell Arnold, and they have one son, C. D. Harris, III. 
C. D. Harris, Jr., is now serving with the United States Marine Corps with the 
rank of Sergeant. James W. Harris, second son of C. D. Harris, married Frances 
Caldwell of Tampa, Florida. He is now a Captain in the United States Air Corps. 



.an is the sum of his experience. No one is ever a real success 
in any field of endeavor until he has gained experience in that field and then 
applied the lessons learned from it with industry and perseverance. 

Fred M. Garrett, Louisville insurance executive, is a man who spent years in 
obtaining a thorough grounding in his chosen work and then built a successful 
business on that excellent foundation. 

He is a native of West Virginia, having been born in Wayne County of that 
state on September 18, 1895. His father, William B. Garrett, also a native West 
Virginian, was a farmer and civic leader known widely for his work among the 
aliens of his state during the first World War. For this work, he was decorated 
by the Federal Government. William B. Garrett was a Thirty-third degree 
Mason and was very active and well known in Masonic circles. Fred M. Garrett's 
grandfather was Morgan Garrett who served in the Union Army during the War 
Between the States. His (Morgan Garrett's) father was one of the leaders in the 
movement which led to the secession of West Virginia from Virginia and its 
organization and admission into the Union as a state. Fred M. Garrett's mother 
was Mary Utoka Smith, a native of Wayne County also. His great uncle was 
Dr. Alonzo Garrett of Catlettsburg, Kentucky, who served for several years as 
the United States Ambassador to Mexico. A cousin, Green Garrett, was once head 
of the Kentucky State Highway Department. 

His boyhood was spent on his father's farm, where he learned the value and 
dignity of honest work. He attended public school in Wayne County and then 
went to Marshall College in Huntington, where he worked his way through high 




school and a pre-law course. Upon completion of this course, he entered the 
University of Michigan Law School in Ann Arbor. 

The entrance of the United States into the war impelled the young man to 
leave school and enlist in the United States Navy. He was sent to Hampton 
Roads, Virginia, for his basic training and then went aboard the U. S. S. Nebraska 
as a Seaman, First Class. By applying the lessons of industry and sticktoitiveness 
learned in his boyhood, he earned rapid advancement to a Petty Officer, First Class, 
rating. He was then appointed to the Officers Training School at Hampton 
Roads. Commissioned an Ensign, he was again assigned to the battleship 
Nebraska and served aboard her in convoy duty. He later went into communica- 
tion service for the Navy in New York and received his honorable discharge in 
June, 1919. 

Fred M. Garrett began his business career with the ^tna Casualty Insurance 
Company of Hartford, Connecticut, staying in the employ of this firm for six 
years, first in the Home Office, then in New Orleans and finally becoming man- 
ager of the Bond Department for the state of Michigan with headquarters in 
Grand Rapids. He severed this connection to take a position with the Standard 
Accident Insurance Company of Detroit, for which concern he served for six 
years as manager of the southeastern district office in Atlanta. 

In 1931, Mr. Garrett came to Louisville and established his own agency under 
his own name. The Garrett agency handles all types of general insurance but 
specializes in bonds, in which phase of the insurance field Mr. Garrett qualifies 
as an expert. This venture proved to be a success from its beginning and con- 
tinues to be one of the leading agencies in the city. The Garrett Insurance Agency 
maintains its offices at 1501 Washington Building. 

Mr. Garrett has not permitted his business to interfere with his duties as a 
citizen and has interested himself in all matters of a civic nature. He is making an 
effective contribution to the country's war effort by serving as a member of the 
United States Navy Civilian Recruiting Committee. 

In 1925, Fred M. Garrett was married to Miss Nancy Russell Speer of Mobile, 
Alabama. They are the parents of three children, Nancy Russell, born in 1926; 
Mary Zanah, born in 1930; and Fred M. Garrett, Junior, born in 1933. They 
maintain their home at 2318 Village Drive. The members of the family are 
faithful members of the Protestant Episcopal Church, where Mrs. Garrett is a 
member of the Altar Guild. 

Mr. Garrett is a member of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, the 
American Legion and the Big Spring Golf Club. He was an excellent football 
player during his school life and has remained an ardent "fan," never missing an 
opportunity to see all of the games of major importance. 

Fred M. Garrett's industry and business integrity have combined with his 
friendly manner to make him a respected and valuable member of his community. 



ne of the most prominent citizens of Somerset, Kentucky, is 
William Harold Ramsey. He has been for over fifteen years the distributor for 
the Gulf Oil Company. Before that he was at various times associated with his 


father in the produce business, had the agency for Dodge and Chrysler auto- 
mobiles, and is a member of an undertaking firm. All these interests were centered 
in Somerset. In addition to his business activities, Mr. Ramsey has been for many 
years identified with the social and civic life of Somerset. He is the director 
of music at the Baptist Church, and for twelve years was a member of the Board 
of Education. He maintains membership in the Rotary Club and the Chamber 
of Commerce, and has the unusual honor of having been president of both of 
these organizations. 

On June 11, 1890, William Harold Ramsey was born in Burnside, Kentucky, 
which is situated just eight miles south of Somerset, in which city he was fated to 
live a life of considerable distinction. James M. Ramsey, his father, was born 
in Clinton County, Kentucky, in 1868 and died in 1939. He was engaged in 
the produce business in Somerset for a period of forty years. The mother of 
William Harold Ramsey, Louella (Lloyd) Ramsey, was born in Russell County, 
Kentucky, in 1868 and died in 1892, when her son William was an infant. 

William Ramsey received his education in the schools of Somerset, and it was 
there that he graduated from high school. His first work was with his father, who 
owned a flourishing produce business. In 1925 William Ramsey decided to go 
into business for himself, and he obtained the agency for Dodge and Chrysler 
cars, running a garage in conjunction with the sales room. The Chrysler at this 
time was a new-comer to the automotive field, and was making rapid inroads on 
the medium price field. Two years after this venture got under way, Mr. Ramsey 
bought an interest in an undertaking firm which became the Denny, Murrell, 
Ramsey Funeral Home. In 1929 Mr. Ramsey became the distributor for the 
Gulf Oil Company for a large territory centering in Somerset. 

On June 11, 1911, William Harold Ramsey and Mary E. Barnett were united 
in marriage. She was born in Somerset, Kentucky, and is the daughter of Judge 
N. L. Barnett of Pulaski County, Kentucky. Mr. and Mrs. Ramsey are the 
parents of three sons, and are proud grandparents of four children. 

Their oldest son, William Harold Ramsey, Jr., was born in Somerset, Kentucky, 
in 1913. After completing the public and high school work in Somerset, he 
attended the University of Kentucky at Lexington. He married Eula Judd of 
Somerset, Kentucky. They have two children: Mary Joanne Ramsey was born in 
Somerset, Kentucky, in 1933, and William Harold Ramsey III was born in Somer- 
set, Kentucky, in 1937. William Harold Ramsey, Jr., was elected Lieutenant 
Governor of Kiwanis International at the District Convention held at Chattanooga, 

The second son, James B. Ramsey, was born in Somerset, Kentucky, 
in 1915. He graduated from grade school and high school in Somerset, Kentucky 
and from the University of Kentucky at Lexington. James B. Ramsey married 
Mary Elizabeth Andis, who was born in Somerset. They have one boy, James 
Andis Ramsey, who was born on July 14, 1943, in Somerset. 

The youngest son has brought high honor to the family in these stirring days 
of war. He is Lieutenant Colonel Lloyd B. Ramsey, and he was born in Somerset, 
Kentucky. After progressing through the schools of Somerset he attended the 


University of Kentucky, where he gained his Masters Degree. He married Glenda 
Burton, who was born in Somerset, Kentucky. They have one daughter, Lloyd 
Ann Ramsey. She was born in Somerset, Kentucky on June 9, 1943. 

Mr. Ramsey has been a particularly valuable asset to Somerset not only on 
account of his activity in civic affairs, but because of his qualities of leadership. 
He is a first-class business man, and he can translate the efficiency and drive that 
characterize his working methods into the organizations in which he takes a com- 
manding interest. Both the Rotary Club and the Chamber of Commerce have 
had Mr. Ramsey as presiding officer, and both groups prospered and drove forward 
under his friendly but firm guidance. He has the long term of twelve years to 
his credit on the Board of Education, and his membership on that body grows 
more valuable as the years pass along. In the Baptist Church he fills the important 
position of Director of Music. In this capacity, Mr. Ramsey derives a great 
deal of pleasure himself, and certainly the church and community are fortunate 
indeed that he is so liberal in sharing his time and talents. 



red L. Seale is division superintendent of all the tanneries of the 
United States Leather Company, which controls the Middlesboro Tannery. Mr. 
Seale reached his important position through perseverance, faithfulness to his work 
and courage, combined with intelligence and ability. He has proved himself 
deserving by his constant labor and attention to detail. 

At the early age of six, Fred Seale was an orphan, and at fourteen he was hard at 
work. One important point is that his first employment was with the company he 
now supervises. From water-boy to superintendent he made his way, never by short 
cuts or favors, but always by dint of work and courage. Every day that Fred 
Seale worked he watched the position immediately ahead, he made sure he would 
be ready for the opportunity when it came. The climb was slow but sure, and if 
Fred Seale had any motto to inspire him, it might well have been the saying of 
Goethe: "Energy will do anything that can be done in this world." 

Fred Seale has succeeded, and he is still young. He has the wisdom to relax 
and expand his interests in various directions. He owns a resort property in the 
Cumberland Mountains, he is active in Middlesboro civic affairs, and his interest 
in the Masonic Order is such that he has worked his way through the chairs to 
Worshipful Master of his lodge. 

Fred L. Seale was born at Rose Hill, Lee County, Virginia, on August 3, 1902. 
His father, Charles Rupert Seale, was born at Rose Hill on September 6, 1871 
and died on January 1, 1909. He was a millwright, contractor and builder. The 
mother of Fred Seale was Mary Alice (Snavely) Seale. She was born in Rose Hill, 
Virginia, on March 14, 1874 and died on December 10, 1906. And so, having 
lost his mother when he was only four years old, Fred L. Seale became an orphan 
at the early age of six years. 

The early education of Fred Seale was naturally extremely disconnected. He 
attended various schools in Virginia, and while he was still young he went to live 


in Kansas. Fred Seale was fourteen years old when he came to Middlesboro, Ken- 
tucky, which is not far removed from the place of his birth. He began to work 
for the Union Tanning Company as a water boy. After a few years of diligent 
work and application, he went to school at Lincoln Memorial University, Harro- 
gate, Tennessee, and there he studied for fifteen months. This was certainly a far- 
seeing move on the part of Fred Seale, as without a better education than he pre- 
viously possessed he would have been handicapped, and his future prospects would 
have been decidedly limited. 

When Fred Seale returned from his university studies to the Union Tanning 
Company, his days as water boy were over, but the work offered him was that 
as a laborer. Many people would have been indignant at the offer, but Fred Seale 
decided that as good a way as any to climb was to start at the bottom, and he cer- 
tainly had no intention of being grounded there. Promotion was not fast, a few 
years of hard and monotonous labor went by before Fred Seale became assistant 
foreman in the Scrub House and Oil Rooms. The next move took him to the Tan- 
ning Department, where he maintained his rating as assistant foreman. After that 
he went back to the Scrub House and Oil Rooms, but this time as foreman. 

The next promotion came four years later, when he became foreman of the 
finishing department. By this time Fred Seale knew just about all there was to 
know about the working processes of the company. All this time he had studied 
tanning in every phase, reading what he could and seeking information wherever 
it could be found. In addition he took a course of study in Business Leadership 
from LaSalle Extension University in Chicago. Certainly Fred Seale studied and 
prepared himself, and the chance did come. He was promoted to assistant super- 
intendent of the plant, a position he held for seven and one-half years. Then 
followed the climb to the top as superintendent and general manager of the com- 
pany in which, not so many years ago, he had started as water boy. For nine 
years Fred Seale retained this position as head of the Union Tanning Company 
and then, on July 1, 1944, he became division superintendent of all the tanneries 
of the United States Leather Company, of which Union Tanning Company is a 

Fred Seale has many outside interests. He owns the Cumberland Mountain 
Hotel and cottages situated in Cumberland Gap. He is President of the Middles- 
boro Board of Education, and takes active part in the affairs of the Lions Club. 
Fred Seale is a member of the Masonic Order and the Shrine, and he is Past 
Master of Middlesboro Lodge, No. 661. Mr. Seale is a member of the First 
Baptist Church of Middlesboro. Throughout his early days, Fred Seale was 
fashioning his future, and he has carved out for himself a position of usefulness 
and honor. 


A he educational activities of the Catholic Church in America 
have had an influence on the cultural as well as the religious life of the nation to 
an extent reaching far beyond the confines of the Church. From the parochial 
schools to the great Universities of Georgetown and Notre Dame the educational 


influence of the Church educational system has been felt and in every walk of life 
are found men of character and good will who owe their training to the great 
schools of that system. Their cultural influence has been no small thing in this 
country. In Kentucky are found an unusually large number of these educational 
institutions and at their head and in the class rooms some of the most brilliant 
sons and daughters of the Church have found a field for the hard work they seek 
and an outlet for the faith that is in them. 

The Ursuline College in Louisville, Kentucky is one of the Church's outstanding 
institutions for cultural and spiritual guidance and the Department of Philosophy 
is headed by the subject of this biography, the Reverend Felix Newton Pitt. 

This priest and educator was born in Fairfield, Kentucky, February 18, 1895. 
He is the son of Henry Washington Pitt and Sallie Bertie (Clark) Pitt. His early 
education was obtained in the rural public schools. He attended St. Meinrad 
College in Indiana, from 1911 to 1915. From this college he went to St. Mary's 
Seminary and University, Baltimore, Maryland. He received his Bachelor of 
Arts Degree and Master of Arts Degree from St. Mary's. He was ordained 
a priest June 17, 1920. In 1933 he attended the University of Fribourg, Switzer- 
land and was there awarded the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy. His congrega- 
tional activities have embraced the Curateship of St. Joseph's Church at Bards- 
town, Kentucky 1920-22; Pastor of Our Lady of the Hills Church, Finley, Ken- 
tucky, 1922-25; Assistant Rector of the Cathedral of the Assumption, Louisville, 
Kentucky 1925. He was also instructor in St. Xavier High School. In this same 
year he was selected as Secretary of the School Board of the Diocese of Louisville. 
He served as Secretary and Treasurer of the National Catholic Rural Life Cor- 
poration from 1926 to 1930. He was Professor of Philosophy and Religion at 
Nazareth College and Sacred Heart College. He is the author of "A Study in 
Political Philosophy" published in 1934 and a frequent contributor to the Catholic 
Educational Review. He is a member of The National Catholic Educational Asso- 
ciation, the National Educational Association and Academy of Political and Social 
Science. He is also prominent in the Catholic Historical Association. 

Father Felix Newton Pitt bears the name of his paternal grandfather, Felix 
Newton Pitt. His forebears, both the Pitts and the Newtons, came to Kentucky 
in 1805, the families having originated in this country at Jamestown to which place 
they came with the colony's first settlers. Through the Newtons this subject is a 
direct descendant of Sir Isaac Newton. The great grandfather of Sallie Bertie 
Clark, the mother, emigrated from Ireland and came to Kentucky in 1800 by the 
way of Annapolis, Maryland. On the distaff side she was descended from the 
Newtons and Lillys, the latter settled originally in this country in southern Mary- 
land and Pennsylvania. The father, Henry Washington Pitt was a native of Fair- 
field, Kentucky, and a prominent merchant of that section. He was educated at 
St. Joseph's Academy. His death occurred in 1902. The mother was born at 
Riverdale Farm in Spencer County, Kentucky in 1870 and died in Louisville, 
Kentucky in 1940. 

The subject is a member of The Filson and Rotary Clubs and is a Democrat 
politically. His hcbby is collecting Kentuckiana. With his roots deep in old 
Colonial stock and with the best training the educational resources of his Church 


provide but few men are better equipped to engage in that great profession of 
service that has for its purpose the training of the minds and spirits and the 
moulding of character of the young than is Reverend Felix Pitt. His friendliness 
that has earned for him a great measure of personal popularity has also contributed 
much to his effectiveness in his field. He lives at 3115 Lexington Road, Louis- 
ville, Kentucky. 


JLhe community which commands the services of a dentist who, 
after thorough training in his profession, keeps continuously interested and in- 
formed in all new developments in his field, and continues to take post graduate 
courses in various lines of specialized work, is indeed fortunate. Madisonville, 
Kentucky, is such a community; it receives the professional services of Dr. Charles 
Donald Draper, D.D.S., who through his active participation in dental association 
conventions and clinics, through post graduate work in Louisville, Memphis and 
Chicago, and through wide reading and personally conducted research, has made 
himself one of the most competent and able dentists in the state of Kentucky. 

Charles Donald Draper was born at Crofton, Christian County, Kentucky, on 
August 1, 1901. His father, Matthew C. Draper, was a native of Tennessee, and 
his business occupation was that of telegraph operator for the Louisville and 
Nashville Railway Company. He was active in the work of the Methodist Church 
and the Odd Fellows Lodge. Charles Draper's mother was the former Leota B. 
Armstrong, a native of Christian County, Kentucky. 

Charles D. Draper attended the public grade school at Crofton, where he was 
born, and also was graduated from the high school in that town. From 1920 to 
1924 he attended the University of Louisville, where he was a student in the 
Dental College, and he received his D.D.S. degree from that institution. During 
his college years he was a member of the Dental Trowel Club, composed of 
students who were Masons. 

In 1924, after completing his work at the University of Louisville, young Dr. 
Draper opened dental offices in Madisonville. For twenty years he has continued 
the practice of his profession in that city. As his work progressed and he gained 
more experience, he began to be interested in various special branches of dentistry. 
As a certain specialized branch engrossed his attention, Dr. Draper familiarized 
himself with all literature on this subject that he could find, then took a post 
graduate course at the institution which seemed to him to offer the highest in- 
struction in that subject. During this period he has at various times completed 
four courses in the treatment of pyorrhea at Louisville, Memphis and Chicago, and 
has also had extensive added instruction in denture work and bite reconstruction. 
Thus, keeping well abreast of the times in following the new discoveries and 
developments in his profession, he is regarded as one of the most progressive 
dentists in western Kentucky. He holds membership in all the leading dental 
associations, and takes a leading part in the work of these organizations. In 
1935-1936 he was president of the Western District Dental Association, and is 


now serving as secretary of the Hopkins County Dental Association. He also 
holds membership in the Kentucky State Dental Association and the American 
Dental Association. He attends the conventions and clinics held by the state 
association regularly, and has himself prepared and read several instructive papers 
before this body. He continues active membership in the Psi Omega dental 
fraternity, of which he was treasurer for two years, and for which he has also 
acted as historian. For several years he served as a member of the Board of 
Trustees of the Kentucky Dental Association, and has also served as vice- 
president of that organization. One of his most valuable services to the Kentucky 
Dental Association was his membership in the committee of that association 
which was formed to study heart ailments, and worked in co-operation with the 
medical group to try to ascertain whether or not heart ailments could be of dental 

On August 24, 1921, Dr. Charles D. Draper married Bess Dukes of Crofton, 
and Dr. and Mrs. Draper are the parents of one son, Donald Marion, who is 
a student in the Madisonville High School. Both Dr. and Mrs. Draper are 
enthusiastic workers in the Methodist Church. Dr. Draper has served for nine 
years as a member of the Board of Stewards of the church, and Mrs. Draper 
is a leader in the missionary society, and also teaches a class in the Sunday school. 
Besides her church work, Mrs. Draper greatly enjoys the activities of the literary 
societies in which she holds membership. Dr. Draper's son, Donald, is one of those 
lucky boys who has a father who is really interested in boys' activities. Dr. Draper 
has worked with the Scout movement ever since his son was of Scouting age, 
and for several years was a leader of a Scout troop. At one time he was an 
active member of the Kiwanis Club, but other more pressing duties have restricted 
his activity in that group. He finds his chief recreation now in hunting and 
fishing, and the Spring Lake Fishing Club, of which he is a charter member, 
forms one of his most enjoyable social contacts, as well as providing indulgence 
in his favorite sport. He has continued his membership in the Masonic Order and 
is now a noble of Rizpah Temple of the Shrine in Madisonville. On April 3, 
1944, Dr. Draper received the Fellowship degree of the International College of 
Dentists in recognition of conspicuous services rendered in the Art and Science 
of Dentistry. Only five other dentists hold this Degree in the state of Kentucky. 
Dr. Draper has found Madisonville to be a very satisfactory location for the 
utilization of his talents and education, and a very pleasant place in which to 
live and bring up his family; and Madisonville has been very fortunate in en- 
joying the valuable services of Dr. Draper for the past twenty years. 



he State of Kentucky has produced more than its share of great 
political leaders. In the list of the most important political leaders and public 
servants of Kentucky during the present century the name of Seldon Robert Glenn 
stands out. His native intelligence coupled with a boundless energy and an in- 


19— Vol. II 


domitable will have carried him far from the West Kentucky farm, where he first 
saw the light of day. 

Seldon R. Glenn was born on November 3, 1877, in Lyon County, Kentucky. 
He is the son of William P. and Celie M. (Young) Glenn, both of whom were 
natives of Lyon County. He obtained his education in the local grammar schools. 
A rural lad, hist early life as a farm boy taught him the value and dignity of 
work. These lessons learned on the farm were of inestimable value to him in his 
adult life. 

Mr. Glenn's early business training was received while working as a clerk in a 
general store after leaving school. This experience was not of long duration. At 
the age of only twenty-one, he was elected Mayor of Eddyville, the county seat 
of Lyon County, one of Kentucky's most progressive towns. Having served in this 
capacity for four years, his ability and personality so impressed the financial lead- 
ers of the vicinity that he was made president of the Citizen's Bank of Kuttawa, 
at twenty-five years of age. 

In 1912, Mr. Glenn was prevailed upon to run for the office of State Senator. 
His campaign was successful, and so successful was his service that the people of 
his senatorial district continued to reelect him until 1922. During his incumbency 
in the Senate, he was often called upon for additional service to his state. In 1916, 
Governor A. O. Stanley appointed him on a committee charged with the responsi- 
bility of redrafting and classifying the state tax laws, which were then in con- 
siderable confusion. The members of this committee ably discharged their duties 
and recommended legislation which largely clarified the tax situation. Since that 
time, Senator Glenn has been recognized as one of the best informed men in Ken- 
tucky on the subject of taxation. 

In 1924, Governor William Jason Fields appointed him Chairman of the State 
Tax Commission, in which capacity he served continuously until 1933. He was 
then elevated by President Roosevelt to the post of Collector of Internal Revenue 
for Kentucky, which position he still (1944) holds. 

Seldon Robert Glenn became affiliated with the Democratic Party as soon as 
he reached the legal voting age and has been one of its most influential leaders 
in Kentucky since that time. He has labored tirelessly in its behalf, and the party 
owes a large portion of its success in Kentucky to his herculean efforts and the 
depth of his wisdom and vision. 

In 1918, he was elected secretary of the Democratic State Central Committee, 
following which he opened the first permanent Kentucky Democratic Party head- 
quarters. He served as secretary of this organization until 1924. 

Mr. Glenn was married at Eddyville, Kentucky, in 1898 to Miss Ethleen Mol- 
loy. They became the parents of two children. A son, Molloy Glenn, died of 
pneumonia while serving in the armed forces of his country in the first World 
War. The daughter, Mary Glenn, married H. M. Graham and is the mother of a 
son, S. R. Graham who is now seventeen years old and a pre-medical student at 
the University of Louisville. Mrs. Glenn is a very active worker in the Metho- 
dist Church, while Mr. Glenn is a member of the Baptist Church. He is also a 
member of the Masonic Lodge and of the Pendennis Club. 

Mr. Glenn's hobbies are farming and the study of methods and problems of 


taxation. Mr. and Mrs. Glenn maintain homes at both Eddyville and Anchorage, 



citizen of sterling character, an astute business man and 
a warm friend to thousands of Louisvillians was lost in 1935 when John H. Isert, 
Sr., retired as president of the John H. Isert Company and removed to Florida 
to spend his remaining years in the peace and contentment which he well de- 
serves for his lifetime of work. 

John H. Isert, Sr., is a native of Louisville, having been born here on December 
9, 1877. His father was Henry P. Isert, who owned and operated a retail shoe 
store dealing largely in custom made shoes and patronized by the very best of 
Louisville society. The father was also born in Louisville, the son of John Andrew 
Isert who came here from Southern Indiana. The parents of John Andrew Isert, 
Mr. and Mrs. John Henry Isert, were natives of Kentucky who bought a farm 
in Indiana and moved to it. They had the choice of purchasing either one of 
two farms, one lying where the corner of Third Street and Broadway now is 
located in Louisville and the other in Indiana. Naturally unable at that early 
date to foresee the rapid growth of Louisville they purchased the Indiana land. 
The American branch of the Isert family dates back to the closing years of the 
Eighteenth Century when the founder of the family came to the United States 
from Alsace Lorraine. The mother of John H. Isert, Sr., was Miss Mary 
Lentsch before her marriage to Henry P. Isert. She was a native of Louisville, 
of German descent. Mr. Isert was afforded an education by the public schools 
of Louisville, after which he took a business course at night. 

He volunteered for service in the United States Army at the outbreak of the 
Spanish-American War and was in active service until its end. After his return 
from military duty, he passed a civil service examination successfully and was 
appointed to a position in the United States Postal Service, which he held from 
1899 until 1909. Accurately guaging Louisville's increasing importance as a 
manufacturing center, he entered the manufacturing business in 1909 by organiz- 
ing the Imperial Wire and Iron Works, which engaged in the manufacture and 
fabrication of fire escapes, fences and kindred metal products. The offices and 
plant of this firm were at Twenty-fourth and Maple Streets. John H. Isert, Sr., 
was president of this company. In 1920, the business was moved to a new loca- 
tion which had been purchased at 1230-1234 Rowan Street, the firm name was 
changed to the John H. Isert Company and it began to produce steel boxes for 
electrical switches and fuses. This company has continued to prosper and 
nourish until the present time. It is now engaged exclusively in the manufacture 
of its product for war purposes. In 1935, Mr. Isert retired from active business 
life and relinquished control of the business to his son, John H. Isert, Jr., and 
became a resident of Sarasota, Florida. 

In 1903, John H. Isert was united in marriage to Miss Mary Isabel LaVielle 
who was the daughter of Joseph L. LaVielle, a native of Louisville and a member 
of one of its oldest and most prominent families. They became the parents of 


three children: LaVielle Isert, now a resident of Chicago, who married Louise 
Smart, daughter of John Smart, who is head of the brokerage firm of Smart and 
Wagner of Louisville; Isabel and John H. Isert, Jr., now president of the John 
H. Isert Company and a sketch of whose life appears elsewhere in this work. 
Since his retirement and removal to Sarasota, Florida, Mr. Isert has served as 
chairman of the Board of Directors of the Whitfield Estates and is Vice Com- 
mander of his post of the Veterans of the Spanish-American War. In view of 
John H. Isert, Sr.'s splendid contribution to the business and industrial growth 
of Louisville, he is justly entitled to many years of happy retired life and the 
loss of his presence here is Louisville's only cause for regret in his leaving. 



outh will be served, but only those young men who display 
judgment mature beyond their years and who are activated by an ambition and 
a desire for success that will not be denied can hope to match the achievements 
of John H. Isert, Jr., who attained the presidency of an important industrial 
concern when only twenty-five years of age. He is the son of John H. Isert, Sr., 
and Mary Isabel (La Vielle) Isert, both natives of Louisville and members of 
families that have been long prominent in Louisville society and business circles. 
John H. Isert, Jr., was born in Louisville on October 29, 1910. He secured his 
elementary education in Louisville public schools and then attended the Louisville 
Male High School for two years, after which he became a student at the Bingham 
Military School in Asheville, North Carolina. Returning to Louisville, he com- 
pleted his education with two years at the University of Louisville, where he took 
a prominent and active part in amateur theatricals. 

After completion of his education, he entered the John H. Isert Company, 
manufacturers of electrical switch and fuse boxes, which organization was founded 
and headed by his father, and worked through all the various departments of 
the firm, grounding himself thoroughly in the details of the business and ob- 
taining the overall knowledge required for successful management of the business. 
In 1935, John H. Isert, Sr., retired and by virtue of his study, work, experience 
and natural ability, the son was ready to take the helm. The business was first 
established in 1909 as the Imperial Wire and Iron Works engaged in the pro- 
duction of fire escapes, iron and wire fences and similar metal items. It was 
located at Twenty-fourth and Maple Streets until 1920, when it was reorganized 
as the John H. Isert Company and moved to a new location at 1230-1234 Rowan 
Street. At this time, the old line of products was discontinued and the firm 
began the manufacture of its present line. In the years since 1935, when John 
H. Isert, Jr. became president of the company, it has experienced a period of 
excellent prosperity which has been the result of capable and discerning manage- 
ment and improved business conditions. Under the progressive leadership of Mr. 
Isert, the future of the company seems assured. Informed business circles are 
confident that it will continue to contribute materially to the fine reputation of 
Louisville as a growing manufacturing center. 

In 1943, Mr. Isert was married to Miss Dorothy Woody of Vicksburg, Mis- 



sissippi. By a former marriage he is the father of two children, John H. Isert, 
III, and Harriet Jean Isert. The Iserts religious affiliation is with the Protestant 
Episcopal Church with membership in Christ Church Cathedral. Through his 
membership in the Louisville Board of Trade and the National Association of 
Manufacturers, Mr. Isert exhibits an active interest and participation in the 
business and industrial life of the nation. He is also a member of the Louisville 
Boat Club, where he maintains a beautiful cabin cruiser. He indulges his hobby 
of boating by taking extensive trips over the inland waterways in this craft. 
The Isert home is at 107 Colonial Drive. 



'ames C. Codell will tell you that America is the Land of Oppor- 
tunity; it has been for him, and he says that it can be for anyone who is honest, 
willing to work and fair. Certainly James Codell is in a position to know whereof 
he speaks; in 1900 he was an Italian immigrant boy of fifteen, speaking not a word 
of English, and working for a dollar a day carrying water. In 1944, he is the 
owner of a fine fourteen-hundred acre farm in the Blue Grass region of Kentucky, 
and holds controlling interest in the Codell Construction Company, an organization 
which does $3,000,000 worth of work each year. His wife is a charming cultured 
woman, a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution. His five chil- 
dren have been given the advantage of college educations, and all are useful 
citizens, a credit to the land of their birth, and grandchildren are adding to the 
enjoyment of life for James C. Codell. America was the land of opportunity 
for Mr. Codell, and America is herself richer because a man like James Codell 
came to her shores and contributed energy, talents and character to the further 
building of the country; the rewards he has received are commensurate with the 
value which he has given. 

On March 16, 1885, James C. Codell was born on a farm near Avellino, Italy, 
one of the first children of Michael Codell now deceased and Rose (Chestone) 
Codell. The farm was not large, but carried the burden of a three thousand dollar 
mortgage, and James Codell at the age of fifteen thought that a brighter future 
would await him across the water in America. His parents opposed his ambition, 
but finally realized that he was not enough interested in school to apply himself 
to his studies, and had his heart really set on going to America. So in 1900 it was 
agreed that he should go, but one of the considerations of this agreement was the 
promise by James Codell to> pay off the three thousand dollar mortgage as soon 
as he could earn that amount of money in the New World, and also to repay one 
thousand dollars, which was given to him when he left home. 

The first job that James Codell was able to obtain in America paid the munificent 
sum of $1.00 per day; he was carrying water. In a few months he began to learn 
the mosaic trade in Washington, D. C. None of his fellow workmen spoke Eng- 
lish, nor did James Codell himself. He worked himself up to a wage of three 
dollars a day in the mosaic trade, but by this time he had begun to realize that 
if he were to live among Americans, he must learn the English language. He 




would have liked to go to school, but there was that $3,000.00 mortgage and the 
$1,000.00 loan that must be repaid. He decided that he must at least work with 
men who were speaking the language of his adopted country, and deserted the 
mosaic trade for a job on a railroad which paid $1.25 for a ten-hour day. He 
learned English, all right, and enough about his job so that he was made foreman 
in the course of a year. Next he worked at laying track on the Old Million 
Dollar Railroad from Washington to Great Falls; it was on this job that he 
learned how to lay track, switches, etc., information which was to come in very 
handy later on. When that work was completed, James Codell went on a new 
construction job laying track for a narrow-guage railroad in Lynchburg, Virginia, 
handling material from steam shovel to the dump, making the fill for the Norfolk 
and Western Railroad on its main line from Roanoke to Lynchburg. Before a 
year had passed on this job, Codell was superintendent in charge of the work, and 
he kept the job of superintendent until the work was finished, fifteen months later. 

There have been other depressions in the history of the country beside the one 
of the thirties which we all remember so vividly. They were having one in 1907, 
too. James Codell took a small job stripping a rock quarry near Lewisburg, West 
Virginia, while times were hard, and cleared $3,000.00 on the job. 

That was what he had been looking for, a financial stake so that he could go 
into business for himself. Mason-Hanger Company sub-let a contract in West 
Virginia to Codell and a partner, who had agreed to put another $3,000.00 into 
the enterprise. This contract was to build two miles of railroad and after the 
papers had been signed, the partner lost confidence in their ability to do> the job, 
and left Codell alone with two miles of railroad to build on $3,000.00 capital. 
Nothing daunted him, he bought five mules, five dump carts, a few wheelbarrows 
and necessary tools. He moved into an old lumber camp which was within a mile 
of the work, repaired a few of the houses and got a few groceries into the com- 
missary by mortgaging the mules. By the time the job was finished James Codell 
had seventeen mules and $4,500.00 in cash, and was ready for another contract. 
On this job he was his own foreman, kept his own time and waited on the com- 
missary trade, working often from sixteen to twenty-four hours a day. 

This period was memorable not only because it was then that James Codell was 
beginning to get his start in the contracting business, but it was also at this time 
that he met Pearl Callaway, who was teaching school in that section of West 
Virginia. Pearl Callaway was well educated, of old American stock, and James 
Codell was a young Italian immigrant, with little formal education. But the 
character and ability of young Codell were already being demonstrated and Pearl 
Callaway became Mrs. James Codell on December 26, 1910. That was the be- 
ginning of a business as well as a life partnership, as Pearl (Callaway) Codell was 
ready to help her husband in every way she could. Mason-Hanger Company 
had let a contract to James Codell for six miles of railroad on what is known as 
the L & E extension in Kentucky. This job was three times as big as the last one. 
Mrs. Codell kept the books during the fifteen months it took to do that job. 
They finished with sixty-four mules and about $6,000.00 in cash. 

Things were going along very well. James Codell now had established his credit 
and had a good cash reserve. He may not have known of the philosopher who 

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said, "If a man cannot save money, the germ of success is not in him," but he 
certainly knew the practical application of that truth. The next job called for 
the purchase of a steam shovel, and that contract was finished with James Codell 
owning the steam shovel, two locomotives, twenty cars, and $15,000.00 in cash. 
By 1914, he was on the bidding list of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad and 
was bidding on his own, instead of having contracts sub-let to him. 

Clark County, Kentucky, was selected as the permanent home of the Codell 
family. In 1914 they bought a fourteen acre farm, and all five of the Codell 
children were born and reared on this farm. Rose Mary and Virginia Ann Codell 
are graduates of William & Mary College. Rose Mary is now Assistant Supervisor 
of Home Economics Education for the State of North Carolina. Virginia 
Ann Codell is the wife of a Captain in the United States Army. Captain and Mrs. 
Beverly White are the parents of one child, Mary Alice White. James C. Codell, 
Jr., was associated with his father in the contracting business but is now a member 
of the Armed Forces. He has two sons, James C. Codell, III, and John Hagan 
Codell. Alice Williams Codell, a graduate of the University of Kentucky, mar- 
ried Joshua H. Barnes, who is now Major Barnes of the United States Army Air 
Forces. John Randolph Codell and his sister Alice are twins; he is manager of 
his fathers farm, which now extends over fourteen hundred acres in Clark County. 

Through increasing large jobs, the business grew into an organization which does 
a business of about three million dollars a year. Mr. James Codell is president and 
general manager of the Codell Construction Company and president of Allen & 
Codell, Construction Engineers, affiliated with that company. 

Mr. Codell has taken his place in community and fraternal life in Winchester. 
He is a Scottish Rite Mason, and belongs to the Winchester Board of Commerce. 
He was very active in the Victory Loan drives of Clark County, and serves the 
First Christian Church of Winchester as Deacon. For two years he was President 
of the Kentucky Contractor's Association; in politics, he votes for the man who 
seems to him best qualified for the job, and belongs to neither major political party. 
One of the most coveted invitations in Winchester is an invitation to spend a week- 
end on the Codell farm. Mr. Codell has fitted up a club house on his farm, and 
almost every week he entertains a group of friends. Mrs. Codell is active in church 
work and club work. 

Construction work has always held a great fascination for Mr. Codell. He got 
into it more or less by accident, but has never wanted to quit it. Since 1917 Mr. 
Codell has worked for the state of Kentucky, and can say, with justifiable pride, 
that every contract he has undertaken has been completed en time or ahead of time. 

A few years ago Mr. Codell was bidding on a government job from Alexandria, 
Virginia, to Mount Vernon. In Washington he stopped at the Willard Hotel. 
The terrazzo work in the lobby of that hotel was the last work he had done while 
he was working at the trade of mosaic worker, for which he had been paid twenty- 
five cent an hour. Twenty years later, James C. Codell, President and General 
Manager of the Codell Construction Company and President of Allen & Codell, 
Construction Engineers of Winchester, Kentucky, was stopping at that hotel while 
he was figuring on a million-dollar contract. What could better epitomize his 



XZ/ndowed by nature with more than average intelligence and 
courage, Fred C. McCracken has supplemented those qualities with hard work 
to the end that he has reached the very top in his field, gained the admiration 
and esteem of all who know him and is a highly desirable citizen of Louisville. 
He was born in Fort Wayne, Indiana, on January 2, 1880. His father was 
James K. McCracken, who was a native of Ohio and composed with his brothers 
the well known firm of McCracken Brothers Contracting Company, which built 
railroads in all sections of the United States. Each of the brothers was also a 
railroad operating official. It was this firm that built the Louisville, St. Louis 
and Texas Railroad, afterward known as the Louisville, Henderson and St. Louis 
Railroad and now known as the Henderson Division of the Louisville and Nash- 
ville Railroad and runs from Louisville to Evansville, Indiana. James K. Mc- 
Cracken became general manager of this road after its completion. 

Perhaps the best known among the ancestors of Fred C. McCracken was Cal 
McCracken, a contemporary and friend of General George Rogers Clark and 
the man for whom McCracken County, Kentucky was named. James K. Mc- 
Cracken married Miss Ella A. Davis, a native of Fort Wayne and daughter of 
John C. Davis, who was born in Watkin's Glen, New York, and was secretary 
of the Ohio and Pennsylvania Railroad, which ran from Pittsburgh to Chicago, 
and is now a part of the Western Division of the Pennsylvania Railroad System. 
All of Fred C. McCracken's forebears for three generations back on both the 
spear and distaff sides of the house were railroad men and participated in the 
vast railroad expansion of the Nineteenth Century, which banished forever the 
western frontier and welded the United States into one economic unit. 

Fred C. McCracken grew up in Fort Wayne and received his grammar school 
and high school education there, graduating from high school in 1896. After 
leaving school, he carried on the family railroad tradition by entering the freight 
office of the Pennsylvania Railroad, where he remained for five years. In 1905, 
he came to Louisville and entered the employ of the Kentucky Veneer Works. 
This firm was founded in 1898 by H. M. McCracken, a brother of James K. 
McCracken, and Frank I. Brown. It was engaged in the manufacture of wood 
veneers. Mr. McCracken was first employed as a salesman and advanced as he 
learned more about the business until he was successively timber buyer, vice- 
president and general manager and then president, to which position he was 
elected in 1937. His long tenure with the firm and his intimate knowledge gained 
by experience made him certain of success in this position. The business has 
prospered from the very start and has outgrown its original quarters many times. 
Numerous additions have been made to the plant and much new machinery and 
other equipment purchased. The company is now engaged in the manufacture 
of wood veneers and plastic plywood for use in aircraft construction. One hun- 
dred per cent of its products go into the prosecution of the war. Employing nearly 
one hundred workers, the Kentucky Veneer Works was the second largest pro- 
ducer of plastic plywood for airplanes in the last quarter of 1942. Anticipating 
a tremendous increase in the use of plastics after the war, the company is 


ready to meet the demand. This firm, under Mr. McCracken's able direction, 
employs the most modern manufacturing methods and is located at 1380 South 
Thirteenth Street in Louisville. In addition to his other business interests, Mr. 
McCracken is a member of the board of directors of the Gamble Brothers Manu- 
facturing Company. The company maintains membership in the American Walnut 
Manufacturing Association, National Veneer Association, National Association 
of Manufacturers and United States Chamber of Commerce. 



ouisville has become one of the leading industrial cities of 
the south through a combination of many causes. Its strategic location, prox- 
imity to raw materials, shipping facilities and labor have been an important 
element in its development, but the most important element has been the foresight 
and wisdom of its industrial leaders and pioneers in the various industries that 
are represented there. One of the most important industrial plants in Louisville 
is that of the Louisville Fire Brick Works, and its growth and development is 
the direct result of the initiative and business acumen of Karl Bernhard Grahn, 
who began his life in America as an immigrant boy and throughout the years of 
his life, until his death in 1922, made substantial contributions to the industrial, 
religious and cultural life of Kentucky. 

Karl Bernhard Grahn was born in Hanover, Germany, of noble parentage. 
His father George Grahn was director of law of the then Kingdom of Hanover, 
and as such was a member of the court. He was a man of culture and much of 
his life was spent amid the pageantry of the courts of the continent. He died 
suddenly when his son Karl was two and one half years of age, the youngest of 
six children. Karl Grahn's grandmother was a German who was born in France. 
Her father was a surgeon in the army of Napoleon. 

K. B. Grahn was given the benefiits of an excellent education but at an early 
age began to contribute to his own support through employment as office boy 
in a velvet factory. Here he became interested in the rudiments of manufacturing. 
At the age of twenty-one he migrated to the United States. This was the real- 
ization of a boyhood ambition. He had studied the history of the United States, 
and during the years of the Civil War he wanted to come to America and fight 
for the Union cause. 

Upon reaching America Mr. Grahn accepted employment as a bookkeeper in 
the coal mines of Pennsylvania. After two years in this position he resigned and 
went to New York to seek other employment that would offer him more oppor- 
tunities. There he accidentally met Mr. August Heckschler whom he had known 
in Germany. Mr. Heckschler was an associate owner of iron furnaces and a 
short line railroad in the Ashland district of Kentucky and he prevailed upon 
Mr. Grahn to go to Kentucky and take charge of it. Accepting the offer Mr. 
Grahn became treasurer of the Eastern Kentucky Railroad Company, which had 
its headquarters at Ashland. This company operated pig iron furnaces at Honey- 
well Furnaces, with Mr. Grahn in charge. The furnaces failed when pig iron 
business centered around Birmingham, Alabama. 


Mr. Grahn then purchased the Ashland Independent, at that time a run-down 
newspaper, and was its publisher and editor for the next six years. After paying 
off certain notes of the Eastern Kentucky Railroad Company, which he had as- 
sumed personally, he, with two friends, Henry Stoughton and Joseph Eifort, 
started buying acreage in Carter County, Kentucky. When this acreage was 
divided, Mr. Grahn was in possession of land where, in 1886, he discovered fire 

In 1889 he came to Louisville, where he found favorable rail connections and 
banking facilities, and built a small fire brick plant. The company was incorpo- 
rated in 1905, and Mr. Grahn was its president until his death July 8, 1922. 
His survivors still are the largest stockholders in the company. 

While he was a resident of Ashland, Mr. Grahn represented his district in the 
State Legislature and took a leading part in all community movements. 

In 1886 Mr. Grahn married Miss Elizabeth Kirk Dehoney who was a native 
of White Sulphur, Kentucky, and they made their home at Olive Hill, in Carter 
County. There the clay mines were developed and the community of Grahn was 
founded. Grahn is today a company owned community of one hundred homes, 
neatly kept and housing the many contented employees of the company. The 
church at Grahn is called the "Kirk Memorial Baptist Church," in memory of 
Kirk Grahn, a son of Mr. Grahn's who died when three years of age. The only 
living child of Karl B. and Elizabeth Dehoney Grahn is Mrs. Frank A. Ropke 
of Louisville. She is the mother of Elizabeth Ropke Updegraff and Elsa Grahn 

On September 14, 1920, Mr. Grahn was married to Mrs. Hattie Rounds 
Dehoney, who was the widow of Mrs. Elizabeth Dehoney Grahn's brother, Cabell 
Breckinridge Dehoney. She is a native of Louisville, where she now makes her 
home, and by her previous marriage is the mother of two daughters: Mrs. Gladys 
Dehoney Tuck, who is the mother of two children, Robert Warren Tuck, now 
serving in the United States Army; and Betty, who married Howard S. Wilcox. 
Mr. Wilcox is now an officer in the United States Army. Agnes Kirk Dehoney, 
the second daughter of Mrs. Grahn, married W. H. McKeigan of Louisville, 
and is the mother of a daughter, Margaret, and a son William H. McKeigan, Jr. 

Mr. Karl Bernhard Grahn loved the beautiful things of life. He read and 
studied extensively and was the owner of a fine classical library. He was a mem- 
ber of the Masonic Order and the lodge at Grahn is named in his honor. Beyond 
his business responsibilities his most active interest was centered in the Baptist 
church and its program. He was a liberal supporter of the Baptist Theological 
Seminary, and it was through him that many young men, ambitious to enter the 
ministry were able to secure their training there. He loved children and the 
Louisville Baptist Orphans Home was one of his many philantrophies. Since 
his death, Mrs. Grahn has continued his support of this institution for homeless 
children. She presented the home with a piano and her Christmas parties to 
the children and employees of the home are remembered with gratitude. 

Karl Bernhard Grahn has left a definite monument to himself in Louisville, 
through his many deeds of kindness to his employees and others with whom he 
came in contact. He loved music and was liberal in his support of the concerts. 


Retiring in nature, kindly in manner, Mr. Grahn was a man who attracted to 
himself those of kindred desires, and he is remembered by Louisvillians as a man 
who commanded the greatest respect and admiration. 



rville Reed Harrod was born in Franklin County, Kentucky, on 
June 26, 1897. He attended the grade schools and went to high school for half a 
term. At the age of ten he was earning money by carrying papers. The next 
year he worked in a doctor's office, and, at the age of fourteen he was a sales 
calculator for a tobacco warehouse. His next employment was with the Elevator 
Coal Company, which continued until 1915, when he became a mechanic's helper 
in a garage located across the street from his present business site. 

In May, 1916, Orville Harrod went with the Service Motor Company as porter 
and car washer, was promoted to bookkeeper and office manager, and, continued 
in their employ until August, 1918, when he entered the United States Army in 
the first World War. He received his discharge from the armed forces in 
December, 1918, and returned to the Service Motor Company, remaining with 
them until 1923 when he was promoted to General Manager. 

At this time Mr. Harrod purchased a building on his present site and secured 
the Buick agency, which was the founding of the Frankfort Buick Company. 
Through the more than twenty years that have followed, he has continued the 
sale and service of Buick cars, and, added Pontiac sales and service in 1930, 
and has a deserved reputation for reliability and fair dealing. The business has 
long outgrown its humble start, and, is now housed in one of the most modern 
and up-to-date plants in the State, equipped with the latest machinery and con- 
veniences. In 1925 he organized the Georgetown Buick Company at Georgetown, 
Kentucky, becoming Secretary of this corporation. This firm has also enjoyed 
a period of growth and prosperity. In 1934 Mr. Harrod organized the Capital 
Transit Company, which owns and operates the city bus lines in Frankfort. In 
his various business enterprises, Mr. Harrod gives employment to forty-eight people. 

In 1936 Orville Harrod purchased a fine stock farm on the Lawrenceburg Pike, 
and built his home there. There he breeds saddle horses and Hereford cattle. 
Horses bred and trained at the Harrod Farm are scattered throughout the United 
States. Mr. Harrod's interest in horses dates back to> his boyhood days. He is 
often called on to act as judge at horse shows. 

Mr. Harrod is a member of the State Board of Appeals of the Selective Service 
System. He is a member of the Board, and, Vice-Chairman of the Frankfort 
Electric and Water Board, and, is also a Director of the Goldfarb Foundation. 
For ten years he was president of the Frankfort Chamber of Commerce. He is 
a member of the Horse Show Committee of the Kentucky State and the Shelby 
County Fairs. His political affiliation is with the Democratic party. Orville Har- 
rod belongs to the American Legion, and, his fraternal connections are with the 
Masonic Order and the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks. He is Past 
District Governor of Lions International. Some years ago he was commissioned 


as Aide-de-Camp with the rank of Colonel on the staff of Governor A. B. Chandler. 
Orville Reed Harrod was married on March 3, 1918, to Bertha Mae Fuhs, 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. P. J. Fuhs. They have three daughters, Jean, the 
oldest daughter, attended Centre College at Danville, Kentucky. She is married 
to Paul C. Gaines, who is now serving his country in the United States Navy, and, 
they have one daughter, Linda Jean. Dorothy, the second daughter, is married 
to J. Robert Howard who is also in the Navy, and, they have a daughter, Judith 
Jo Anne. The youngest daughter, Mary Jo, is a student at the Frankfort High 
School. The family worships at the Baptist Church, where Mr. Harrod is Vice- 
President of his Sunday school class. 


A he constant and healthful growth of Louisville as an in- 
dustrial center of increasing importance in the past fifteen years cannot be con- 
sidered simply a matter of luck. The courage, enterprise, sound business judg- 
ment and faith of relatively few industrial leaders has produced this condition. 
One of these men is Arthur H. Dick, president of the Louisville Textiles, In- 
corporated, Louisville's only cotton fabric manufacturing plant. 

Arthur H. Dick is a native of Maine, having been born in Auburn in that 
State on July 23, 1902. His father and mother were both natives of Germany 
and came to the United States in their youth. The father, Emil Dick, engaged 
in textile manufacturing and took great interest in the civic affairs of his com- 
munity always taking the side of any question that boded the greatest good for 
the greatest number. He was married to Miss Clara Hoffman, who became the 
mother of the subject of this sketch. Arthur H. Dick grew up in Auburn and 
secured his education in the local public elementary and high schools. While 
still a youth, he determined to enter the textile industry and to further that desire 
he enrolled in the Lowell Textile Institute in Lowell, Massachusetts. Here he 
completed his education and, returning to his native city, he secured a position 
in the local textile mills. He started in his chosen field as a mill worker and by 
the exercise of his natural talents and the application of the knowledge gained 
by study and experience he advanced in an orderly progression to the position of 
department head. In 1930, he accepted a position in Louisville as production 
manager of Louisville Textiles, Incorporated, also taking charge of product de- 
velopment. Only six years later he was elected president and treasurer of the 
firm and is still holding those positions with distinction. As a result of Arthur 
H. Dick's able leadership and his complete understanding of all the factors in- 
volved in textile manufacturing, the company has grown rapidly. The manu- 
facturing facilities have been modernized and expanded and the company has 
experienced a period of excellent prosperity. One of its products which was 
developed by Mr. Dick is known as "Fincastle Fabrics" and is recognized by the 
industry as one of the best. Louisville Textiles, Incorporated, which is located 
at 1318 McHenry Street, now employs six hundred workers in its plant and 
office and is engaged entirely in the manufacture of cotton yarns and woven 
cotton fabrics. 


20— Vol. II 


Indicative of his position as a man of large affairs whose interest is not cen- 
tered entirely in his own business is Mr. Dick's work as a director of the Louis- 
ville Industrial Foundation, an organization which is operated for the purpose 
of promoting the industrial possibilities of the city of Louisville. He was formerly 
a member of the board of directors of the National Association of Manufacturers 
and the Associated Industries of Kentucky and is the representative of his firm 
in the membership of the American Association of Cotton Manufacturers and 
the Cotton Textile Institute. Arthur H. Dick has followed the example of his 
father in his willingness to do anything he can to serve the public interest and 
has served on numerous committees and boards of a public nature. At the 
present time, he is performing the very necessary but thankless tasks of chairman 
of Local Rationing Board No. 155, a position which requires a great deal of 
his time and energy. 

On August 14, 1926, Arthur H. Dick was united in marriage to Miss Flora 
Kievit, a native of Clifton, New Jersey. Mrs. Dick has an active interest in 
women's work and is now particularly active in the work of the American Red 
Cross and other war activities. The Dicks are the parents of one daughter, 
Phyllis Ellen Dick. In politics, Mr. Dick is an adherent of the Republican Party. 
His religious allegiance is given to the Protestant Episcopal Church. 

Mr. and Mrs. Dick take a prominent part in the social life of the community 
as evidenced by Mr. Dick's membership in the Pendennis Club, Audubon Coun- 
try Club, Merchants and Manufacturers Club of Chicago and Delta Kappa 
Phi fraternity. His hobby is gardening. The Dick home, located at 3207 Oriole 
Drive in Audubon Park, dispenses true Kentucky hospitality to their many 
friends. The business career of Arthur H. Dick and his contribution to the 
business, industrial and social life of his adopted city have assured him a place 
in the affection and esteem of his fellow citizens. The fact that he is still a 
young man presages many years of increasing business success and public service. 



he names and years of a state's governors and higher politicians 
— of whom there are too many mere figure-heads and petty manipula